بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
10:1 الر تلك ءايات الكتاب الحكيم
10:1 Alif-lam-ra tilka ayatualkitabi alhakeemi
10:1 A1L30R200. These are the signs of the book of wisdom.1
10:1 ALR, these are the signs of the Book of wisdom.
10:1 Alif Lam. Ra.1 THESE ARE MESSAGES of the divine writ, full of wisdom.2
See Appendix II.
The term hakim-which, when qualifying an animated being, may be translated as "wise" has here the connotation of a means of imparting wisdom. Some of the classical commentators (e.g., Tabari) are of the opinion that the "divine writ" (kitab) mentioned here is the Qur'an as a whole, while others (e.g., Zamakhshari) see in it a reference to this particular surah. In view of the sequence, it seems to me that the former interpretation is preferable.
10:1 A.L.R. These (letters) are the proofs of this book of wisdom.,1
These letters constitute a major portion of the Quran's awesome mathematical code and proof of divine authorship. See Appendix 1 fordetails.
10:1 A.L.R. Alif–Laam-Ra. (Allah, Lateef the Unfathomable, Raaziq the Provider, states that), These are the verses of a Book that is full of wisdom.1
This is the 10th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 109 verses. Prophet Jonah was sent to Nineveh, the capital of Ancient Assyria around 700 BC. Nineveh was located by the East Bank of the Tigris River, and had a population of just over 100,000. Granting a period of respite to nations, in which they can mend their ways, is one of the eternal Divine laws.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
10:2 اكان للناس عجبا ان اوحينا الىا رجل منهم ان انذر الناس وبشر الذين ءامنوا ان لهم قدم صدق عند ربهم قال الكافرون ان هاذا لساحر مبين
10:2 Akana lilnnasi AAajabanan awhayna ila rajulin minhum an anthirialnnasa wabashshiri allatheena amanooanna lahum qadama sidqin AAinda rabbihim qala alkafiroonainna hatha lasahirun mubeenun
10:2 Is it a surprise for the people that We would inspire a man from amongst them: "Warn people and give good news to those who acknowledge, that they will have a footing of truth with their Lord." The ingrates said, "Evidently, this is a magician!"
10:2 Is it a surprise for the people who We inspired a man from among them: "Warn the people and give good news to those who believe, that they will have a footing of truth with their Lord." The rejecters said: "This is clearly magic!"
10:2 Do people deem it strange that We should have inspired a man from their own midst [with this Our message]:3 "Warn all mankind, and give unto those who have attained to faith the glad tiding that in their Sustainer's sight they surpass all others in that they are completely sincere-?4 [Only] they who deny the truth say, "Behold. he is clearly but a spellbinder!"5
This connects with the end of the preceding Surah, and particularly with the sentence, "There has come unto you [O mankind] an Apostle from among yourselves" (9:128; see also note 2 on 50:2).
Lit., "they have precedence (qadam) of truthfulness (sidq)": the latter term denoting a concord between what a person actually conceives in his mind or feels and what he expresses by word, deed or attitude - in other words, complete sincerity.
Lit., "He is indeed an obvious enchanter (sahir)" -thus implying that the "man from among yourselves" (i.e., Muhammad) did not really receive any revelation from God, but merely deluded his followers by means of his spellbinding eloquence (which is the meaning of sihr in this context): an accusation levelled by unbelievers of all times not merely against Muhammad but-as the Qur'an frequently states-against most of the earlier prophets as well. The term "those who deny the truth" refers, in this context, specifically to people who a priori reject the notion of divine revelation and, thus, of prophethood.
10:2 Is it too much of a wonder for the people that we inspired a man like them? He (was inspired to say), "You shall warn the people, and give good news to those who believe that they have attained a position of prominence at their Lord." The disbelievers said, "This is a clever magician!",
10:2 Is it too much of a wonder for people that We reveal Our message to a man among them? “You shall warn mankind, and give good news to those who attain belief that they have a sure footing with their Lord.” Those who are bent upon denying the truth, say, “This man is an obvious wizard.” (He is gifted with spellbinding eloquence).
10:3 ان ربكم الله الذى خلق السماوات والارض فى ستة ايام ثم استوىا على العرش يدبر الامر ما من شفيع الا من بعد اذنه ذالكم الله ربكم فاعبدوه افلا تذكرون
10:3 Inna rabbakumu Allahu allatheekhalaqa alssamawati waal-ardafee sittati ayyamin thumma istawa AAalaalAAarshi yudabbiru al-amra ma min shafeeAAin illamin baAAdi ithnihi thalikumu Allahu rabbukumfaoAAbudoohu afala tathakkaroona
10:3 Your Lord is God who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then He settled over the throne; He handles all affairs. There is no intercessor except after His leave. Such is God your Lord, so serve Him. Would you not take heed?
10:3 Your Lord is God who has created the heavens and the earth in six days, then He settled upon the Throne; He manages all affairs. There is no intercessor except after His permission. Such is God your Lord, so serve Him. Would you not remember?
10:3 VERILY, your Sustainer is God, who has created the heavens and the earth in six aeons, and is established on the throne of His almightiness,6 governing all that exists. There is none that could intercede with Him unless He grants leave therefor.7 Thus is God, your Sustainer: worship, therefore, Him [alone]: will you not, then, keep this in mind?
See surah 7, note 43. Since belief in divine revelation naturally presupposes a belief in the existence of God as the self-subsistent fount of all being, the reference to the revelation of the Qur'an with which this surah opens is followed by a consideration of God's creative almightiness.
Lit., "there is no intercessor whatever, save after His leave [has been granted]". Cf. 2:255 - "Who is there that could intercede with Him, unless it be by His leave?" Thus, the Qur'an rejects the popular belief in unqualified "intercession" by living or dead saints or prophets. As is shown elsewhere in the Qus'an (e.g., in 20:109, 21:28 or 34:23), God will grant to His prophets on Judgment Day the permission to "intercede", symbolically, for such of the sinners as will have already achieved His redemptive acceptance (rida') by virtue of their repentance or basic goodness (see 19:87 and the corresponding note 74): in other words, the right of "intercession" thus granted to the prophets will be but an expression of God's approval of the latter. Furthermore, the above denial of the possibility of unqualified intercession stresses, indirectly, not only God's omniscience - which requires no "mediator" - but also the immutability of His will: and thus it connects with the preceding mention of His almightiness. (See also note 27 below.)
10:3 Your only Lord is GOD; the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then assumed all authority. He controls all matters. There is no intercessor, except in accordance with His will. Such is GOD your Lord. You shall worship Him. Would you not take heed?,
10:3 But, your Lord (Who sent this Book) is God Who created the heavens and earth in six stages, and is established on the Throne of His Almightiness of Supreme Control. He, the Director of all directions, Issuer of all decrees, runs the Universe according to His laws. No intercessor can stand in His Court but as a witness of law. Such is God, your Lord. You shall serve Him. Will you not use your intellect and reasoning?2
10:4 اليه مرجعكم جميعا وعد الله حقا انه يبدؤا الخلق ثم يعيده ليجزى الذين ءامنوا وعملوا الصالحات بالقسط والذين كفروا لهم شراب من حميم وعذاب اليم بما كانوا يكفرون
10:4 Ilayhi marjiAAukum jameeAAan waAAda Allahihaqqan innahu yabdao alkhalqa thumma yuAAeeduhu liyajziyaallatheena amanoo waAAamiloo alssalihatibialqisti waallatheena kafaroo lahumsharabun min hameemin waAAathabun aleemunbima kanoo yakfuroona
10:4 To Him is your return, all of you, for God's promise is true. He initiates the creation then He repeats it to recompense with justice those who acknowledged and did good work. As for those who rejected, they will have a boiling drink, and a painful retribution for what they had rejected.
10:4 To Him is your return, all of you, for the promise of God is true. He initiates the creation then He returns it; to recompense with justice those who have believed and have done good works. As for those who have rejected, they will have a boiling drink, and a painful retribution for what they had rejected.
10:4 Unto Him you all must return: this is, in truth, God's promise-for, behold, He creates [man] in the first instance, and then brings him forth anew8 to the end that He may reward with equity all who attain to faith and do righteous deeds; whereas for those who are bent on denying the truth there is in store a draught of burning despair and grievous suffering because of their persistent refusal to acknowledge the truth.9
Le., He will resurrect him by a new act of creation. That the verb yu'iduhu ("He brings him forth anew") refers here to the individual resurrection of human beings becomes obvious from the sequence. The noun khalq primarily denotes "creation" (i.e., the bringing into being of something that did not exist before); subsequently, it denotes the result or object of creation, i.e., a "created being" (or "beings"); finally, it is used in the sense of "man" in the generic connotation of this word, i.e., "mankind".
See surah 6, note 62 (for my rendering of hamim as "burning despair").
10:4 To Him is your ultimate return, all of you. This is GOD's truthful promise. He initiates the creation, then repeats it, in order to reward those who believe and lead a righteous life, equitably. As for those who disbelieve, they incur hellish drinks, and a painful retribution for their disbelieving.,
10:4 To Him is your return, of all of you. God’s promise is the unwavering truth. He created the first creation, and He will create it again, so that He may reward with justice those who attain belief and do works that help the society. And those who reject the truth, for them will be a burning drink of despair and a painful doom because of their persistent refusal to acknowledge the truth.3
10:5 هو الذى جعل الشمس ضياء والقمر نورا وقدره منازل لتعلموا عدد السنين والحساب ما خلق الله ذالك الا بالحق يفصل الءايات لقوم يعلمون
10:5 Huwa allathee jaAAala alshshamsadiyaan waalqamara nooran waqaddarahu manazilalitaAAlamoo AAadada alssineena waalhisabama khalaqa Allahu thalika illa bialhaqqiyufassilu al-ayati liqawmin yaAAlamoona
10:5 He is the One who made the sun an illuminator, and the moon a light, and He measured its phases so that you would know the number of the years and the calculation. God has not created this except for truth. He details the signs for a people who know.
10:5 He is the One who has made the sun a radiance, and the moon a light, and He has measured its phases; that you may know the number of the years and the count. God has not created this except with the truth. He clarifies the revelations for a people who know.
10:5 He it is who has made the sun a [source of] radiant light and the moon a light [reflected],10 and has determined for it phases so that you might know how to compute the years and to measure [time]. None of this has God created without [an inner] truth.11 Clearly does He spell out these messages unto people of [innate] knowledge:
The nouns diya' and nur are often interchangeable, inasmuch as both denote "light"; but many philologists are of the opinion that the term diya' (or daw') has a more intensive connotation, and is used to describe "a light which subsists by itself, as that of the sun and fire" - that is, a source of light - while nur signifies "a light that subsists by some other thing" (Lane V, 1809, on the authority of Taj al-'Arus ): in other words, light due to an extraneous source or - as in the case of the moon - reflected light.
Lit., "God has not created this otherwise than in accordance with truth" - i.e., to fulfil a definite purpose in consonance with His planning wisdom (Zamakhshari, Baghawi, Razi): implying that everything in the universe - whether existent or potential, concrete or abstract - is meaningful, and nothing is "accidental". Cf. 3:191 - "O our Sustainer! Thou has not created [aught of] this without meaning and purpose (batilan)"; and 38:27-"We have not created heaven and earth and all that is between them without meaning and purpose, as is the surmise (zann) of those who are bent on denying the truth".
10:5 He is the One who rendered the sun radiant, and the moon a light, and He designed its phases that you may learn to count the years and to calculate. GOD did not create all this, except for a specific purpose. He explains the revelations for people who know.,
10:5 He is the One Who appointed the sun as a splendid glow, and the moon as a cool light. He appointed stages for the moon, in due measure. You make your calculations and calendars accordingly. God has created the Universe as the absolute reality and for a purpose. God explains His verses for those who wish to learn.4
10:6 ان فى اختلاف اليل والنهار وما خلق الله فى السماوات والارض لءايات لقوم يتقون
10:6 Inna fee ikhtilafi allayli waalnnahariwama khalaqa Allahu fee alssamawatiwaal-ardi laayatin liqawmin yattaqoona
10:6 In the alternation of night and day and what God has created in heavens and earth are signs for a people who are aware.
10:6 In the difference between the night and the day and what God has created in the heavens and the earth are signs for a people who are aware.
10:6 for, verily, in the alternating of night and day, and in all that God has created in the heavens and on earth there are messages indeed for people who are conscious of Him!
10:6 Surely, in the alternation of night and day, and what GOD created in the heavens and the earth, there are proofs for people who are righteous.,
10:6 In the alternation of the day and the night, and in all that God has created in the heavens and earth, there are signs for people who are mindful of Divine laws.5
Taqwa = Seeking to journey through life in security = To live upright = To be mindful of Divine laws = Being observant = Shielding oneself against moral disintegration. 2:41
10:7 ان الذين لا يرجون لقاءنا ورضوا بالحيواة الدنيا واطمانوا بها والذين هم عن ءاياتنا غافلون
10:7 Inna allatheena la yarjoona liqaanawaradoo bialhayati alddunyawaitmaannoo biha waallatheenahum AAan ayatina ghafiloona
10:7 As for those who do not wish to meet Us, while pleased and content with the worldly life, they are unaware of Our signs.
10:7 As for those who do not wish to meet Us, and they are content with the worldly life, and they feel secure by it, and they are unaware of Our signs.
10:7 Verily, as for those who do not believe that they are destined to meet Us,12 but content themselves with the life of this world and do not look beyond it,13 and are heedless of Our messages -
Lit., "who do not hope for (i.e., expect) a meeting with Us": implying that they do not believe in a life after death or in God's ultimate judgment.
Lit., "are at rest with it" - i.e., regard the life in this world as the only reality, dismissing the idea of resurrection as mere wishful thinking.
Preoccupation With This World10:7 Those who are not expecting to meet us, and are preoccupied with this worldly life, and are content with it, and refuse to heed our proofs;,
10:7 Those who do not look forward to meeting with Us, but exclusively desire the life of this world and feel contented herein, and those who are neglectful of Our messages,6
Meeting with Us = Liqa-anaa. At other places ‘Meeting with the Lord’ is generally understood as meeting the Divine Law of Requital or Recompense. Some exponents apply ‘Meeting with the Lord’ to Resurrection alone. In my humble opinion, since God is a Personal, Compassionate God, and a vast majority of His humble servants harbor an intense desire to see Him, He would not deny this kindness to them. We know that God is far too Glorious to have a physical image anthropomorphic form, but He is Able to do all things. In the World of Command AMR, He designs laws as He wills. It is in the World of Creation KHALQ that He implements those laws, and then, never changes them. So, He is absolutely Capable of devising any law in His World of Command. I find myself in agreement with numerous Ahadith narrating that humans should be able to meet their Creator in the Next Life, not as a wishful thinking, but because they are in agreement with the Qur’an. I do not certainly mean God assuming a physical form for 'meeting' with His servants, but in some way that is beyond our understanding at this time. Let us ponder some verses as well that allude to a new creation of humans in forms unknown to us at this time, and entirely new laws becoming operative in the New Universe: … 56:59 Is it you who create it or are We the Creator? … 56:60 We have decreed death designed the laws of death among you. And there is nothing to prevent Us 56:61 From changing your forms and making you in a manner, and in an environment, that is as yet unknown to you. … 11:106 Those who, by their deeds, brought misery on themselves will be in the fire, sighing and wailing will be their portion. … 11:107 Therein to abide, as long as the New Universe endures; that is time beyond count, unless your Lord decrees otherwise. Your Lord is Doer of what He wills in the World of Command. … The current Universe will be dismantled for a new Universe. 14:19, 14:48, 21:104, 25:22, 35:16, 36:81, 50:44, 69:16, 70:9 … 'Meeting with the Lord' is mentioned in the Qur’an about a hundred times. Even the great Allama Mashriqi ventures into the area, although I humbly disagree with him. He thinks that with evolution, humans will lose their body and only the 'spirit' will remain. And this spirit will merge with the 'Spirit' of God. And that is the 'Meeting with the Lord'! Ref: Tazkarah, Hadith-il-Qur’an. Now this concept exactly matches the Sufi parlance but it is totally unacceptable to a student of the Qur’an. Finally, 2:55 points out that only the disbelievers demand to see God in physical form, but that verse relates only to the life of this world
10:8 اولائك ماوىاهم النار بما كانوا يكسبون
10:8 Ola-ika ma/wahumu alnnarubima kanoo yaksiboona
10:8 To these will be the destiny of the fire for what they earned.
10:8 To these will be the destiny of the Fire for what they earned.
10:8 their goal is the fire in return for all [the evil] that they were wont to do.
10:8 these have incurred Hell as their ultimate abode, as a consequence of their own works.,
10:8 Their home will be the Fire that they have earned.
10:9 ان الذين ءامنوا وعملوا الصالحات يهديهم ربهم بايمانهم تجرى من تحتهم الانهار فى جنات النعيم
10:9 Inna allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati yahdeehim rabbuhumbi-eemanihim tajree min tahtihimu al-anharufee jannati alnnaAAeemi
10:9 Those who acknowledge and promote reforms, their Lord will guide them by their acknowledgment. Rivers will flow beneath them in the gardens of paradise.
10:9 Those who believe and do good works, their Lord will guide them by their faith. Rivers will flow beneath them in gardens of bliss.
10:9 [But,] verily, as for those who have attained to faith and do righteous deeds - their Sustainer guides them aright by means of their faith. [In the life to come,] running waters will flow at their feet14 in gardens of bliss;
Lit., "beneath them".
God Guides the Believers10:9 As for those who believe and lead a righteous life, their Lord guides them, by virtue of their belief. Rivers will flow beneath them in the gardens of bliss.,
10:9 Those who choose to believe and work to increase the human potential, their Lord will guide them because of their conviction in Truth. Beneath them will flow streams in Gardens of Bliss.7
A’maal Saaleh = Actions that increase the individual and collective potential of a society = Helping people = Improving the environment = Fulfilling others’ needs = Contributing to the society
10:10 دعوىاهم فيها سبحانك اللهم وتحيتهم فيها سلام وءاخر دعوىاهم ان الحمد لله رب العالمين
10:10 DaAAwahum feeha subhanakaallahumma watahiyyatuhum feeha salamunwaakhiru daAAwahum ani alhamdu lillahirabbi alAAalameena
10:10 Their prayer in it is: "Glory be to our god!" and their greeting in it is: "Peace," and the end of their prayer is: "Praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds!"
10:10 Their saying in it is: "Be you glorified, our god!" And their greeting in it is: "Peace," and the end of their saying is: "Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds!"
10:10 [and] in that [state of happiness] they will call out,15 "Limitless art Thou in Thy glory, O God!"-and will be answered with the greeting, "Peace !"16 And their call will close with [the words], "All praise is due to God, the Sustainer of all the worlds!"
Lit., "their invocation (da'wa) therein [will be].. .", etc.
Lit., "their greeting therein [will be], 'Peace"'. For an explanation of the term salam and its fundamental connotation of inner peace, fulfilment, and security from all that is evil, see Surah 5, note 29.
10:10 Their prayer therein is: "Be You glorified, our god," their greeting therein is, "Peace," and their ultimate prayer is: "Praise be to GOD, Lord of the universe.",
10:10 Their prayer therein will be, “Glory be to You, O God!” Their greeting to one another will be, “Peace!” The conclusion of their prayer will be, “Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds!”8
And so shall be the peaceful Ideal Society on earth. They will realize that the good of one is the good of another, and understand how Praiseworthy the Giver of such blissful guidance is
10:11 ولو يعجل الله للناس الشر استعجالهم بالخير لقضى اليهم اجلهم فنذر الذين لا يرجون لقاءنا فى طغيانهم يعمهون
10:11 Walaw yuAAajjilu Allahu lilnnasialshsharra istiAAjalahum bialkhayri laqudiyailayhim ajaluhum fanatharu allatheena layarjoona liqaana fee tughyanihimyaAAmahoona
10:11 If God were to hasten for people the evil as they desire the hastening of good for them, then they would have been ruined. We thus leave those who do not wish to meet Us wandering in their transgression.
10:11 And if God hastened for the people the evil as He hastens for them the good, then they would have been ruined. We thus leave those who do not wish to meet Us wandering in their transgression.
10:11 NOW IF GOD were to hasten for human beings the ill [which they deserve by their sinning] in the same manner as they [themselves] would hasten [the coming to them of what they consider to be] goad, their end would indeed come forthwith!17 But We leave them alone [for a while] -all those who do not believe that they are destined to meet Us:18 [We leave them alone] in their overweening arrogance, blindly stumbling to and fro.
Lit., "[the end of] their term would indeed have been decreed for them": the implication being, firstly, that man is weak (cf. 4:28) and therefore prone to sinning; secondly, that God "has willed upon Himself the law of grace and mercy" (see 6:12 and the corresponding note) and, consequently, does not punish sinners without taking their circumstances into consideration and giving them time to repent and to mend their ways.
See verse 7, with which this verse connects.
10:11 If GOD hastened the retribution incurred by the people, the way they demand provisions, they would have been annihilated long ago. However, we leave those who do not believe in meeting us in their transgressions, blundering.,
10:11 If God hastened retribution for people as they demand goodly things be hastened for them, their respite would have already expired. Those who do not look forward to meeting with Us, We leave them in their arrogance, blindly stumbling to and fro. [10:7]
10:12 واذا مس الانسان الضر دعانا لجنبه او قاعدا او قائما فلما كشفنا عنه ضره مر كان لم يدعنا الىا ضر مسه كذالك زين للمسرفين ما كانوا يعملون
10:12 Wa-itha massa al-insana alddurrudaAAana lijanbihi aw qaAAidan aw qa-imanfalamma kashafna AAanhu durrahu marra kaanlam yadAAuna ila durrin massahu kathalikazuyyina lilmusrifeena ma kanoo yaAAmaloona
10:12 If any adversity inflicts people, then he calls upon Us on his side or sitting or standing. But when We remove his adversity from him, he goes on as if he never implored Us because of an adversity afflicted him! Thus the works of the transgressors are adorned for them.
10:12 And when hardship touches man, he calls upon Us on his side or sitting or standing. But when We remove his hardship from him, he carries on as if he never called upon Us for a hardship which touched him! Thus it was made to appear good to the transgressors what they had done.
10:12 For [thus it is:] when affliction befalls man, he cries out unto Us, whether he be lying on his side or sitting or standing;19 but as soon as We have freed him of his affliction, he goes on as though he had never invoked Us to save him from the affliction20 that befell him! Thus do their own doings seem goodly unto those who waste their own selves.21
These three metaphorical expressions are often used in the Qur'an to describe the various situations in which man may find himself. The "calling unto God" under the stress of misfortune describes the instinctive reaction of many people who consider themselves "agnostics" and in their conscious thinking refuse to believe in God. See also verses 22-23 below, as well as 6:40.
Lit., "called out unto Us against (ila) an affliction".
The expression musrif, which often (e.g., in 5:32 or 7:81) denotes "one who is given to excesses" or "commits excesses" or (as in 6:141) "one who is wasteful", has in the above context the meaning of "one who wastes his own self" (Razi)-namely, destroys his spiritual potential by following only his base impulses and failing to submit to any moral imperative. (Cf. the very similar expression alladhina khasiru anfusahum occurring in many places and rendered by me as "those who have squandered their own selves".) In the sense in which it is used here, the term israf (lit., "wastefulness" or "lack of moderation in one's doings") is almost synonymous with the term tughyan ("overweening arrogance") occurring in the preceding verse (Manar XI, 314), and relates to the same type of man. The phrase "goodly seem [to them] their own doings" describes the unthinking complacency with which "those who waste their own selves" go through life.
10:12 When adversity touches the human being, he implores us while lying down, or sitting, or standing up. But as soon as we relieve his adversity, he goes on as if he never implored us to relieve any hardship! The works of the transgressors are thus adorned in their eyes.,
10:12 When affliction befalls man, he cries to Us, whether he be lying, or sitting or standing. But when We have relieved him of the affliction, he goes on his way as if he had never cried to Us for what afflicted him. Those who trespass the Divine laws, lose discernment and even their ill deeds will then seem fair to them.
10:13 ولقد اهلكنا القرون من قبلكم لما ظلموا وجاءتهم رسلهم بالبينات وما كانوا ليؤمنوا كذالك نجزى القوم المجرمين
10:13 Walaqad ahlakna alquroona minqablikum lamma thalamoo wajaat-humrusuluhum bialbayyinati wama kanooliyu/minoo kathalika najzee alqawma almujrimeena
10:13 We have destroyed the generations before you when they transgressed, and their messengers came to them with clear proofs, but they were not to acknowledge. It is such that We will recompense the criminal people.
10:13 And We have destroyed the generations before you when they transgressed; and their messengers had come to them with clear proofs, but they would not believe. It is such that We recompense the criminal people.
10:13 And, indeed, We destroyed before your time [whole] generations when they [persistently] did evil although the apostles sent unto them brought them all evidence of the truth; for they refused to believe [them]. Thus do We requite people who are lost in sin.22
Cf. 6:131. The phrase rendered by me as "the apostles sent unto them" reads, literally, "their apostles". The sinners' refusal to believe is expressed in the text by means of the construction wa-ma kanu li-yu'minu.
Lessons from the Past10:13 Many a generation we have annihilated before you when they transgressed. Their messengers went to them with clear proofs, but they refused to believe. We thus requite the guilty people.,
10:13 We annihilated many communities before you for violation of human rights. Their Messengers had come to them with clear evidence of the truth, but they refused to believe (them). Thus We reward those who steal the fruit of others’ labor.
10:14 ثم جعلناكم خلائف فى الارض من بعدهم لننظر كيف تعملون
10:14 Thumma jaAAalnakum khala-ifafee al-ardi min baAAdihim linanthura kayfataAAmaloona
10:14 Then We made you successors on earth after them to see how you would perform.
10:14 Then We made you successors on the earth after them to see how you would perform.
10:14 And thereupon We made you their successors on earth, so that We might behold how you act.
Now It Is Your Turn10:14 Then we made you inheritors of the earth after them, to see how you will do.,
10:14 Now We have made you their successors in the land, to see how you behave.
10:15 واذا تتلىا عليهم ءاياتنا بينات قال الذين لا يرجون لقاءنا ائت بقرءان غير هاذا او بدله قل ما يكون لى ان ابدله من تلقائ نفسى ان اتبع الا ما يوحىا الى انى اخاف ان عصيت ربى عذاب يوم عظيم
10:15 Wa-itha tutla AAalayhim ayatunabayyinatin qala allatheena layarjoona liqaana i/ti biqur-anin ghayri hathaaw baddilhu qul ma yakoonu lee an obaddilahu min tilqa-inafsee in attabiAAu illa ma yooha ilayyainnee akhafu in AAasaytu rabbee AAathabayawmin AAatheemin
Denying God's Signs/Miracles; Inventing Lies10:15 When Our clear signs are recited to them, those who do not wish to meet Us said, "Bring a Quran other than this, or change it!" Say, "It is not for me to change it from my own accord, I merely follow what is inspired to me. I fear if I disobey my Lord the retribution of a great day!"
10:15 And when Our clear revelations were recited to them, those who do not wish to meet Us said: "Bring a Qur'an other than this, or change it!" Say: "It is not for me to change it of my own accord, I merely follow what is inspired to me. I fear, if I disobeyed my Lord, the retribution of a great Day!"
10:15 AND [thus it is:] whenever Our messages are conveyed unto them in all their clarity, those who do not believe that they are destined to meet Us [are wont to] say, "Bring us a discourse other than this, or alter this one."23 Say [O Prophet]: "It is not conceivable that I should alter it of my own volition; I only follow what is revealed to me. Behold, I would dread, were I [thus] to rebel against my Sustainer, the suffering [which would befall me] on that ,awesome Day [of Judgment]!"
Sc., "to suit our own views as to what is right and what is wrong". This is an oblique reference to the highly subjective criticism of Qur'anic ethics and eschatology by many agnostics (both among the contemporaries of the Prophet and in later times), and particularly to their view that the Qur'an was "composed" by Muhammad himself and therefore expresses no more than his personal convictions. - Regarding the phrase, "those who do not believe that they are destined to meet Us", see note 12 above.
Every Letter Calculated and Divinely Designed10:15 When our revelations are recited to them, those who do not expect to meet us say, "Bring a Quran other than this, or change it!" Say, "I cannot possibly change it on my own. I simply follow what is revealed to me. I fear, if I disobey my Lord, the retribution of an awesome day.",2
The word "Quran" is mentioned in the Quran 58 times, but since this verse refers to "another Quran," it must be excluded; "This Quran" ismentioned in the Quran 57 times, 19x3.
10:15 When Our messages are conveyed to them in all clarity, those who do not expect that they are destined to meet with Us (want to strike a deal with the Messenger). They say, “Bring us a Qur’an other than this or make some changes in it.” Say (O Prophet), "I cannot possibly change it on my own. I only follow what is revealed to me. If I disobey my Lord, I fear the retribution of an awesome Day."
10:16 قل لو شاء الله ما تلوته عليكم ولا ادرىاكم به فقد لبثت فيكم عمرا من قبله افلا تعقلون
10:16 Qul law shaa Allahu matalawtuhu AAalaykum wala adrakum bihi faqadlabithtu feekum AAumuran min qablihi afala taAAqiloona
10:16 Say, "Had God wished, I would not have recited it to you, nor would you have known about it. I have been residing amongst you a lifetime before this; do you not reason?"
10:16 Say: "If God had willed, I would not have recited it to you, nor would you have known about it. I have been residing among you for nearly a lifetime before this; do you not comprehend?"
10:16 Say: "Had God willed it [otherwise], I would not have conveyed this [divine writ] unto you, nor would He have brought it to your knowledge. Indeed. a whole lifetime have I dwelt among you ere this [revelation came unto me]: will you not, then, use your reason ?"24
This argument - placed in the mouth of the Prophet - has a twofold implication. Ever since his early youth, Muhammad had been renowned for his truthfulness and integrity, so much so that his Meccan compatriots applied to him the epithet Al-Amin ("The Trustworthy"). In addition to this, he had never composed a single line of poetry (and this in contrast with a tendency which was widespread among the Arabs of his time), nor had he been distinguished by particular eloquence. "How, then," goes the argument, "can you reconcile your erstwhile conviction-based on the experience of a lifetime-that Muhammad was incapable of uttering a lie, with your present contention that he himself has composed the Qur'an and now falsely attributes it to divine revelation? And how could he who, up to the age of forty, has never displayed any poetic or philosophic gifts and is known to be entirely unlettered (ummi), have composed a work as perfect in its language, as penetrating in its psychological insight and 'as compelling in its inner logic as the Qur'an?"
10:16 Say, "Had GOD willed, I would not have recited it to you, nor would you have known anything about it. I have lived among you a whole life before this (and you have known me as a sane, truthful person). Do you not understand?",
10:16 Say, "If God willed otherwise, I would not have recited and conveyed this to you, nor would I have made you aware of it. I have dwelt among you a whole lifetime before this. Will you not, then, use your sense?”9
You have always called me Ameen Trustworthy and Sadiq Truthful. 7:184
10:17 فمن اظلم ممن افترىا على الله كذبا او كذب باياته انه لا يفلح المجرمون
10:17 Faman athlamu mimmani iftaraAAala Allahi kathiban aw kaththababi-ayatihi innahu la yuflihualmujrimoona
10:17 Who is more wicked than one who invents lies about God or denies His signs? The criminals will never succeed.
10:17 Who is more wicked than he who invents lies about God or denies His revelations? The criminals will never succeed.
10:17 And who could be more wicked than they who attribute their own lying inventions to God or give the lie to His messages? Verily, those who are lost in sin will never attain to a happy state25 -
I.e., in the life to come. In this context, the "attributing of one's own lying inventions to God" would seem to apply specifically to the wanton accusation that Muhammad himself composed the Qur'an and then attributed it to God; and the "giving the lie to God's messages" refers to the attitude of those who make such an accusation and, consequently, reject the Qur'an (Razi)_
10:17 Who is more evil than one who fabricates lies about GOD, or rejects His revelations. Certainly, the transgressors never succeed.,
10:17 Who does a greater wrong than the one who forges a lie against God, or denies His revelations? But the guilty will never prosper.
10:18 ويعبدون من دون الله ما لا يضرهم ولا ينفعهم ويقولون هاؤلاء شفعاؤنا عند الله قل اتنبون الله بما لا يعلم فى السماوات ولا فى الارض سبحانه وتعالىا عما يشركون
10:18 WayaAAbudoona min dooni Allahi mala yadurruhum wala yanfaAAuhum wayaqooloonahaola-i shufaAAaona AAinda Allahiqul atunabbi-oona Allaha bima la yaAAlamufee alssamawati wala fee al-ardisubhanahu wataAAala AAamma yushrikoona
Intercession: A Polytheistic Fiction10:18 They serve besides God what does not harm them or benefit them, and they say, "These are our intercessors with God." Say, "Are you informing God of what He does not know in the heavens or in the earth?" Be He glorified and high from what they set up.
10:18 And they serve besides God what does not harm them or benefit them, and they say: "These are our intercessors with God." Say: "Are you informing God of what He does not know in the heavens or the earth?" Be He glorified and exalted above what they set up.
10:18 and [neither will] they [who] worship, side by side with God, things or beings that can neither harm nor benefit them, saying [to themselves], "These are our intercessors with God!"26 Say: "Do you [think that you could] inform God of anything in the heavens or on earth that He does not know?27 Limitless is He in His glory, and sublimely exalted above anything to which men may ascribe a share in His divinity!"
Thus the discourse returns to the problem of "intercession" touched upon in verse 3 of this surah. Literally, the beginning of the sentence reads thus: "And they worship that which neither harms them nor benefits them" -an expression alluding to both concrete representations and conceptual images. It should be noted that the "they" elliptically referred to here are not identical with the people spoken of earlier as "those who do not believe that they are destined to meet Us" (in other words, those who deny the reality of resurrection and of the Day of Judgment): for the people of whom the above verse speaks obviously do believe - albeit in a confused manner - in life after death and man's responsibility before God, as is evident from the statement that they worship imaginary "intercessors with God".
Thus, belief in the efficacy of anyone's unqualified intercession with God, or mediation between man and Him, is here equated with a denial of God's omniscience, which takes all the circumstances of the sinner and his sinning a priori into consideration. (As regards God's symbolic grant of permission to His prophets to "intercede" for their followers on the Day of Judgment, see note 7 above.)
10:18 They worship beside GOD idols that possess no power to harm them or benefit them, and they say, "These are our intercessors at GOD!" Say, "Are you informing GOD of something He does not know in the heavens or the earth?" Be He glorified. He is the Most High; far above needing partners.,
10:18 They worship and obey besides God, deities that can neither harm nor benefit them. They say, “These are our intercessors with God.” Say, "Are you informing God of what He does not know in the heavens and earth? Glory to Him! He is High, Exalted above all that they associate with Him.” [39:3]
10:19 وما كان الناس الا امة واحدة فاختلفوا ولولا كلمة سبقت من ربك لقضى بينهم فيما فيه يختلفون
10:19 Wama kana alnnasuilla ommatan wahidatan faikhtalafoo walawlakalimatun sabaqat min rabbika laqudiya baynahum feemafeehi yakhtalifoona
10:19 The people were but one nation, and then they differed. Had it not been for a previous command from your Lord, the matter would have been immediately judged between them for what they differed.
10:19 The people were but one nation, then they differed. And had it not been for a previous command from your Lord, the matter would have been immediately judged between them for what they differed.
10:19 AND [know that] all mankind were once but one single community, and only later did they begin to hold divergent views.28 And had it not been for a decree- that had already gone forth from thy Sustainer, all their differences would indeed have been settled [from the outset].29
Lit., ("and then they disagreed [among themselves]". For an explanation of the term "one single community" (ummah wahidah), see Surah 2, note 197. In the present context, this expression alludes not merely to mankind's one-time homogeneity, but also - by implication - to the fact, repeatedly stressed in the Qur'an (e.g., in 7:172), that the ability to realize God's existence, oneness and omnipotence is innate in man, and that all deviation from this basic perception is a consequence of the confusion brought about by man's progressive estrangement from his inborn instincts.
Lit., "it would indeed have been decided between them regarding all that they were differing in": i.e., had it not been for God's decree - which is the meaning, in this context, of the term kalimah (lit., "word") - that men should differ in their intellectual approach to the problems touched upon by divine revelation, "they would not have contended with one another after having received all evidence of the truth", but would all have held from the very outset, and would continue to hold, the same views (cf. 2:253 and the corresponding note 245). Since, however, such a uniformity would have precluded men's intellectual, moral and social development, God has left it to their reason, aided by prophetic guidance, gradually to find their way to the truth. (See also surah 2, note 198.) The above parenthetic passage must be read in conjunction with 2:213.
10:19 The people used to be one congregation, then they disputed. If it were not for a predetermined word from your Lord, they would have been judged immediately regarding their disputes.,
10:19 All mankind were but one community (and are meant to be so); then they differed. Had it not been for a Word that went forth from your Lord (the Law of Respite), He would have judged their disputes immediately. [2:30, 2:213, 2:256, 11:118, 16:9, 76:2-3]
10:20 ويقولون لولا انزل عليه ءاية من ربه فقل انما الغيب لله فانتظروا انى معكم من المنتظرين
10:20 Wayaqooloona lawla onzila AAalayhi ayatunmin rabbihi faqul innama alghaybu lillahi faintathirooinnee maAAakum mina almuntathireena
The Sign of the Quran Would Be Revealed After Muhammed10:20 They say, "If only a sign was sent down to him from His Lord." Say, "The future is with God, so wait, and I will wait with you."2
Keeping "one of the greatest" signs of the Quran (74:30) for fourteen centuries as a secret and unveiling it in the computer era is God's plan.
10:20 And they say: "If only a sign was sent down to him from His Lord." Say: "The future is with God, so wait, and I will wait with you."
10:20 NOW THEY [who deny the truth] are wont to ask, "Why has no miraculous sign ever been bestowed upon him from on high by his Sustainer?"30 Say, then: "God's alone is the knowledge of that which. is beyond the reach of human perception.31 Wait, then, [until His will becomes manifest:] verily, I shall wait with you!"
I.e., on Muhammad, in order to "prove" that he is truly a bearer of God's message (a sceptical objection which resumes the theme enunciated in verses 1-2 and 15-17 above); see also 6:37 and 109 and the corresponding notes, especially note 94. The pronoun "they" refers to both categories of deniers of the truth spoken of in the preceding passages: the atheists or agnostics "who do not believe that they are destined to meet God", as well as those who, while believing in God, "ascribe a share in His divinity" to all manner of imaginary intercessors or mediators (see verse 18 above).
This answer relates not merely to the question as to why God has not bestowed on Muhammad a "miraculous sign" of his prophethood, but also to the "why" of his having been chosen for his prophetic mission. See in this connection 2:105 ("God singles out for His grace whom He wills") and 3:73 ("God is infinite, all-knowing, singling out for His grace whom He wills")
Miracle of the Quran to be Unveiled After Muhammad10:20 They say, "How come no miracle came down to him from his Lord?" Say, "The future belongs to GOD; so wait, and I am waiting along with you."3 ,
In retrospect, we see now that the Quran's miracle, indeed "One of the greatest miracles" (74:30), was divinely predestined to be unveiled14 centuries after Muhammad. In view of the current condition of the traditionalMuslims, if Muhammad had been given this miracle, those Muslims, who arealready idolizing Muhammad beside God, would have worshiped him as God incarnate.Additionally, this miracle is obviously designed for the computer age, andto be appreciated by mathematically sophisticated generations.
10:20 And they say, “Why was not a miracle sent down to him from his Lord?” Then answer (O Prophet), “The Unseen is known to God alone. Wait for the results of my program, and I shall be waiting with you.”10
That will be the best sign for all of us to behold
10:21 واذا اذقنا الناس رحمة من بعد ضراء مستهم اذا لهم مكر فى ءاياتنا قل الله اسرع مكرا ان رسلنا يكتبون ما تمكرون
10:21 Wa-itha athaqna alnnasarahmatan min baAAdi darraa massat-hum ithalahum makrun fee ayatina quli AllahuasraAAu makran inna rusulana yaktuboona matamkuroona
10:21 When We let the people taste a mercy after some harm had afflicted them, they take to scheming against Our signs! Say, "God is faster in scheming;" Our messengers record what you scheme.
10:21 And if We let the people taste a mercy after some hardship had afflicted them, they take to scheming against Our revelations! Say: "God is faster in scheming;" Our messengers record what you scheme.
10:21 And [thus it is:] whenever We let [such] people32 taste [some of Our] grace after hardship has visited them-lo! they forthwith turn to devising false arguments against Our messages.33 Say: "God is swifter [than you] in His deep devising!" Behold, Our [heavenly] messengers are recording all that you may devise!
I.e., the two categories of people referred to in verses 7, 11, 12, 15, 18 and 20.
Lit., "they have forthwith a scheme against Our messages". (The particle idha preceding this clause is meant to bring out the element of immediacy, and is best rendered as "lo! they forthwith.,. .", etc.) Since God's messages are purely conceptual, the "scheming against them" obviously connotes the devising of fallacious arguments meant to cast doubt on the divine origin of these messages or to "disprove" the statements made in them. The above discourse on the psychology of agnosticism and half-belief is continued in the parable of the seafarers set forth in the next two verses.
Rebellious Humans10:21 When we bestow mercy upon the people, after adversity had afflicted them, they immediately scheme against our revelations! Say, "GOD's scheming is far more effective. For our messengers are recording everything you scheme.",
10:21 When We cause people to taste of mercy after they have suffered a hardship, they start scheming to defy Our commands. Say, “God is Swift in planning. Our couriers write down what you plot.”
10:22 هو الذى يسيركم فى البر والبحر حتىا اذا كنتم فى الفلك وجرين بهم بريح طيبة وفرحوا بها جاءتها ريح عاصف وجاءهم الموج من كل مكان وظنوا انهم احيط بهم دعوا الله مخلصين له الدين لئن انجيتنا من هاذه لنكونن من الشاكرين
10:22 Huwa allathee yusayyirukum feealbarri waalbahri hatta ithakuntum fee alfulki wajarayna bihim bireehin tayyibatinwafarihoo biha jaat-ha reehunAAasifun wajaahumu almawju min kulli makaninwathannoo annahum oheeta bihimdaAAawoo Allaha mukhliseena lahu alddeenala-in anjaytana min hathihi lanakoonanna mina alshshakireena
10:22 He is the One who carries you on land and on the sea. When you are on the ships and We drive them with a good wind which they rejoice with, a strong gust comes to it and the waves come to them from all sides, and they suppose that they are overwhelmed, they implore God devoting the system to Him: "If You save us from this, we will be of the thankful."3
"At first sight it may appear hopelessly garbled, but the three consecutive pronominal shifts are all perfectly logical. The shift from the second person plural to the third person plural objectifies the addressees and enables them to see themselves as God sees them, and to recognize how ridiculous and hypocritical their behavior is. The shift back to the second person plural marks God's turning to admonish them. Finally the speaker's shift from the third person singular to the first person plural expresses His majesty and power, which is appropriate in view of the allusion to the resurrection and judgment." Neal Robinson, Discovering The Qur'ān: A Contemporary Approach To A Veiled Text (1996, SCM Press Ltd. p. 252). For the literary aspect and purpose of shift in person, see the footnote of verse 39:53.
10:22 He is the One who carries you on land and on the sea. And when you are on the ships and We drive them with a good wind which they rejoice with, a strong gust comes to them and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are finished, they implore God with loyalty and devotion to His system: "If You save us from this, we will be of the thankful."
10:22 He it is who enables you to travel on land and sea. And [behold what happens] when you go to sea in ships:34 [they go to sea in ships,] and they sail on in them in a favourable wind, and they rejoice thereat until there comes upon them a tempest, and waves surge towards them from all sides, so that they believe themselves to be encompassed [by death; and then] they call unto God, [at that moment] sincere in their faith in Him alone, "If Thou wilt but save us from this, we shall most certainly be among the grateful!"
Lit., "until, when you are in the ships...", etc. As has been pointed out by Zamakhshari, the particle "until" (hatta) which precedes this clause refers to the sudden rise of the storm described in the sequence, and not to the "going to sea in ships". It is to be noted that at this point the discourse changes abruptly from the direct address "you" to the third person plural ("they"): a construction which is evidently meant to bring out the allegorical character of the subsequent narrative and to turn it into a lesson of general validity.
10:22 He is the One who moves you across the land and sea. You get onto the ships, and they sail smoothly in a nice breeze. Then, while rejoicing therein, violent wind blows, and the waves surround them from every side. This is when they implore GOD, sincerely devoting their prayers to Him alone: "If You only save us this time, we will be eternally appreciative.",
10:22 He is the One Who enables you to travel in the land and the sea. When you board the ships, the ships sail with the voyagers with a favorable breeze. And they rejoice therein. If a stormy wind comes and the waves surround them, they think they are overwhelmed. Then they implore God, in all sincerity turning to His universal laws, saying, "If You only save us this time, we will truly show our gratitude.”
10:23 فلما انجىاهم اذا هم يبغون فى الارض بغير الحق ياايها الناس انما بغيكم علىا انفسكم متاع الحيواة الدنيا ثم الينا مرجعكم فننبئكم بما كنتم تعملون
10:23 Falamma anjahum ithahum yabghoona fee al-ardi bighayri alhaqqi yaayyuha alnnasu innama baghyukum AAalaanfusikum mataAAa alhayati alddunyathumma ilayna marjiAAukum fanunabbi-okum bimakuntum taAAmaloona
10:23 But when He saves them, they then traverse through the land with injustice. O people, your rebellion is only against yourselves. What you seek out is only the consumption of this worldly life, then to Us is your return and We will inform you of all that you had done.
10:23 But when He saves them, they then traverse through the land with injustice. "O people, what you seek out is only the luxury of this worldly life, then to Us is your return and We will inform you of all that you had done."
10:23 Yet as soon as He has saved them from this [danger], lo! they behave outrageously on earth, offending against all right !35 O men! All your outrageous deeds are bound to fall back upon your own selves!36 [You care only for] the enjoyment of life in this world: [but remember that] in the end unto Us you must return, whereupon We shall make you truly understand all that you were doing [in life].
See verse 12 (of which the above passage is a parabolic illustration) and the corresponding notes.
Lit., "your outrageousness (baghy) is only against your own selves". Cf. the oft-recurring Qur'anic expression, "they have sinned against themselves" (zalamu anfusahum, lit., "they have wronged themselves"), indicating the inevitability with which every evil deed damages its perpetrator spiritually.
10:23 But as soon as He saves them, they transgress on earth, and oppose the truth. O people, your transgression is only to the detriment of your own souls. You remain preoccupied with this worldly life, then to us is your ultimate return, then we inform you of everything you had done.,
10:23 Yet as soon as He has saved them, they return to land in their behavior of rebellion against all that is right. O Mankind! Remember that your rebellion is only against your own ‘self’ (91:9-10). Enjoyment of the worldly life with disregard of Eternity, is but a fleeting delight. In the end, to Us is your return, and We will inform you of all that you truly accomplished.
10:24 انما مثل الحيواة الدنيا كماء انزلناه من السماء فاختلط به نبات الارض مما ياكل الناس والانعام حتىا اذا اخذت الارض زخرفها وازينت وظن اهلها انهم قادرون عليها اتىاها امرنا ليلا او نهارا فجعلناها حصيدا كان لم تغن بالامس كذالك نفصل الءايات لقوم يتفكرون
10:24 Innama mathalu alhayatialddunya kama-in anzalnahu mina alssama-ifaikhtalata bihi nabatu al-ardi mimmaya/kulu alnnasu waal-anAAamu hattaitha akhathati al-ardu zukhrufaha waizzayyanatwathanna ahluha annahum qadiroonaAAalayha ataha amruna laylan aw naharanfajaAAalnaha haseedan kaan lam taghnabial-amsi kathalika nufassilu al-ayatiliqawmin yatafakkaroona
When Humans Are Intoxicated With Arrogance For Their Technological Achievements10:24 The example of the worldly life is like water which has come down from the sky; it mixed with the plants of the earth from what people and the livestock eat. Then the earth takes its attractions and becomes glamorous, and its inhabitants think that they have mastered it. Then Our judgment comes by night or by day, so We make it a wasteland as if it never prospered yesterday! It is such that We clarify the signs to a people who think.4
Surely, God knows the exact time of the Hour. But, since the world is round, when that moment comes, half of the world will be experiencing night and the other half daylight. See 4:82.
10:24 The example of the worldly life is like a water which has come down from the sky, so it mixed with the plants of the earth from what the people and the livestock eat. Then the earth takes its shape and becomes beautiful and its inhabitants think that they have mastered it; then Our judgment comes by night or by day, so We make it a wasteland as if it never prospered by the yesterday! It is such that We clarify the revelations for a people who think.
10:24 The parable of the life of this world is but that of rain which We send down from the sky, and which is absorbed by the plants of the earth37 whereof men and animals draw nourishment, until -when the earth has assumed its artful adornment and has been embellished, and they who dwell on it believe that they have gained mastery over it38 -there comes down upon it Our judgment, by night or by day, and We cause it to become [like] a field mown down, as if there had been no yesterday.39 Thus clearly do We spell out these messages unto people who think!
Lit., "with which the plants of the earth mingle".
I.e., they come to believe that they have gained "mastery over nature", with no conceivable limits to what they may yet achieve. It is to be borne in mind that the term zukhruf bears almost invariably a connotation of artificiality -a connotation which in this case is communicated to the subsequent verb izzayyanat. Thus, the whole of the above parabolic sentence may be understood as alluding to the artificial, illusory "adornment" brought about by man's technological efforts, not in collaboration with nature but, rather, in hostile "confrontation" with it.
Lit., "as if it had not been in existence yesterday": a phrase used in classical Arabic to describe something that has entirely disappeared or perished (Taj al-'Arus).
10:24 The analogy of this worldly life is like this: we send down water from the sky to produce with it all kinds of plants from the earth, and to provide food for the people and the animals. Then, just as the earth is perfectly adorned, and its people think that they are in control thereof, our judgment comes by night or by day, leaving it completely barren, as if nothing existed the previous day. We thus explain the revelations for people who reflect.,4
God, of course, knows whether His judgment will come during the day, or during the night. But it just happens that the earth will be halfday and half night when the end of the world comes. Another "scientific miracle"of the Quran.
10:24 Those who do not invest in the life to come must consider a similitude: The life of the world is a passing delight: We send down water from the height to produce with it all kinds of plants from the earth, provision for humans and animals. Then, just as the earth has taken its ornament and is perfectly adorned, and its people think that they are in control, Our command arrives by night or by day, leaving it completely barren, as if nothing existed there yesterday. The only way to inherit the fruit of your labor in the Hereafter is to live by Our laws. We expound Our messages and signs in nature for those who use their intellect.
10:25 والله يدعوا الىا دار السلام ويهدى من يشاء الىا صراط مستقيم
10:25 WaAllahu yadAAoo ila darialssalami wayahdee man yashao ila siratinmustaqeemin
10:25 God calls to the abode of peace, and He guides those whom He wishes to a Straight Path.
10:25 God calls to the abode of peace, and He guides those whom He wishes to a straight path.
10:25 AND [know that] God invites [man] unto the abode of peace, and guides him that wills [to be guided] onto a straight way.56
Since the concept of "finding the right way" cannot apply to lifeless idols and idolatrous images, the above passage obviously relates to animate beings - whether dead or alive - to whom "a share in God's divinity" is falsely attributed: that is, to saintly personalities, prophets or angels whom popular fancy blasphemously endows with some or all of God's qualities, sometimes even to the extent that they are regarded as a manifestation or incarnation of God on earth. As for the act of God's guidance, it is displayed, primarily, in the power of conscious reasoning as well as of instinctive insight with which He has graced man, thus enabling him to follow the divine laws of right conduct (Zamakhshari).
10:25 GOD invites to the abode of peace, and guides whoever wills (to be guided) in a straight path.,
10:25 God calls to the Home of Peace, and leads men and women to the straight path. He does guide to the straight path him who wills to be guided. [4:88]
10:26 للذين احسنوا الحسنىا وزيادة ولا يرهق وجوههم قتر ولا ذلة اولائك اصحاب الجنة هم فيها خالدون
10:26 Lillatheena ahsanoo alhusnawaziyadatun wala yarhaqu wujoohahum qatarun walathillatun ola-ika as-habu aljannatihum feeha khalidoona
10:26 For those who promote reforms will be good and more, and their faces will not be darkened or humiliated. These are the people of paradise, in it they will abide.
10:26 For those who do good will be good and more, and their faces will not be darkened or humiliated. These are the people of the Paradise, in it they will abide.
10:26 For those who persevere in doing good there is the ultimate good in store, and more [than that].41 No darkness and no ignominy will overshadow their faces [on Resurrection Day]: it is they who are destined for paradise, therein to abide.
Heaven and Hell are Eternal10:26 For the righteous, the reward will be multiplied manifold. Their faces will never experience any deprivation or shame. These are the dwellers of Paradise; they abide therein forever.,
10:26 For those who benefit humanity is an excellent reward and more. Not even the dust of sadness nor a trace of insult will come near them. They are the rightful dwellers of the Garden; they will abide therein.11
‘Wajh’ = Face = Whole being
10:27 والذين كسبوا السيات جزاء سيئة بمثلها وترهقهم ذلة ما لهم من الله من عاصم كانما اغشيت وجوههم قطعا من اليل مظلما اولائك اصحاب النار هم فيها خالدون
10:27 Waallatheena kasaboo alssayyi-atijazao sayyi-atin bimithliha watarhaquhum thillatunma lahum mina Allahi min AAasimin kaannamaoghshiyat wujoohuhum qitaAAan mina allayli muthlimanola-ika as-habu alnnari humfeeha khalidoona
10:27 As for those who earn evil, the recompense of evil will be evil like it, and they will be humiliated. They do not have any besides God as a protector. It is as if their faces have been covered by a piece of darkness from the night. These are the people of the fire, in it they will abide.
10:27 As for those who earn evil, the recompense of evil will be evil like it, and they will be humiliated. They do not have anyone to help them from God. It is as if their faces have been covered by a piece of darkness from the night. These are the people of the Fire, in it they will abide.
10:27 But us for those who have done evil deeds - the recompense of an evil, deed shall be the like thereof:42 and - since they will have none to defend them against God - ignominy will overshadow them as though their faces were veiled by the night's own darkness:43 it is they who are destined for the fire. therein to abide.
In contrast with the multiple "rewards" for good deeds, the recompense of evil will be only commensurate with the deed itself. (See also note 46 on the last sentence of 41:50.)
Lit., "by a piece of the night, densely dark".
10:27 As for those who earned sins, their requital is equivalent to their sin. Humiliation is their lot, and no one beside GOD can protect them. Their faces will seem overwhelmed by masses of dark night. They will be the dwellers of Hell; they abide therein forever.,
10:27 But those who earn evil by disrupting others’ lives, will have a similar reward of their evil. Humiliation will overtake them. There will be no one to protect them from God’s law. Their whole being will be covered as if with dark layers of the night. They are dwellers of the Fire; they will abide therein forever.
10:28 ويوم نحشرهم جميعا ثم نقول للذين اشركوا مكانكم انتم وشركاؤكم فزيلنا بينهم وقال شركاؤهم ما كنتم ايانا تعبدون
10:28 Wayawma nahshuruhum jameeAAan thummanaqoolu lillatheena ashrakoo makanakum antumwashurakaokum fazayyalna baynahum waqalashurakaohum ma kuntum iyyanataAAbudoona
Idolized Leaders Reject Their Servants10:28 On the day We gather them all, We will say to those who have set up partners: "Take your place, you and your partners," then We separate between them, and their partners will say, "It was not us that you served."5
The believers of intercession do not really worship those they hope will intercede, since their idols are neither aware of their polytheistic belief nor would they approve of it. Since polytheists follow the teachings of Satan, knowingly or unknowingly, they serve Perverse (16:60; 40:74; 36:60; 4:48).
10:28 And on the Day We gather them all, then We will say to those who were polytheists: "Stop where you are, you and your partners," then We will separate between them, and their partners will say: "It was not us that you served!"
10:28 For, one Day We shall gather them all together, and then We shall say unto those who [in their lifetime] ascribed divinity to aught but God, "Stand where you are, you and those [beings and powers] to whom you were wont to ascribe a share in God's divinity!44 -for by then We shall have [visibly] separated them from one another .45 And the beings to whom they had ascribed a share in God's divinity will say [to those who had worshipped them], "It was not us that you were wont to worship;46
Lit., "you and those [God-]partners of yours": cf. surah 6. note 15. The expression makanakum (lit., "your place", i.e., "keep to your place") bears a connotation- of contempt and an implied threat.
I.e., separated those who ascribed divinity to beings other than God from the objects of their one-time adoration (Tabari, Baghawi): a metonymical phrase denoting a realization on the part of the former that there has never been any existential link between them and those false objects of worship (cf. 6:24, 10:30, 11:21, 16:87 and 28:75-"and all their false imagery has [or "will have"] forsaken them"). See also the next two notes.
I.e., "it was only your own fancies and desires that you worshipped, clothing them in the garb of extraneous beings": in other words, the worship of idols, forces of nature, saints, prophets, angels, etc., is shown here to be nothing but a projection of the worshipper's own subconscious desires. (Cf. also 34:41 and the corresponding note 52.)
Idols Disown Their Worshipers10:28 On the day when we summon them all, we will say to those who worshipped idols, "We have summoned you, together with your idols." We will have them confront each other, and their idols will say to them, "We had no idea that you idolized us.,
10:28 One Day We will gather all of them together. We will say to those who acknowledged false deities, “Stay back, you and your contrived partners of God!” We will have the leaders and their followers confront each other. Their leaders will say, “It was not us that you worshiped.”
10:29 فكفىا بالله شهيدا بيننا وبينكم ان كنا عن عبادتكم لغافلين
10:29 Fakafa biAllahishaheedan baynana wabaynakum in kunna AAan AAibadatikumlaghafileena
10:29 "God is sufficient as a witness between us and you, we were unaware of your serving of us."
10:29 "God is enough as a witness between us and you, that we were unaware of you serving us."
10:29 and none can bear witness between us and you as God does: we were, for certain, unaware of your worshipping [us].47 48
Thus the Qur'an makes it clear that the saints and prophets who, after their death, have been unwarrantably deified by their followers shall not be held accountable for the blasphemous worship accorded to them (cf. 5:116); furthermore, even the inanimate objects of false worship will symbolically deny any connection between themselves and their worshippers.
I.e., will be brought back to the realization of God's oneness, uniqueness and almightiness - that instinctive cognition which has been implanted in human nature as such (see 7:172).
10:29 "GOD suffices as a witness between us and you, that we were completely unaware of your worshipping us.",
10:29 (Such false deities as Prophets, angels, Sufis, saints, clergy, idols and the universal forces,) they will all say, “God suffices as a Witness between us and you that we were not even aware of your worship.”12
They worshiped their own desires and fantasies
10:30 هنالك تبلوا كل نفس ما اسلفت وردوا الى الله مولىاهم الحق وضل عنهم ما كانوا يفترون
10:30 Hunalika tabloo kullu nafsin maaslafat waruddoo ila Allahi mawlahumu alhaqqiwadalla AAanhum ma kanoo yaftaroona
10:30 Then and there every person will know what it has done, and they are returned to God their true patron, and what they had invented has left them.6
Those who acknowledge the truth only accept the Truth as their mawla (master/patron/lord). See 2:286.
10:30 It is then that every soul will know what it has done, and they will be returned to God their true patron, and they have been abandoned by that which they had invented.
10:30 There and then will every human being clearly apprehend what he has done in the past; and all will be brought back unto God,* their true Lord Supreme, and all their false imagery will have forsaken them.
10:30 That is when each soul will examine everything it had done. They will be returned to GOD, their rightful Lord and Master, and the idols they had fabricated will disown them.,
10:30 Therein every person will experience exactly the result of what he did before. They will be brought back to God, their rightful Master, and all their false imagery will fail them.13
Maula = The True Master = Lord Supreme. The extremely common practice of calling a religious leader as MaulanaOur Master is a frank, deplorable form of Shirkassociating others with God. But the clergy take pride in it! Many verses in the Qur’an tell us that there is no Maulana but God. It is amazing to note that the Muslim clergy write Maulana with their names, and with their own hands! 9:51
10:31 قل من يرزقكم من السماء والارض امن يملك السمع والابصار ومن يخرج الحى من الميت ويخرج الميت من الحى ومن يدبر الامر فسيقولون الله فقل افلا تتقون
10:31 Qul man yarzuqukum mina alssama-iwaal-ardi amman yamliku alssamAAa waal-absarawaman yukhriju alhayya mina almayyiti wayukhriju almayyitamina alhayyi waman yudabbiru al-amra fasayaqooloona Allahufaqul afala tattaqoona
The Believers of False Religious Teachings10:31 Say, "Who provides for you from the sky and the land? Who possesses the hearing and the eyesight? Who brings forth the living from the dead and brings forth the dead from the living? Who controls all affairs?" They will say, "God." Say, "Why then you do not show awareness!"
10:31 Say: "Who provides for you from the heavens and the earth? Who possesses the hearing and the eyesight? And who brings the living out from the dead and brings the dead out from the living? And who manages all affairs?" They will say: "God." Say: "Will you not be righteous!"
10:31 SAY: "Who is it that provides you with sustenance out of heaven and earth,49 or who is it that has full power over [your] hearing and sight? And who is it that brings forth the living out of that which is dead, and brings forth the dead out of that which is alive? And who is it that governs all that exists?" And they will [surely] answer: "[It is] God.50 , Say, then: "Will you not, then, become [fully] conscious of Him-
The term rizq ("provision of sustenance") is used here in both the physical and spiritual connotations of this word, which explains the reference to "heaven and earth" and, subsequently, "[man's] hearing and sight".
The people referred to here are those who believe, firstly, that there are beings endowed with certain divine or semi-divine qualities, thus having, as it were, a "share" in God's divinity; and, secondly, that by worshipping such beings men can come closer to God. This idea obviously presupposes belief in God's existence, as is brought out in the "answer" of the people thus addressed (cf. 7 :172 and the corresponding note 139); but inasmuch as it offends against the concept of God's oneness and uniqueness, it deprives those people's belief in God of its true meaning and spiritual value.
10:31 Say, "Who provides for you from the heaven and the earth? Who controls all the hearing and the eyesight? Who produces the living from the dead, and the dead from the living? Who is in control of all things?" They would say, "GOD." Say, "Why then do you not observe the commandments?",
10:31 (Now is the time for them to think.) Say (O Messenger), “Who is it that provides for you from the heaven and the earth, or who is it that has full power over your hearing and sight? And who is it that brings forth the living from the dead, and the dead from the living? And who is it that directs the Order of the Universe?” They will say, "God.” Say, “Will you not then be mindful of His laws?”
10:32 فذالكم الله ربكم الحق فماذا بعد الحق الا الضلال فانىا تصرفون
10:32 Fathalikumu Allahu rabbukumualhaqqu famatha baAAda alhaqqi illa alddalalufaanna tusrafoona
10:32 Such is God, your true Lord. So what is after the truth except straying! How then you are turned away!
10:32 Such is God, your true Lord. So what is after the truth except straying! Why then do you turn away?
10:32 seeing that He is God, your Sustainer, the Ultimate Truth?51 For, after the truth [has been forsaken], what is there [left] but error? How, then, can you lose sight of the truth?"52
Lit., "this [or "such"], then, being God, your Sustainer, the Ultimate Truth"-i.e., "seeing that, on your own admission, He is the One who creates and governs all things and is the Ultimate Reality behind all that exists" (see surah 20, note 99): which implies a categorical denial of the possibility that any other being could have a share, however small, in His divinity.
Lit., "How, then, are you turned away?"-i.e., from the truth.
10:32 Such is GOD, your rightful Lord. What is there after the truth, except falsehood? How could you disregard all this?,
10:32 Such is God, your Rightful Lord. After the truth what is there but error? How could you then turn away?
10:33 كذالك حقت كلمت ربك على الذين فسقوا انهم لا يؤمنون
10:33 Kathalika haqqat kalimaturabbika AAala allatheena fasaqoo annahum layu/minoona
10:33 It was thus that your Lord's command came against those who were wicked, for they do not acknowledge.
10:33 It was thus that the command of your Lord came against those who were wicked, for they did not believe.
10:33 Thus is thy Sustainer's word proved true with regard to such as are bent on sinful doings: they will not believes53
See surah 2, note 7, as well as 8:55 and the corresponding note 58. In this particular context, "the Sustainer's word" seems to be synonymous with "the way of God" (sunnat Allah) concerning deliberate sinners and deniers of the truth (Manar XI, 359). The particle anna in annahum (lit., "that they") is, thus, indicative of the purport of the divine "word" referred to, and is best expressed by a colon.
10:33 This is what your Lord's decision does to those who choose to be wicked: they cannot believe.,
10:33 The Word of your Lord is justified that those who drift away from Reason will not accept the truth.
10:34 قل هل من شركائكم من يبدؤا الخلق ثم يعيده قل الله يبدؤا الخلق ثم يعيده فانىا تؤفكون
10:34 Qul hal min shuraka-ikum man yabdaoalkhalqa thumma yuAAeeduhu quli Allahu yabdao alkhalqathumma yuAAeeduhu faanna tu/fakoona
10:34 Say, "Are there any from those whom you have set up as partners who can initiate the creation and then return it?" Say, "God initiates the creation and then returns it." How are you deluded!
10:34 Say: "Are there any from those whom you have set up as partners who can initiate the creation and then return it?" Say: "God initiates the creation and then returns it." How are you deluded!
10:34 Say: "Can any of those beings to whom you ascribe a share in God's divinity create [life] in the first instance, and then bring it forth anew?"54 Say: "It is God [alone] who creates [all life] in the first instance, and then brings it forth anew. How perverted, then, are your minds!"55
This rhetorical question is connected with the false belief that those idolatrously worshipped beings are no more than "intercessors" between their followers and God (see verse 18 above): and so, even their misguided votaries cannot possibly attribute to them the power to create and to resurrect. See also note 8 on verse 4 of this surah. In its wider sense, this question (and the subsequent answer) relates to the God-willed, cyclic process of birth, death and regeneration evident in all organic nature.
See surah 5, note 90.
Reflect on Your Idols10:34 Say, "Can any of your idols initiate creation, then repeat it?" Say, "GOD initiates the creation, then repeats it. [How could you deviate?"]*,
10:34 Ask them, "Can any of your 'partner gods' originate creation and then bring it forth again?” Say, “God originates creation and then brings it forth again. How then, are you so deluded?”
10:35 قل هل من شركائكم من يهدى الى الحق قل الله يهدى للحق افمن يهدى الى الحق احق ان يتبع امن لا يهدى الا ان يهدىا فما لكم كيف تحكمون
10:35 Qul hal min shuraka-ikum man yahdeeila alhaqqi quli Allahu yahdee lilhaqqiafaman yahdee ila alhaqqi ahaqqu anyuttabaAAa amman la yahiddee illa an yuhdafama lakum kayfa tahkumoona
Do Not Follow Jesus, Muhammed, But Follow The Message/The Messenger10:35 Say, "Are there any of those whom you set up as partners who can guide to the truth?" Say, "God guides to the truth. Is He who guides to the truth more worthy of being followed, or the one who does not guide except after he is guided? What is wrong with you, how do you judge?"7
10:35 Say: "Are there any of those whom you set up as partners who can guide to the truth?" Say: "God guides to the truth. Is He who guides to the truth more worthy of being followed, or he who does not guide except after he is guided? What is wrong with you, how do you judge?"
10:35 Say: "Does any of those beings to whom you ascribe a share in God's divinity guide unto the truth?" Say: "It is God [alone] who guides unto the truth. Which, then, is more worthy to be followed - He who guides unto the truth, or he who cannot find the right way unless he is guided?57 What, then, is amiss with you and your judgment?"*
Lit., "[and] how do you judge?"
10:35 Say, "Does any of your idols guide to the truth?" Say, "GOD guides to the truth. Is one who guides to the truth more worthy of being followed, or one who does not guide, and needs guidance for himself? What is wrong with your judgment?",
10:35 Say, “Of your ‘partners’, is there any that can lead you to the truth?” Say, “God leads to the truth. So, who is more worthy of being followed? The One Who shows you the way or one who finds no way unless he is guided? What is amiss with you? How do you judge?”
10:36 وما يتبع اكثرهم الا ظنا ان الظن لا يغنى من الحق شيا ان الله عليم بما يفعلون
10:36 Wama yattabiAAu aktharuhum illathannan inna alththanna layughnee mina alhaqqi shay-an inna Allaha AAaleemunbima yafAAaloona
10:36 Most of them only follow conjecture. While conjecture does not avail against the truth in anything. God is knower of what they do.
10:36 Most of them only follow conjecture. While conjecture does not avail against the truth in anything. God is aware of what they do.
10:36 For, most of them follow nothing but conjecture: [and,] behold, conjecture can never be a substitute for truth.58 Verily, God has full knowledge of all that they do.
Lit., "conjecture can in no wise make [anyone] independent (Ia yughni) of the truth", i.e., of positive insight obtained through authentic revelation (to which the sequence relates). The people referred to here (and apparently also in the first sentence of verse 53 of this surah) are the agnostics who waver between truth and falsehood. - Some of the great exponents of Islamic Law-foremost among them Ibn Hazm-base on this verse their rejection of giyas ("deduction by analogy") as a means of eliciting religious laws which are supposedly "implied" in the wording of the Qur'an or of the Prophet's teachings, but not clearly laid down in terms of law. In his commentary on this verse. Razi thus sums up the above view: "They say that every deduction by analogy is a conjectural process and is, therefore, of necessity, inadmissible [in matters pertaining to religion]-for 'conjecture can never be a substitute for truth'." (See also 5:101, and the corresponding notes 120-123.)
10:36 Most of them follow nothing but conjecture, and conjecture is no substitute for the truth. GOD is fully aware of everything they do.,
10:36 The majority of people follow nothing but conjecture. But conjecture can never be a substitute for the Reality of things. God is Knower of what they do (and forge).
10:37 وما كان هاذا القرءان ان يفترىا من دون الله ولاكن تصديق الذى بين يديه وتفصيل الكتاب لا ريب فيه من رب العالمين
10:37 Wama kana hatha alqur-anuan yuftara min dooni Allahi walakin tasdeeqaallathee bayna yadayhi watafseela alkitabi larayba feehi min rabbi alAAalameena
Bigots Who Criticize the Quran Without Comprehending Its Knowledge10:37 This Quran could not have been produced without God, but it is to authenticate what is already present, and to provide detail to the book in which there is no doubt, from the Lord of the worlds.
10:37 This Qur'an could not have been produced without God; it is to authenticate what is between his hands, and to give details of the Book in which there is no doubt, from the Lord of the worlds.
10:37 Now this Qur'an could not possibly have been devised by anyone save God: nay indeed,59 it confirms the truth of whatever there still remains [of earlier revelations] and clearly spells out the revelation [which comes] -let there be no doubt about it-from the Sustainer of all the worlds.60
Lit., "but" (wa-lakin)-a stress on the impossibility of any assertion to the contrary.
The above passage has a twofold significance: firstly, the wisdom inherent in the Qur'an precludes any possibility of its having been composed by a human being; and, secondly, the Qur'anic message is meant to confirm, and give a final formulation to, the eternal truths which have been conveyed to man through a long succession of prophets: truths which have subsequently been obscured through wrong interpretation, deliberate omissions or interpolations, or a partial or even total loss of the original texts. For an explanation of the phrase ma bayna yadayhi, rendered by me in this context as "whatever there still remains [of earlier revelations]", see surah 3,
Only God Can Author the Quran10:37 This Quran could not possibly be authored by other than GOD. It confirms all previous messages, and provides a fully detailed scripture. It is infallible, for it comes from the Lord of the universe.,
10:37 This Qur’an could not possibly have been devised by anyone except God. Nay, it is a confirmation of the (truth in) the earlier revelations, and a clear exposition of the Eternal law. Without any trace of doubt, this Book is from the Lord of the Worlds.14
10:38 ام يقولون افترىاه قل فاتوا بسورة مثله وادعوا من استطعتم من دون الله ان كنتم صادقين
10:38 Am yaqooloona iftarahu qul fa/toobisooratin mithlihi waodAAoo mani istataAAtum mindooni Allahi in kuntum sadiqeena
10:38 Or do they say he invented it? Say, "Then bring a chapter like it, and call upon whoever you can besides God if you are truthful!"8
Study the relationship between these and 27:77.
10:38 Or do they say: "He has invented it!" Say: "Then bring a chapter like it, and call on whom you can besides God if you are truthful."
10:38 And yet,61 they [who are bent on denying the truth] assert, "[Muhammad] has invented it!" Say [unto them]: "Produce, then, a surah of similar merit; and [to this end] call to your aid whomever you can, other than God, if what you say is true !62
According to the great philologist Abu `Ubaydah Ma'mar ibn al-Muthanna (as quoted by Baghawi), the particle am which introduces this sentence has no interrogative connotation, but is - as in several other places in the Qur'an - synonymous with the conjunction wa ("and"), which in this case can be suitably rendered as above note 3.
Cf. 2:23 and the corresponding note 15.
10:38 If they say, "He fabricated it," say, "Then produce one sura like these, and invite whomever you wish, other than GOD, if you are truthful.",
10:38 Or, do they say, “He has invented it”? Tell them, "Bring one Surah like this and call for help everyone you can besides God, if you are truthful.”15
10:39 بل كذبوا بما لم يحيطوا بعلمه ولما ياتهم تاويله كذالك كذب الذين من قبلهم فانظر كيف كان عاقبة الظالمين
10:39 Bal kaththaboo bima lam yuheetoobiAAilmihi walamma ya/tihim ta/weeluhu kathalika kaththabaallatheena min qablihim faonthurkayfa kana AAaqibatu alththalimeena
10:39 No, they have lied about the things they did not have comprehensive knowledge of, and before its explanation came to them. Similarly, those before them denied, so see what the retribution of the wicked was!
10:39 No, they have lied about that which they had no knowledge, nor has its explanation come to them. It is also how those before them denied, so see how was the retribution of the wicked!
10:39 Nay, but they are bent on giving the lie to everything the wisdom whereof they do not comprehend, and ere its inner meaning has become clear to them63 Even thus did those who lived before their time give the lie to the truth: and behold what happened in the end to those evildoers!
Lit., "the knowledge whereof they do not encompass, while its inner meaning has not yet come to them". Most of the classical commentators explain this sentence in the way rendered by me; some of them, however (e.g., Tabari and Baghawi), interpret the term ta'wil ("final [or "inner"] meaning") in the sense in which it is used in 7:53 (see my translation of that passage and the corresponding note 41).
10:39 Indeed, they have rejected this without studying and examining it, and before understanding it. Thus did those before them disbelieve. Therefore, note the consequences for the transgressors.,
10:39 Nay, they deny it without encompassing the profound knowledge therein. And they have yet to see the benevolent transformation it can bring about (within oneself and in the making of humanity). Such were those before them who denied. Then see what the end was of those who thus wronged themselves.16
Ta’weel= Interpretation that can be implemented. Ta’weel is erroneously promoted by some as remote meanings of the Qur’an known only to a few select!
10:40 ومنهم من يؤمن به ومنهم من لا يؤمن به وربك اعلم بالمفسدين
10:40 Waminhum man yu/minu bihi waminhum man layu/minu bihi warabbuka aAAlamu bialmufsideena
10:40 Some of them acknowledge it, and some of them do not acknowledge it. Your Lord best knows the corrupters.
10:40 And there are some of them who believe in it, and some of them do not believe in it. Your Lord is better aware of the transgressors.
10:40 And there are among them such as will in time come to believe in this [divine writ], just as there are among them such as will never believe in it;64 and thy Sustainer is fully aware as to who are the spreaders of corruption.
The verb yu'minun, which occurs twice in this verse, can be understood as connoting either the present tense-"[such as] believe", resp. "[such as] do not believe"-or the future tense. The future tense (adopted by me) is the meaning unequivocally attributed to it by Tabari and Ibn Kathir; some of the other authorities, like Zamakhshari and Razi, prefer the present tense, but nevertheless regard the other interpretation as legitimate. (See also Manar XI, 380.)
10:40 Some of them believe (in this scripture), while others disbelieve in it. Your Lord is fully aware of the evildoers.,
10:40 And of them is he who believes in this (Qur’an), and of them is he who does not believe in it. Your Lord is best Aware of those who are bent upon denial and want corruption and disorder to go on.
10:41 وان كذبوك فقل لى عملى ولكم عملكم انتم بريون مما اعمل وانا برىء مما تعملون
10:41 Wa-in kaththabooka faqul lee AAamaleewalakum AAamalukum antum baree-oona mimma aAAmalu waanabaree-on mimma taAAmaloona
10:41 If they deny you, then say, "My works are for me, and your works are for you. You are innocent from what I do, and I am innocent from what you do."
10:41 And if they deny you, then say: "I have my deeds, and you have your deeds. You are innocent from what I do, and I am innocent from what you do."
10:41 And [so, O Prophet,] if they give thee the lie, say: "To me [shall be accounted] my doings, and to you, your doings: you are not accountable for what I am doing, and I am not accountable for whatever you do."
10:41 If they reject you, then say, "I have my works, and you have your works. You are innocent of anything I do, and I am innocent of anything you do.",
10:41 If they keep denying you (O Prophet), say, "I have my work, and you have your work. You are innocent of what I do and I am innocent of what you do.” [109:1-6]
10:42 ومنهم من يستمعون اليك افانت تسمع الصم ولو كانوا لا يعقلون
10:42 Waminhum man yastamiAAoona ilayka afaantatusmiAAu alssumma walaw kanoo layaAAqiloona
10:42 Among them are some who listen to you; but can you make the deaf hear, if they do not reason?
10:42 And there are some of them who listen to you; but can you make the deaf hear, if they do not comprehend?
10:42 And there are among them such as (pretend to] listen to thee: but canst thou cause the deaf to hearken even though they will not use their reason?
10:42 Some of them listen to you, but can you make the deaf hear, even though they cannot understand?,
10:42 Among them are those who apparently listen to you. (But their thoughts are wandering.) Can you make hear those deaf who do not use reason? [47:16]
10:43 ومنهم من ينظر اليك افانت تهدى العمى ولو كانوا لا يبصرون
10:43 Waminhum man yanthuru ilaykaafaanta tahdee alAAumya walaw kanoo la yubsiroona
10:43 Among them are some who look at you; but can you guide the blind, even though they will not see?
10:43 And there are some of them who look at you; but can you guide the blind, if they do not see?
10:43 And there are among them such as [pretend to] look towards thee: but canst thou show the right way to the blind even though they cannot see?
Humans Freely Choose Their Paths10:43 Some of them look at you, but can you guide the blind, even though they do not see?,
10:43 And among them you will find those who look at you without seeing. (Their mind is roaming elsewhere.) Can you show the way to those who are blind of the heart? [7:198]
10:44 ان الله لا يظلم الناس شيا ولاكن الناس انفسهم يظلمون
10:44 Inna Allaha la yathlimualnnasa shay-an walakinna alnnasaanfusahum yathlimoona
10:44 God does not wrong the people in the least, but it is the people who wrong themselves.
10:44 God does not wrong the people in the least, but it is the people who wrong themselves.
10:44 Verily, God does not do the least wrong unto men, but it is men who wrong themselves.
10:44 GOD never wrongs the people; it is the people who wrong their own souls.,
10:44 God is never unjust to human beings; but people wrong themselves.17
Failing to use the God-given faculties is the first wrong one can commit. It brings the humans down to subhuman levels. 7:179
10:45 ويوم يحشرهم كان لم يلبثوا الا ساعة من النهار يتعارفون بينهم قد خسر الذين كذبوا بلقاء الله وما كانوا مهتدين
10:45 Wayawma yahshuruhum kaan lamyalbathoo illa saAAatan mina alnnahariyataAAarafoona baynahum qad khasira allatheena kaththaboobiliqa-i Allahi wama kanoo muhtadeena
10:45 The day We gather them, it will be as if they have slept for only a moment of a day. They will get to know one another. Losers are those who denied meeting God, and they were not guided.
10:45 And the Day He gathers them, it will be as if they had stayed but an hour of a day. They will get to know one another. Losers will be those who have denied meeting God, and they have not been guided.
10:45 And on the Day when He shall gather them [unto Himself, it will seem to them] as if they had not tarried [on earth] longer than an hour of a day, knowing one another;65 [and] lost indeed will be they who [in their lifetime] considered it a lie that they were destined to meet God, and [thus] failed to find the right' way.
Le., their past sojourn in this world, during which they were bound to one another by various ties of human relationship, will appear to them like a short moment as compared with the timeless duration of the life that awaits them after resurrection (see note 19 on 79:46), with all their past relationships cut asunder. See also 6:94, which describes the condition of the deniers of the truth on the Day of Resurrection: "And now, indeed, you have come unto Us in a lonely state, even as We created you in the first instance"; and later on, in that same verse: "Indeed, all the bonds between you [and your earthly life] are now severed. .. ."
10:45 On the day when He summons all of them, they will feel as if they lasted in this world one hour of the day, during which they met. Losers indeed are those who disbelieved in meeting GOD; and chose to be misguided.,
10:45 And on the Day when He will gather them, they will think they lived (in this world) an hour of the day, recognizing one another. (Others will think it was a day or a few days 20:103-104.) Lost will be those who denied meeting with God, and thus, failed to be rightly guided. [10:7]
10:46 واما نرينك بعض الذى نعدهم او نتوفينك فالينا مرجعهم ثم الله شهيد علىا ما يفعلون
10:46 Wa-imma nuriyannaka baAAdaallathee naAAiduhum aw natawaffayannaka fa-ilaynamarjiAAuhum thumma Allahu shaheedun AAala mayafAAaloona
10:46 Whether We show you some of what We promise them, or We let you pass away, then to Us is their return and God is witness over what they do.
10:46 And if We show you some of what We promise them, or We terminate your life, to Us is their return. Then God is a witness over what they do.
10:46 And whether We show thee [in this world something of what We hold in store for those [deniers of the truth],66 or whether We cause thee to die [before that retribution takes place - know that, in the end], it is unto Us that they must return; and God is witness to all that they do.67
Lit., "of what We promise them" or "of what We threaten them with" - i.e., the inevitable retribution, sometimes even in this world, which a deliberate denial of the truth brings in its wake.
The above verse is addressed, in the first instance, to the Prophet, and relates to those of his contemporaries who refused to acknowledge the truth of the Qur'anic revelation. In its wider sense, however, it is addressed to every believer who might find it incomprehensible that life-long suffering is often the lot of the righteous. while many wrongdoers and deniers of the truth apparently remain unscathed and are allowed to enjoy the good things of life. The Qur'an solves this apparent paradox by making it clear that, in comparison with the life to come, the life in this world is but a brief moment, and that it is only in the hereafter that man's destiny reveals itself in all its true aspects. Cf. 3:185 - "only on the Day of Resurrection will you be requited in full [ for whatever you have done ] ... for the life of this world is nothing but an enjoyment of self-delusion".
10:46 Whether we show you some (of the retribution) we promise them, or terminate your life before that, to us is their ultimate return. GOD witnesses everything they do.,
10:46 Whether We show you (O Messenger), something of what We promise them, or cause you to die, to Us is their return. God is the Watcher over what they do.
10:47 ولكل امة رسول فاذا جاء رسولهم قضى بينهم بالقسط وهم لا يظلمون
10:47 Walikulli ommatin rasoolun fa-itha jaarasooluhum qudiya baynahum bialqisti wahum layuthlamoona
For Every Nation10:47 For every nation is a messenger; so when their messenger comes, the matter is decreed between them with justice, and they are not wronged.9
10:47 And for every nation is a messenger; so when their messenger comes, the matter is decreed between them with justice, and they are not wronged.
10:47 NOW every community has had an apostle; and only after their apostle has appeared [and delivered his message] is judgment passed on them, in all equity;68 and never are they wronged.
Lit., "and when their apostle has come, a decision is made between them in all equity". This verse stresses (a) the continuity of religious revelation in mankind's history and the fact that in the long run no community, period or civilization (which latter is one of the meanings attributable to the term ummah) has been left without prophetic guidance, and (b) the doctrine that God does not punish "a community for its wrongdoing so long as its people are still unaware [of the meaning of right and wrong]: for all shall be judged according to their [conscious] deeds" (6:131).
10:47 To each community, a messenger. After their messenger comes, they are judged equitably, without the least injustice.,
10:47 Every community has had a Messenger. They were judged in all equity only after their Messenger came (and delivered the message), and they were never wronged.
10:48 ويقولون متىا هاذا الوعد ان كنتم صادقين
10:48 Wayaqooloona mata hathaalwaAAdu in kuntum sadiqeena
10:48 They say, "When is this promise, if you are truthful?"
10:48 And they say: "When is this promise if you are truthful?"
10:48 And yet, they [who deny the truth] are wont to ask, "When is that promise [of resurrection and judgment] to be fulfilled? [Answer this, O you who believe in it,] if you are men of truth!"
10:48 They challenge: "When will this prophecy come to pass, if you are telling the truth?",
10:48 And yet, they ask, "When will the promise be fulfilled, if you are truthful?" (The promise of just recompense.)
10:49 قل لا املك لنفسى ضرا ولا نفعا الا ما شاء الله لكل امة اجل اذا جاء اجلهم فلا يستخرون ساعة ولا يستقدمون
10:49 Qul la amliku linafsee darranwala nafAAan illa ma shaa Allahulikulli ommatin ajalun itha jaa ajaluhum falayasta/khiroona saAAatan wala yastaqdimoona
The Messenger Has No Special Power10:49 Say, "I do not posses for myself any harm or benefit except what God wills. For every nation is a time. When their time comes, they cannot delay it one moment nor advance it."
10:49 Say: "I do not possess for myself any harm or benefit except what God wills. For every nation is a time. When their time comes, they cannot delay it one hour nor advance it."
10:49 Say [O Prophet]: "It is not within my power to avert harm from, or bring benefit to, myself, except as God may please.69 For all people a term has been set: when the end of their term approaches, they can neither delay it by a single moment, nor hasten it."70
Sc., "and since I do not possess any supernatural powers, I cannot predict that which is beyond the reach of human perception (al-ghayb)".
See 7:34 and the corresponding notes 25 and 26. In the above context, the "end of the term" refers, in particular, to the coming of the Last Hour and the Day of Judgment.
The Messenger Possesses No Power10:49 Say, "I possess no power to harm myself, or benefit myself; only what GOD wills takes place." Each community has a predetermined life span. Once their interim comes to an end, they cannot delay it by one hour, nor advance it.,
10:49 Say (O Messenger), "I have no power to avert any harm even from myself, or benefit myself contrary to the laws of God. Every community determines its own rise and fall. When the time comes, they can neither delay, nor hasten the requital.”
10:50 قل ارءيتم ان اتىاكم عذابه بياتا او نهارا ماذا يستعجل منه المجرمون
10:50 Qul araaytum in atakum AAathabuhubayatan aw naharan matha yastaAAjilu minhualmujrimoona
10:50 Say, "Do you see if His retribution will come to you by night or by day, then which portion would the criminals hasten in?"
10:50 Say: "Do you see if His retribution will come to you by night or by day, then which portion would the criminals hasten in?"
10:50 Say: "Have you ever considered [how you would feel] if His chastisement were to befall you by night or by day? What could there be in that prospect that people lost in sin should wish to hasten?71
Lit., "What [part] thereof might the people lost in sin (al-mujrimun) wish to hasten" meaning, according to Zamakhshari, that "all of [God's] chastisement is awful and bitter, and should inspire one with the desire to flee therefrom; ... and there is nothing in it that ought to make one wish to hasten it". This is an allusion to the incredulous inquiry of the deniers of the truth about the coming of the Last Hour (verse 48 above), as well as to their sarcastic demand that they should be immediately chastised by God in proof of Muhammad's prophetic mission (cf. 6:57 and 8:32, as well as the corresponding notes).-The expression "by night or by day" occurring in the preceding sentence denotes the suddenness and unexpectedness with which doom is bound to encompass the evildoers on the Day of Judgment.
10:50 Say, "Whether His retribution comes to you by night or by day, why are the transgressors in such a hurry?,
10:50 Say, “Have you thought, when His retribution comes to you suddenly by night, or in the bustling day, what portion of it would the guilty wish to hasten?”
10:51 اثم اذا ما وقع ءامنتم به ءالان وقد كنتم به تستعجلون
10:51 Athumma itha ma waqaAAa amantumbihi al-ana waqad kuntum bihi tastaAAjiloona
10:51 "When it occurs, would you then acknowledge it? While now you are hastening it on!"
10:51 "Will you then, when it occurs, believe in it? While now you are hastening it on!"
10:51 Will you, then, believe in it [only] after it has come to pass -[on the Day when you will be asked, `Do you believe in it] now,72 after having [contemptuously] called for its speedy advent?'
I.e., "when it is too late" (Tabari, Zamakhshari, Razi; my interpolation at the beginning of this sentence is based on these authorities).
10:51 "If it does happen, will you believe then? Why should you believe then? You used to challenge it to come?",
10:51 “Would you then profess belief in it at last, when it comes to pass! Ah! Now? And you wanted to hasten it on.” (But the period of respite has been over.)
10:52 ثم قيل للذين ظلموا ذوقوا عذاب الخلد هل تجزون الا بما كنتم تكسبون
10:52 Thumma qeela lillatheena thalamoothooqoo AAathaba alkhuldi hal tujzawna illabima kuntum taksiboona
10:52 Then it will be said to the wicked: "Taste the everlasting retribution. You are only recompensed for what you have earned!"
10:52 Then it will be said to those who were wicked: "Taste the everlasting retribution. You are only recompensed for what you have earned!"
10:52 -whereupon those who [in their lifetime] were bent on evildoing will be told, `Taste suffering abiding! Is this requital anything but the just due for what you were wont to do?"73
Lit., "Are you being requited for anything but for what you were wont to earn?"
10:52 It will be said to the transgressors, "Taste the eternal retribution. Are you not requited precisely for what you have earned?",
10:52 It will be said to the oppressors and violators of human rights, “Taste the eternal torment, the exact reward of what you earned.”
10:53 ويستنبونك احق هو قل اى وربى انه لحق وما انتم بمعجزين
10:53 Wayastanbi-oonaka ahaqqun huwa qul eewarabbee innahu lahaqqun wama antum bimuAAjizeena
10:53 They seek news from you: "Is it true?" Say, "Yes, by my Lord it is true, and you cannot escape from it."
10:53 And they seek news from you: "Is it true?" Say: "Yes, by my Lord it is true, and you cannot escape from it."
10:53 And some people74 ask thee, "Is all this true?" Say: "Yea, by my Sustainer! It is most certainly true, and you cannot elude [the final reckoning]!"
Lit., "they"-i.e., those of the unbelievers who are wavering in their agnosticism and-as mentioned in verse 36 above -"follow nothing but conjecture" (Manar XI, 394).
10:53 They challenge you to prophesy: "Is this really what will happen?" Say, "Yes indeed, by my Lord, this is the truth, and you can never escape.",
10:53 They keep asking you (O Prophet), "Is it really true?” Say, “Yes, by my Lord, it is true, indeed. And you cannot defy His laws.”
10:54 ولو ان لكل نفس ظلمت ما فى الارض لافتدت به واسروا الندامة لما راوا العذاب وقضى بينهم بالقسط وهم لا يظلمون
10:54 Walaw anna likulli nafsin thalamatma fee al-ardi laiftadat bihi waasarroo alnnadamatalamma raawoo alAAathaba waqudiya baynahum bialqistiwahum la yuthlamoona
10:54 If every person that wronged had possessed all that is on earth, it would have attempted to ransom it. They declared their regret when they saw the retribution, and it was judged between them with fairness. They are not wronged.
10:54 And if every soul who wronged had possessed all that is on the earth, it would have attempted to ransom it. And they declared their regret when they saw the retribution, and it was judged between them with fairness. They were not wronged.
10:54 And all human beings that have been doing evil's75 would surely, if they possessed all that is on earth, offer it as ransom [on Judgment Day];76 and when they see the suffering [that awaits them], they will be unable to express their remorse.77 But judgment will be passed on them in all equity; and they will not be wronged.
In this instance, by deliberately giving the lie to the Prophet and rejecting the message of the Qur'an.
Cf. 3:91 and the corresponding note 71.
The primary meaning of the verb asarrahu is "he concealed it" or "he kept it secret"; thus, the phrase asarru 'n-nadamah (expressed in the past tense but in the above context obviously denoting a future event) could be rendered as "they will conceal their remorse". In view, however, of the many statements in the Qur'an that on the Day of Judgment the sinners will not only not conceal but will, rather, stress their remorse, some of the commentators (e.g., Baghawi, on the authority of Abu `Ubaydah) are of the opinion that in this particular verse the verb asarra denotes the opposite of its primary meaning and, accordingly, interpret the phrase as "they will manifest their remorse". But the linguistic validity of this rather forced interpretation has been emphatically contested by many philologists, and particularly by Abu Mansur al-Azhari (cf. Lane IV, 1337); and since there is no convincing reason to disregard the original significance of the verb asarra with its implication of "concealment", the above Qur'anic phrase must be understood (as Zamakhshari understands it), in the metonymical sense of an involuntary "concealment", that is, the sinners' inability to express the full depth of their remorse.
What Price Faith10:54 If any wicked soul possessed everything on earth, it would readily offer it as ransom. They will be ridden with remorse when they see the retribution. They will be judged equitably, without the least injustice.,
10:54 Whoever oppresses people, has wronged his own ‘self’. Even if they possessed everything on earth, they would readily present it as ransom. But they will regret within themselves when they see the doom. They will be judged fairly and no wrong shall be done to them.
10:55 الا ان لله ما فى السماوات والارض الا ان وعد الله حق ولاكن اكثرهم لا يعلمون
10:55 Ala inna lillahi ma feealssamawati waal-ardi alainna waAAda Allahi haqqun walakinnaaktharahum la yaAAlamoona
God's Grace and Mercy10:55 To God is what is in the heavens and the earth. God's promise is true, but most of them do not know.
10:55 To God is what is in the heavens and the earth. The promise of God is true, but most of them do not know.
10:55 Oh, verily, unto God belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth! Oh, verily, God's promise always comes true-but most of them know it not!
10:55 Absolutely, to GOD belongs everything in the heavens and the earth. Absolutely, GOD's promise is truth, but most of them do not know.,
10:55 To God belongs all that is in the heavens and earth. His promise is unwaveringly True but most of them never learn.
10:56 هو يحى ويميت واليه ترجعون
10:56 Huwa yuhyee wayumeetu wa-ilayhiturjaAAoona
10:56 He causes life, and He causes death, and to Him you will return.
10:56 He gives life, and He brings death, and to Him you will return.
10:56 He alone grants life and deals death; and unto Him you all must return.78
Lit., "you shall be brought back" - for, "all that exists goes back to Him [as its source]" (11:123).
10:56 He controls life and death, and to Him you will be returned.,
10:56 He is the One Who gives life and death. You and your actions will be returned to Him.
10:57 ياايها الناس قد جاءتكم موعظة من ربكم وشفاء لما فى الصدور وهدى ورحمة للمؤمنين
10:57 Ya ayyuha alnnasuqad jaatkum mawAAithatun min rabbikum washifaonlima fee alssudoori wahudan warahmatunlilmu/mineena
10:57 O people, advice has come to you from your Lord and a remedy for what is in the chests, and a guidance and mercy for those who acknowledge.10
Some clerics abused the meaning of "cure" in this verse and sold the verses of the Quran as an amulet, or as a drug for their physical problems.
10:57 O people, advice has come to you from your Lord and a healing for what is in the chests, and a guidance and a mercy for the believers.
10:57 O MANKIND! There has now come unto you an admonition from your Sustainer, and a cure for all [the ill] that may be in men's hearts,79 and guidance and grace unto all who believe [in Him].
I.e., a remedy for all that is contrary to truth and moral good.
10:57 O people, enlightenment has come to you herein from your Lord, and healing for anything that troubles your hearts, and guidance, and mercy for the believers.,
10:57 O Mankind! There has now come to you Enlightenment from your Lord, and a healing for all that troubles your hearts; and guidance and grace to all who embrace it.
10:58 قل بفضل الله وبرحمته فبذالك فليفرحوا هو خير مما يجمعون
10:58 Qul bifadli Allahi wabirahmatihifabithalika falyafrahoo huwa khayrun mimmayajmaAAoona
10:58 Say, "By God's grace and His mercy." For that let them rejoice, that is better than all that they gather.
10:58 Say: "By the grace of God and His mercy." For that let them rejoice, that is better than all that they gather.
10:58 Say: "In [this] bounty of God and in His grace-in this, then, let them rejoice: it is better than all [the worldly wealth] that they may amass!"
Joy for the Believers10:58 Say, "With GOD's grace and with His mercy they shall rejoice." This is far better than any wealth they can accumulate.,
10:58 Say, “In this bounty of God and in His grace – in this, then, let them rejoice. It is better than all the treasures that they may amass.”
10:59 قل ارءيتم ما انزل الله لكم من رزق فجعلتم منه حراما وحلالا قل ءالله اذن لكم ام على الله تفترون
10:59 Qul araaytum ma anzala Allahulakum min rizqin fajaAAaltum minhu haraman wahalalanqul allahu athina lakum am AAala Allahitaftaroona
10:59 Say, "Have you seen what God has sent down to you from provisions, then you made some of it forbidden and some lawful?" Say, "Did God authorize you, or did you invent lies against God?"11
Attributing to God man-made prohibitions is considered polytheism, idolatry. According to the Quran, the religious leaders and clerics who commit this crime are the worst enemies of God. For instance, recently, Iranian mullahs prohibited fish with no scales. Some Turkish clerics prohibit lobster, mussel, crab, shrimp and many other excellent sources of nutrition; they attribute their prohibitions to God. See 6:145.
10:59 Say: "Have you seen what God has sent down to you from provisions, then you have made some of it forbidden and some lawful?" Say: "Did God authorize you, or do you invent lies about God?"
10:59 Say: "Have you ever considered all the means of sustenance which God has bestowed upon you from on high80 -and which you thereupon divide into 'things forbidden' and 'things lawful?81 Say: "Has God given you leave [to do this] -or do you, perchance, attribute your own guesswork to God?"
This connects with the statement, in verse 57, that the Qur'an offers to man a complete guidance towards the good life and spiritual fulfilment in this world, and happiness in the life to come. As already mentioned in surah 2, note 4, the term rizq connotes all that may be good and useful to man, be it of a physical nature (in the conventional sense of "means of sustenance") or belonging to the realm of the mind (like reason, knowledge, etc.) or of the spirit (like faith, kindness, patience, etc.). Thus, it applies exclusively to positive, beneficial means of sustenance, and never to things or phenomena which are morally reprehensible and/or physically or socially injurious.
Lit., "and thereupon you have made some of it forbidden (haram) and [some of it] lawful (halal)". The fact that it is God who "has bestowed upon you from on high" (anzala `alaykum)i.e., has willed that man should make use of - all that can be qualified as rizq, automatically makes all its manifestations lawful (Zamakhshari). In accordance with the doctrine that everything which has not been expressly forbidden by the Qur'an or the explicit teachings of the Prophet is eo ipso lawful, this verse takes a clear-cut stand against all arbitrary prohibitions invented by man or artificially "deduced" from the Qur'an or the Prophet's sunnah (Manar XI, 409 f.; see also note 58 on verse 36 of this surah, as well as 5:101 and the corresponding notes). In its wider sense, the above verse relates to people who refuse to be guided by revelation and prefer to "follow nothing but conjecture" (verse 36).
Human-made Dietary Prohibitions10:59 Say, "Did you note how GOD sends down to you all kinds of provisions, then you render some of them unlawful, and some lawful?" Say, "Did GOD give you permission to do this? Or, do you fabricate lies and attribute them to GOD?",
10:59 Say, “Have you considered how God sends down to you all kinds of provisions for your minds and bodies? Then you render some of them unlawful and some lawful?” Say, “Has God permitted you to do this? Or do you invent lies and attribute them to God?”18
The clergy go after manmade dogmas thus tampering with the revealed Word of God and declare unlawful His bounties of sustenance, food, clothes, ornament of life and things of aesthetic beauty such as art. 7:32. See 34:13 how a Prophet of God, Solomon decorates his kingdom with beautiful works of art
10:60 وما ظن الذين يفترون على الله الكذب يوم القيامة ان الله لذو فضل على الناس ولاكن اكثرهم لا يشكرون
10:60 Wama thannu allatheenayaftaroona AAala Allahi alkathiba yawmaalqiyamati inna Allaha lathoo fadlinAAala alnnasi walakinna aktharahum layashkuroona
10:60 What will those who invent lies against God think on the day of Resurrection? God is with great bounty to people, but most of them are not thankful.
10:60 And what will those who invent lies about God think on the Day of Resurrection? God is with great bounty to the people, but most of them are not thankful.
10:60 But what do they think-they who attribute their own lying inventions to God-[what do they think will happen to them]. on the Day of Resurrection? Behold, God is indeed limitless in His bounty unto men -but most of them are ungrateful.
10:60 Does it ever occur to those who fabricate lies about GOD that they will have to face Him on the Day of Resurrection? Certainly, GOD showers the people with His grace, but most of them are unappreciative.,
10:60 Does it ever occur to the people who tamper with religion and invent lies concerning God, that they will have to face Him on the Resurrection Day? God is Infinitely Bountiful toward mankind, but the majority of them do not show gratitude in action (by sharing His bounties with others).
10:61 وما تكون فى شان وما تتلوا منه من قرءان ولا تعملون من عمل الا كنا عليكم شهودا اذ تفيضون فيه وما يعزب عن ربك من مثقال ذرة فى الارض ولا فى السماء ولا اصغر من ذالك ولا اكبر الا فى كتاب مبين
10:61 Wama takoonu fee sha/nin wamatatloo minhu min qur-anin wala taAAmaloona minAAamalin illa kunna AAalaykum shuhoodan ithtufeedoona feehi wama yaAAzubu AAan rabbika minmithqali tharratin fee al-ardi walafee alssama-i wala asghara min thalikawala akbara illa fee kitabin mubeenun
God's Allies10:61 You do not engage in any business, nor do you recite any from the Quran, nor do you do any work; without us being witnesses over you when you undertake it. Nothing is hidden from your Lord, not even an atom’s weight on earth or in the heavens, nor smaller than that nor larger, but is in a clear book.
10:61 And any matter you are in, or any reciting you do of the Qur'an, or any work you do; We are witnesses over you when you undertake it. Nothing is hidden from your Lord, not even the weight of an atom on the earth or in the heavens, nor smaller than that nor larger, except it is in a clear record.
10:61 AND IN whatever condition thou mayest find thyself, [O Prophet,] and whatever discourse of this [divine writ]82 thou mayest be reciting, and whatever work you [all, O men,] may do -[remember that] We are your witness83 [from the moment] when you enter upon it: for, not even an atom's weight [of whatever there is] on earth or in heaven escapes thy Sustainer's knowledge; and neither is there anything smaller than that, or larger, but is recorded in [His] clear decree.
Or: "Whatever discourse (Qur'an) from Him".
Lit., "witnesses", corresponding to the majestic plural "We". The specific reference to the Prophet and his recitation of the Qur'an (implied in the singular form of address in the first part of this sentence) is meant to stress the supreme importance of divine revelation in the context of human life.
Knowing God10:61 You do not get into any situation, nor do you recite any Quran, nor do you do anything, without us being witnesses thereof as you do it. Not even an atom's weight is out of your Lord's control, be it in the heavens or the earth. Nor is there anything smaller than an atom, or larger, that is not recorded in a profound record.,
10:61 In whatever condition you may find yourself (O Prophet), and whatever of the Qur’an you are reciting and preaching, and whatever work or business you believers are occupied with, remember that We are your Witness from the moment you embark upon it. Not an atom's weight in the Low nor in the Height escapes your Lord's knowledge. Nor, a thing smaller or bigger, everything is recorded in a clear Database.19
Smaller than atom: Who could think of electrons and protons in the 7th century!
10:62 الا ان اولياء الله لا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون
10:62 Ala inna awliyaa Allahila khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona
10:62 Indeed, for God's allies, there is no fear over them nor will they grieve;12
The Quran guarantees perfect and eternal happiness for those monotheists who pass certain tests.
10:62 For the allies of God, there is no fear over them nor will they grieve.
10:62 Oh, verily, they who are close to God84 - no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve:
The verb waliya (from which the noun waii, pl. awliya', is derived) signifies, primarily, the nearness or closeness of one thing to another: thus, God is spoken of in the Qur'an (e.g., in 2:257 and 3:68) as being "near unto (waii) those who believe". Although the term waii, when applied to God, as well as to the relationship between one created being and another, is often used in the Qur'an in the sense of "helper", "friend", "protector", "guardian", etc., none of these secondary meanings can properly - i.e., without offending against the reverence due to God - describe man's attitude to, or relationship with, Him. Consequently, the above reference to the believers as awliya' of God is best rendered as "they who are close to God", in the sense of their being always conscious of Him. This rendering has the support of almost all the classical commentators.
Happiness: Now and Forever10:62 Absolutely, GOD's allies have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.5 ,
Most people think that they have to wait until the Day of Resurrection before they receive their rewards for righteousness, or theretribution for wickedness. But the Quran repeatedly assures the believersthat they are guaranteed perfect happiness here in this world, now and forever.At the end of their interim here, they go directly to Paradise (see Appendix 17).
10:62 Remember that friends of God will have nothing to fear nor will they grieve,
10:63 الذين ءامنوا وكانوا يتقون
10:63 Allatheena amanoo wakanooyattaqoona
10:63 Those who acknowledged and were aware.
10:63 Those who have believed and are aware.
10:63 they who have attained to faith and have always been conscious of Him.
10:63 They are those who believe and lead a righteous life.,
10:63 Those who accept the Message and live upright.20
10:64 لهم البشرىا فى الحيواة الدنيا وفى الءاخرة لا تبديل لكلمات الله ذالك هو الفوز العظيم
10:64 Lahumu albushra fee alhayatialddunya wafee al-akhirati latabdeela likalimati Allahi thalika huwaalfawzu alAAatheemu
10:64 For them are glad tidings in the worldly life and in the Hereafter. There is no changing the words of God. Such is the supreme success.
10:64 For them are glad tidings in the worldly life and in the Hereafter. There is no changing the words of God. Such is the great triumph.
10:64 For them there is the glad tiding [of happiness] in the life of this world85 and in the life to come; [and since] nothing could ever alter [the outcome of] God's promises, this, this is the triumph supreme!
Le., the happiness born of the feeling of closeness to God and, hence, of spiritual fulfilment.
10:64 For them, joy and happiness in this world, as well as in the Hereafter. This is GOD's unchangeable law. Such is the greatest triumph.,
10:64 There is good news for them in this world and in the Hereafter. God’s Words never change. This, this is the Supreme Triumph.21
10:65 ولا يحزنك قولهم ان العزة لله جميعا هو السميع العليم
10:65 Wala yahzunka qawluhum innaalAAizzata lillahi jameeAAan huwa alssameeAAualAAaleemu
10:65 Do not be saddened by their statements, for all glory is to God. He is the Hearer, the Knowledgeable.
10:65 And do not be saddened by their speech, for all glory is to God. He is the Hearer, the Knowledgeable.
10:65 And be not grieved by the sayings of those [who deny the truth]. Behold, all might and glory86 belong to God alone: He alone is all-hearing, all-knowing.
The noun `izzah comprises the concepts of superior might as well as of honour and glory. Its rendering into another language depends on the context, and sometimes - as in this case - necessitates a combination of two terms.
10:65 Do not be saddened by their utterances. All power belongs to GOD. He is the Hearer, the Omniscient.,
10:65 Let not their utterances sadden you (O Prophet). To God belongs all honor. He is the Hearer, the Knower.22
No power, glory or honor is attainable contrary to His laws
10:66 الا ان لله من فى السماوات ومن فى الارض وما يتبع الذين يدعون من دون الله شركاء ان يتبعون الا الظن وان هم الا يخرصون
10:66 Ala inna lillahi man fee alssamawatiwaman fee al-ardi wama yattabiAAu allatheenayadAAoona min dooni Allahi shurakaa inyattabiAAoona illa alththanna wa-inhum illa yakhrusoona
10:66 Certainly, to God belongs all who are in the heavens and those who are on earth. As for those who call on partners besides God, they only follow conjecture, and they only guess.
10:66 Certainly, to God belong all who are in the heavens and those who are on the earth. As for those who call on partners besides God, they only follow conjecture, and they only guess.
10:66 OH, VERILY, unto God belongs whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on earth: hence, what is it that they follow-those who invoke, beside God. beings to whom they ascribe a share in His divinity?87 They follow but the conjectures [of others], and themselves do nothing but guess -
Lit., "partners", i.e., of God (see surah 6, note 15). The substantive pronoun man ("whoever") occurring twice in the first part of this verse contains an allusion to rational beings (as distinct from inanimate objects) whom "those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God" consider to be endowed with qualities or powers which, in fact, belong to Him alone. The Qur'an argues against this idolatrous concept by pointing out that all rational beings, whether men or angels, "belong to God" (i.e., are-like everything else in the universe-wholly dependent on Him for their existence), possessing no divine qualities and, therefore, no reality as objects of worship.
10:66 Absolutely, to GOD belongs everyone in the heavens and everyone on earth. Those who set up idols beside GOD are really following nothing. They only think that they are following something. They only guess.,
10:66 To God belongs whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on earth. What do the ones, who worship His ‘partners’ instead of God, follow? They follow nothing but conjecture, and themselves do nothing but make wild guesses.
10:67 هو الذى جعل لكم اليل لتسكنوا فيه والنهار مبصرا ان فى ذالك لءايات لقوم يسمعون
10:67 Huwa allathee jaAAala lakumu allaylalitaskunoo feehi waalnnahara mubsiran innafee thalika laayatin liqawmin yasmaAAoona
10:67 He is the One who made the night for your rest, and the day to see. In that are signs for a people who listen.
10:67 He is the One who made the night for you to reside in, and the day to see. In that are signs for a people who listen.
10:67 [whereas] it is He who has made the night for you, so that you might have rest therein, and the day, to make [you] see88 in this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who [are willing to] listen.
10:67 He is the One who rendered the night for your rest, and rendered the day lighted. These are proofs for people who can hear.,
10:67 He is the One Who made night for you to rest in, and made the day lighted to make things visible to you. These are signs for those who are willing to listen and think.
10:68 قالوا اتخذ الله ولدا سبحانه هو الغنى له ما فى السماوات وما فى الارض ان عندكم من سلطان بهاذا اتقولون على الله ما لا تعلمون
10:68 Qaloo ittakhatha Allahuwaladan subhanahu huwa alghaniyyu lahu ma fee alssamawatiwama fee al-ardi in AAindakum min sultaninbihatha ataqooloona AAala Allahi ma lataAAlamoona
10:68 They said, "God has taken a son." Be He glorified! He is the Rich. To Him is what is in the heavens and what is in the earth. Do you have proof for this? Or do you say about God what you do not know?
10:68 They said: "God has taken a son." Glory be to Him! He is the Rich. To Him is what is in the heavens and the earth. Do you have proof for this? Or do you say about God what you do not know?
10:68 [And yet] they assert, "God has taken unto Himself a son!" Limitless is He in His glory!89 Self-sufficient is He: unto Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth! No evidence whatever have you for this [assertion]! Would you ascribe unto God something which you cannot know?
See surah 2, note 96.
The Gross Blasphemy10:68 They said, "GOD has begotten a son!" Be He glorified. He is the Most Rich. To Him belongs everything in the heavens and everything on earth. You have no proof to support such a blasphemy. Are you saying about GOD what you do not know?,
10:68 And yet they assert, “God has taken to Himself a son!.” Glory to Him! He is Absolutely Independent needing no helpers. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. No evidence whatever you have for this assertion! Would you ascribe to God something you really do not know?
10:69 قل ان الذين يفترون على الله الكذب لا يفلحون
10:69 Qul inna allatheena yaftaroona AAalaAllahi alkathiba la yuflihoona
10:69 Say, "Those who invent lies about God, they will not be successful."
10:69 Say: "Those who invent lies about God, they will not be successful."
10:69 Say: "Verily, they who attribute their own lying inventions to God will never attain to a happy state!"
10:69 Proclaim: "Those who fabricate lies about GOD will never succeed.",
10:69 Say, “Those who attribute their lying inventions to God, will see the crops of their false imagery burning to ashes.”
10:70 متاع فى الدنيا ثم الينا مرجعهم ثم نذيقهم العذاب الشديد بما كانوا يكفرون
10:70 MataAAun fee alddunyathumma ilayna marjiAAuhum thumma nutheequhumu alAAathabaalshshadeeda bima kanoo yakfuroona
Noah10:70 A short pleasure in this world… Then to Us is their return and We will make them taste the severe retribution for what they were rejecting.
10:70 A short pleasure in this world, then to Us is their return and We will make them taste the severe retribution for what they were rejecting.
10:70 [A brief] enjoyment in this world-and thereafter unto Us they must return: and then We shall let them taste suffering severe as an outcome of their persistent denial of the truth.
10:70 They get their temporary share in this world, then to us is their ultimate return, then we commit them to severe retribution for their disbelieving.,
10:70 They get their fleeting share in this world, but then to Us is their return. Our Law of Requital will have them effectively taste a dreadful doom, for they chose to live in the darkness of falsehood.
10:71 واتل عليهم نبا نوح اذ قال لقومه ياقوم ان كان كبر عليكم مقامى وتذكيرى بايات الله فعلى الله توكلت فاجمعوا امركم وشركاءكم ثم لا يكن امركم عليكم غمة ثم اقضوا الى ولا تنظرون
10:71 Waotlu AAalayhim nabaa noohinith qala liqawmihi ya qawmi in kanakabura AAalaykum maqamee watathkeeree bi-ayatiAllahi faAAala Allahi tawakkaltu faajmiAAooamrakum washurakaakum thumma la yakun amrukumAAalaykum ghummatan thumma iqdoo ilayya wala tunthirooni
10:71 Recite for them the news of Noah as he said to his people: "My people, if my position has become too troublesome for you, and my reminding you of God's signs, then in God I place my trust. So, gather your action and your partners together, then make certain your action does not cause you regret, then come to judge me, and do not hold back."
10:71 And recite to them the news of Noah, as he said to his people: "My people, if my station has become too troublesome for you, and my reminding you of the signs of God, then in God I place my trust. So gather your evidence and your partners, then make certain your evidence does not become against you, then come to judge me, and do not hold back."
10:71 AND CONVEY unto them the story of Noah-when he said unto his people: "O my people! If my presence [among you] and my announcement of God's messages are repugnant to you90 -well, in God have I placed my trust. Decide, then, upon what you are going to do [against me],91 and [call to your aid] those beings to whom you ascribe a share in God's divinity;92 and once you have chosen your course of action, let no hesitation deflect you from it;93 and then carry out against me [whatever you may have decided], and give me no respite!
Sc., "because they run counter to the idolatrous beliefs which you have inherited from your ancestors". The story of Noah, briefly mentioned in verses 71-73, is told at greater length in 11:36 (see also 7:59). Here it connects with verse 47 above, and thus with the main theme of this surah: the truth of God's revelation of His will through His prophets, and the suffering which in the life to come is bound to befall those who give the lie to His messages.
Lit., "upon your course of action" (which is the meaning of the term amr in this context).
Lit., "your [God-]partners". For an explanation of this term, see Surah 6, note 15.
This is a free rendering of the elliptic phrase, "and let not your course of action (amrukum) be an uncertainty to you".
Noah10:71 Recite for them the history of Noah. He said to his people, "O my people, if you find my position and my reminding you of GOD's revelations too much for you, then I put my trust in GOD. You should get together with your leaders, agree on a final decision among yourselves, then let me know it without delay.,
10:71 (People have been fabricating falsehood since ancient times.) Relate to them the history of Noah. He said to his people, "O My people! If the stand I have taken and my reminding you of God’s revelations are an offense to you, well, I have put my trust in God. So, get together on a decisive plan, you and your partners. Let your course of action be clear to you. Then pass your sentence on me and give me no respite.”23
Maqaami = My stand = My station = My location
10:72 فان توليتم فما سالتكم من اجر ان اجرى الا على الله وامرت ان اكون من المسلمين
10:72 Fa-in tawallaytum fama saaltukum minajrin in ajriya illa AAala Allahi waomirtuan akoona mina almuslimeena
10:72 "But if you turn away, then I have not asked you for any reward, for my reward is with God. I have been commanded to be of those who have peacefully surrendered."
10:72 "But if you turn away, then I have not asked you for any wage, for my wage is with God. And I have been commanded to be of those who have submitted."
10:72 But if you turn away [from the message which I bear, remember that] I have asked no reward whatever of you: my reward rests with none but God, for I have been bidden to be among those who have surrendered themselves unto Him."
10:72 "If you turn away, then I have not asked you for any wage. My wage comes from GOD. I have been commanded to be a submitter.",
10:72 But if you turn away, I have asked of you no wage. My wage is with none but God. And I am commanded to be of those who submit (to Him).”
10:73 فكذبوه فنجيناه ومن معه فى الفلك وجعلناهم خلائف واغرقنا الذين كذبوا باياتنا فانظر كيف كان عاقبة المنذرين
10:73 Fakaththaboohu fanajjaynahuwaman maAAahu fee alfulki wajaAAalnahum khala-ifawaaghraqna allatheena kaththaboo bi-ayatinafaonthur kayfa kana AAaqibatualmunthareena
10:73 They denied him, so We saved him and those with him in the Ship, and We made them to succeed each other, and We drowned those who denied Our signs. So see how the punishment of those who were warned was!
10:73 They denied him, so We saved him and those with him in the ship, and We made them successors, and We drowned those who denied Our revelations. So see how was the punishment of those who were warned!
10:73 And yet they gave him the lie! And so We saved him and all who stood by him, in the ark, and made them inherit [the earth],94 the while We caused those who gave the lie to Our messages to drown:95 behold, then, what happened in the end to those people who had been warned [in vain]!
Le., "made them outlive [the others]" (Zamakhshari). As regards the allegorical rendering of khala'if (sing. khalif or khalifah) adopted by me, see Surah 2, note 22.
See surah 7, note 47.
10:73 They rejected him and, consequently, we saved him and those who joined him in the ark; we made them the inheritors. And we drowned those who rejected our revelations. Note the consequences; they have been warned.,
10:73 But they persisted in their denial, and We saved Noah and his companions who boarded the ship, and made them successors in the land. And We drowned those who had rejected Our messages. See then what happened to those who had been given sufficient warning.24
The deniers thought of the flood warning as a laughing matter. The Tigris and Euphrates had flooded with torrential rains
10:74 ثم بعثنا من بعده رسلا الىا قومهم فجاءوهم بالبينات فما كانوا ليؤمنوا بما كذبوا به من قبل كذالك نطبع علىا قلوب المعتدين
10:74 Thumma baAAathna min baAAdihi rusulanila qawmihim fajaoohum bialbayyinatifama kanoo liyu/minoo bima kaththaboobihi min qablu kathalika natbaAAu AAalaquloobi almuAAtadeena
Moses and Aaron Against A Racist Tyrant10:74 Then, We sent messengers after him to their own people, so they came to them with proofs. But they did not want to acknowledge what they had already denied beforehand. It is such that We stamp on the hearts of the transgressors.
10:74 Then, after him, We sent messengers to their own people, so they came to them with proofs. But they did not want to believe in what they had already denied beforehand. Thus it is We stamp upon the hearts of the transgressors.
10:74 AND THEN, after him, We sent forth [other] apostles-each one unto his own people96 -and they brought them all evidence of the truth; but they would not believe in anything to which they had once given the lie:97 thus it is that We seal the hearts of such as [are wont to] transgress the bounds of what is right.98
Lit., "We sent apostles to their [own] people"-an allusion to the fact that each of the apostles before Muhammad was sent to one particular people or community, and that the Arabian Prophet was the first and the last to bring a universal message addressed to all mankind
Cf. 7:101 and the corresponding note 82.
See Surah 2, note 7.
Humans Insist on Their Original Sin10:74 Then we sent after him messengers to their people, and they showed them clear proofs. But they were not to believe in what they had rejected in the past. We thus seal the hearts of the transgressors.,
10:74 Then after him We sent many Messengers to their respective people and they brought them clear evidence of the truth. (They preemptively rejected the message.) And they were not the kind of people who would choose to believe what they had denied before. Thus We (through Our laws) seal the hearts of the transgressors.25
Mu’tadeen = Those who cross limits = Cross all bounds = Given to excesses = Transgressors = Who go beyond reason
10:75 ثم بعثنا من بعدهم موسىا وهارون الىا فرعون وملايه باياتنا فاستكبروا وكانوا قوما مجرمين
10:75 Thumma baAAathna min baAAdihim moosawaharoona ila firAAawna wamala-ihi bi-ayatinafaistakbaroo wakanoo qawman mujrimeena
10:75 Then, We sent Moses and Aaron after them with Our signs to Pharaoh and his entourage, but they turned arrogant, they were a criminal people.
10:75 Then, after them, We sent Moses and Aaron with Our signs to Pharaoh and his leaders, but they turned arrogant, they were a criminal people.
10:75 And after those [earlier prophets] We sent Moses and Aaron with Our messages unto Pharaoh and his great ones: but they gloried in their arrogance, for they were people lost in sin.
Moses and Aaron10:75 Then we sent after them Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh and his group, with our proofs. But they turned arrogant; and were transgressing people.,
10:75 Then, after them, We sent Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh and his chiefs, with Our messages. But they were a people arrogant and they were used to thriving on the fruit of others’ toil.
10:76 فلما جاءهم الحق من عندنا قالوا ان هاذا لسحر مبين
10:76 Falamma jaahumu alhaqqumin AAindina qaloo inna hatha lasihrunmubeenun
10:76 So when the truth came to them from Us, they said, "This is clearly magic!"
10:76 So when the truth came to them from Us, they said: "This is clearly magic!"
10:76 And so, when the truth came to them from Us, they said, "Behold, this is clearly nothing but sorcery!"99
Lit., "this is indeed obvious sorcery": an accusation which apparently refers to the spellbinding force of the messages conveyed to them by Moses, similar to the objections raised against the Last Prophet, Muhammad. (See verse 2 of this surah and the corresponding note 5).
10:76 When the truth came to them from us, they said, "This is obviously magic!",
10:76 When the truth from Us came to them, they said, "This is clearly nothing but magic.”
10:77 قال موسىا اتقولون للحق لما جاءكم اسحر هاذا ولا يفلح الساحرون
10:77 Qala moosa ataqooloona lilhaqqilamma jaakum asihrun hatha walayuflihu alssahiroona
10:77 Moses said, "Would you say this about the truth when it came to you? Is this magic? The magicians will not be successful."
10:77 Moses said: "Would you say this about the truth when it came to you? Is this magic? The magicians will not be successful."
10:77 Said Moses: "Do you speak thus of the truth after it has been brought to you? Can this be sorcery? But sorcerers can never come to a happy end!"100
The implication is that what is termed "sorcery" cannot achieve more than ephemeral phenomena lacking any spiritual content, and can never prevail against the laws of nature which, in their totality, are described in the Qur'an as "the way of God". The story of Moses and the sorcerers and the tatters' subsequent conversion is told in greater detail in Al-A'raf and Ta Ha, both of which were revealed before the present surah.
10:77 Moses said, "Is this how you describe the truth when it comes to you? Is this magic? How can any magicians prevail?",
10:77 Moses said, “Is this what you say about the truth when it has come to you! Is this magic? Those who deceive people with lies and claims of magic, never prosper.”
10:78 قالوا اجئتنا لتلفتنا عما وجدنا عليه ءاباءنا وتكون لكما الكبرياء فى الارض وما نحن لكما بمؤمنين
10:78 Qaloo aji/tana litalfitanaAAamma wajadna AAalayhi abaanawatakoona lakuma alkibriyao fee al-ardi wamanahnu lakuma bimu/mineena
10:78 They said, "Have you come to us to turn us away from what we found our fathers upon, and so that you two would have greatness in the land? We will not acknowledge you."
10:78 They said: "Have you come to us to turn us away from that which we found our fathers upon, and so that you two would have greatness in the land? We will not believe in you."
10:78 [The great ones] replied: "Hast thou come to turn us away from what we found our forefathers believing in and doing, so that the two of you might become supreme in this land? However, we do not believe in you two!"101
The dual address "you two" relates to Moses and his brother Aaron.
10:78 They said, "Did you come to divert us from what we found our parents doing, and to attain positions of prominence for yourselves? We will never join you as believers.",
10:78 They said, "Have you come to turn us away from what we found our fathers doing, so that you two become prominent in the country? We will not believe in you two."
10:79 وقال فرعون ائتونى بكل ساحر عليم
10:79 Waqala firAAawnu i/toonee bikulli sahirinAAaleemin
10:79 Pharaoh said, "Bring me every knowledgeable magician."
10:79 And Pharaoh said: "Bring me every knowledgeable magician."
10:79 And Pharaoh commanded: "Bring before me every sorcerer of great knowledge!"
The Truth Prevails10:79 Pharaoh said, "Bring to me every experienced magician.",
10:79 Pharaoh said, "Bring all eloquent debaters to me."
10:80 فلما جاء السحرة قال لهم موسىا القوا ما انتم ملقون
10:80 Falamma jaa alssaharatuqala lahum moosa alqoo ma antum mulqoona
10:80 When the magicians came, Moses said to them: "Cast what you will cast."
10:80 So, when the magicians came, Moses said to them: "Cast what you will cast."
10:80 And when the sorcerers came, Moses said unto them: "Throw whatever you may [wish to] throw!"
10:80 When the magicians came, Moses said to them, "Throw whatever you are going to throw.",
10:80 And when they came, Moses said to them, “Begin with your presentation."
10:81 فلما القوا قال موسىا ما جئتم به السحر ان الله سيبطله ان الله لا يصلح عمل المفسدين
10:81 Falamma alqaw qala moosama ji/tum bihi alssihru inna Allahasayubtiluhu inna Allaha la yuslihuAAamala almufsideena
10:81 So when they cast, Moses said, "What you have brought is magic, God will falsify it. God does not set right the work of the corrupters."13
For the definition of magic, see 7:116.
10:81 So when they cast, Moses said: "What you have brought is magic, God will disable it. God does not set right the works of the corrupters."
10:81 And when they threw down [their staffs and cast a spell upon the people's eyes102 ], Moses said unto them: "What you have contrived is [but] sorcery which, verily, God will bring to nought! Verily, God does not further the works of spreaders of corruption -
10:81 When they threw, Moses said, "What you have produced is magic, and GOD will make it fail. GOD does not support the transgressors' work.",
10:81 When they finished with their arguments, Moses said, “Your reasoning is totally flawed. God proves it false through His laws. God will annihilate the political and social systems that promote corruption, disorder and bloody feuds.
10:82 ويحق الله الحق بكلماته ولو كره المجرمون
10:82 Wayuhiqqu Allahu alhaqqabikalimatihi walaw kariha almujrimoona
10:82 "So that God will verify the truth with His words, even if the criminals dislike it."
10:82 "And so that God will set the truth with His words, even if the criminals hate it."
10:82 whereas by His words God proves the truth to be true,103 however hateful this may be to those who are lost in sin!"
10:82 GOD establishes the truth with His words, despite the criminals.,
10:82 God will always vindicate the truth by His laws, even though the guilty may hate it.26
Societies will flourish only when they embrace the Permanent Value System. The guilty that are used to thriving on the toil of others, will hate equity
10:83 فما ءامن لموسىا الا ذرية من قومه علىا خوف من فرعون وملايهم ان يفتنهم وان فرعون لعال فى الارض وانه لمن المسرفين
10:83 Fama amana limoosa illathurriyyatun min qawmihi AAala khawfin minfirAAawna wamala-ihim an yaftinahum wa-inna firAAawna laAAalinfee al-ardi wa-innahu lamina almusrifeena
10:83 Because of their fear from Pharaoh and his entourage that he would persecute them, none acknowledged Moses from his people except some of their descendants. Pharaoh was high in the land, and he was of the tyrants.14
The word musrifin means "the transgressors," or "those who exceed the limits." Considering the context here, it is best translated as a single word, "tyrant" or "despot."
10:83 But none believed in Moses from his people except some from their descendants, because of their fear from Pharaoh and his commanders that he would persecute them. Pharaoh was high in the land, and he was of the tyrants.
10:83 But none save a few of his people declared their faith in Moses,104 [while others held back] for fear of Pharaoh and their great ones, lest they persecute them:105 for, verily, Pharaoh was mighty on earth and was, verily, of those who are given to excesses.
Lit., "believed in Moses"; however, since the sequence shows that not belief as such but its open profession is referred to here, I have rendered the above phrase accordingly. As for the term dhurriyyah (lit., "offspring"), we have several authoritative statements to the effect that it often denotes "a small group [or "a few"] of one's people" (Ibn `Abbas, as quoted by Tabari, Baghawi, Razi and Ibn Kathir, as well as Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah, as quoted by Tabari and Ibn Kathir); hence my rendering. Since the Qur'an mentions (e.g., in 7:120) that some Egyptians, too, came to believe in Moses' message and openly proclaimed their belief, it is reasonable to assume that by "his people" are meant not merely the Israelites but, more generally, the people among whom Moses was living: that is, both Israelites and Egyptians. This assumption is strengthened by the reference, in the next clause of this sentence, to "their great ones" - an expression obviously relating to the Egyptian "great ones":
If the expression `aia khawf is taken to mean "despite [their] fear" (referring to those who did declare their faith openly), the above sentence would read thus: ". . . a few of his people declared their faith in Moses despite their fear that Pharaoh and their great ones would persecute them" -implying, as does the rendering adopted by me, that, because of their fear, the majority did not declare their faith openly.
10:83 None believed with Moses except a few of his people, while fearing the tyranny of Pharaoh and his elders. Surely, Pharaoh was much too arrogant on earth, and a real tyrant.,
10:83 Only a few of the Egyptians, some youngsters, could proclaim belief in Moses because of the fear of Pharaoh and his chiefs. Pharaoh was a most arrogant tyrant on earth. He used to exceed the limits.
10:84 وقال موسىا ياقوم ان كنتم ءامنتم بالله فعليه توكلوا ان كنتم مسلمين
10:84 Waqala moosa ya qawmiin kuntum amantum biAllahi faAAalayhitawakkaloo in kuntum muslimeena
10:84 Moses said, "O my people, if you acknowledge God, then put your trust in Him if you have peacefully surrendered."
10:84 And Moses said: "O my people, if you believe in God, then put your trust in Him if you have submitted."
10:84 And Moses said: "O my people! If you believe in God, place your trust in Him -if you have [truly] surrendered yourselves unto Him!"
10:84 Moses said, "O my people, if you have really believed in GOD, then put your trust in Him, if you are really submitters.",
10:84 Moses said, “O My people! If you do believe in God, then place your trust in Him – if you have truly surrendered to Him.
10:85 فقالوا على الله توكلنا ربنا لا تجعلنا فتنة للقوم الظالمين
10:85 Faqaloo AAala Allahitawakkalna rabbana la tajAAalnafitnatan lilqawmi alththalimeena
10:85 They said, "In God we put our trust. Our Lord, do not make us a test for the wicked people."
10:85 They said: "In God we put our trust. Our Lord, do not make us a test for the wicked people."
10:85 Whereupon they answered: "In God have we placed our trust! O our Sustainer, make us not a plaything106 for evildoing folk,
Lit., "temptation to evil" (fitnah).
10:85 They said, "We trust in GOD. Our Lord, save us from the persecution of these oppressive people.,
10:85 They responded, "In God we have put our trust. Our Lord! Make us not a temptation for the oppressors.”
10:86 ونجنا برحمتك من القوم الكافرين
10:86 Wanajjina birahmatika minaalqawmi alkafireena
10:86 "Save us by Your mercy from the rejecting people."
10:86 "And save us by Your mercy from the rejecting people."
10:86 and save us, by Thy grace, from people who deny the truth!"
10:86 "Deliver us, with Your mercy, from the disbelieving people.",
10:86 “Save us by Your grace from people who oppose the truth.”
10:87 واوحينا الىا موسىا واخيه ان تبوءا لقومكما بمصر بيوتا واجعلوا بيوتكم قبلة واقيموا الصلواة وبشر المؤمنين
10:87 Waawhayna ila moosawaakheehi an tabawwaa liqawmikuma bimisrabuyootan waijAAaloo buyootakum qiblatan waaqeemoo alssalatawabashshiri almu/mineena
10:87 We inspired to Moses and his brother: "Let your people leave their homes in Egypt, and let these homes be your focal point and hold the contact prayer. Give good news to those who acknowledge."
10:87 And We inspired to Moses and his brother: "You shall seek out homes for your people in Egypt; and leave your homes to be a focal point, and hold the contact prayer. And give good news to the believers."
10:87 And [thus] did We inspire Moses and his brother: "Set aside for your people some houses in the city, and [tell them], `Turn your houses into places of worship,107 and be constant in prayer!' And give thou [O Moses] the glad tiding [of God's succour] to all believers."
Lit., "a direction of prayer" (qiblah)-a metaphor meant to impress upon the children of Israel that their only salvation lay in God-consciousness and unceasing devotion to Him. The primary meaning of misr - usually rendered as "Egypt" - is "city" or "metropolis".
10:87 We inspired Moses and his brother. "Maintain your homes in Egypt for the time being, turn your homes into synagogues, and maintain the Contact Prayers (Salat). Give good news to the believers.",
10:87 We revealed to Moses and his brother, “Tell your people: Maintain your homes in Egypt, and turn them into centers of devotion and training. Establish the commandments in your lives and give good news to the believers.”
10:88 وقال موسىا ربنا انك ءاتيت فرعون وملاه زينة واموالا فى الحيواة الدنيا ربنا ليضلوا عن سبيلك ربنا اطمس علىا اموالهم واشدد علىا قلوبهم فلا يؤمنوا حتىا يروا العذاب الاليم
10:88 Waqala moosa rabbanainnaka atayta firAAawna wamalaahu zeenatan waamwalanfee alhayati alddunya rabbanaliyudilloo AAan sabeelika rabbana itmis AAalaamwalihim waoshdud AAala quloobihim falayu/minoo hatta yarawoo alAAathaba al-aleema
10:88 Moses said, "Our Lord, you have given Pharaoh and his entourage adornments and wealth in this worldly life so that they will misguide from Your path. Our Lord, wipe-out their wealth and bring grief to their hearts so that they will not acknowledge until they see the painful retribution."15
Those who are subjected to injustice are excused if they ask for divine punishment or use bad words. See 4:148.
10:88 And Moses said: "Our Lord, you have given Pharaoh and his commanders adornments and wealth in this worldly life so that they will misguide from Your path. Our Lord, wipe out their wealth and bring grief to their hearts; for they will not believe until they see the painful retribution."
10:88 And Moses prayed: "O our Sustainer! Verily, splendour and riches hast Thou vouchsafed, in the life of this world, unto Pharaoh and his great ones-with the result, O our Sustainer, that they are leading [others] astray from Thy path!108 O our Sustainer! Wipe out their riches, and harden their hearts, so that they may not attain to faith ere they see the grievous suffering [that awaits them]!"
According to most of the classical commentators, the particle li prefixed to the verb yudillu ("they are leading astray") represents in this context the so-called lam al-'aqibah ("the [letter] lam denoting a consequence") and does not, as in many other instances, express a purpose or an intent ("in order that" or "to the end that"). My rendering of this li as "with the result that" is meant to bring out Moses' moral indignation at the perversity of Pharaoh and his great ones who, instead of being grateful to God for His bounty, are using their power to corrupt their own people.
10:88 Moses said, "Our Lord, you have given Pharaoh and his elders luxuries and wealth in this world. Our Lord, they only use them to repulse others from Your path. Our Lord, wipe out their wealth, and harden their hearts to prevent them from believing, until they see the painful retribution.",
10:88 (Moses promised to proceed on these lines.) He prayed, “Our Lord! You have given Pharaoh and his chiefs a life of luxury and abundance. Our Lord! With their resources and might they continue with their oppression and lead people astray from Your path. Our Lord! Destroy their riches and make their faculties incapable of contriving their oppressive designs. They will not see the truth unless they face an awful suffering.”
10:89 قال قد اجيبت دعوتكما فاستقيما ولا تتبعان سبيل الذين لا يعلمون
10:89 Qala qad ojeebat daAAwatukumafaistaqeema wala tattabiAAannisabeela allatheena la yaAAlamoona
10:89 He said, "The prayer of both of you has been accepted, so keep straight and do not follow the path of those who do not know."
10:89 He said: "Your call has been responded to, so keep straight and do not follow the path of those who do not know."
10:89 [God] answered: "Accepted is this your prayer!109 Continue, then, both of you, steadfastly on the right way, and follow not the path of those who have no knowledge [of right and wrong]."
Lit., "the prayer of you two", i.e., Moses and Aaron, both of whom are addressed in the next sentence as well.
10:89 He said, "Your prayer has been answered (O Moses and Aaron), so be steadfast, and do not follow the ways of those who do not know.",
10:89 God said, "Your prayer is heard. Both of you shall remain determined. And you shall not follow the path of those who act without comprehending." [20:36, 20:42]
10:90 وجاوزنا ببنى اسراءيل البحر فاتبعهم فرعون وجنوده بغيا وعدوا حتىا اذا ادركه الغرق قال ءامنت انه لا الاه الا الذى ءامنت به بنوا اسراءيل وانا من المسلمين
10:90 Wajawazna bibanee isra-eelaalbahra faatbaAAahum firAAawnu wajunooduhu baghyanwaAAadwan hatta itha adrakahu algharaqu qalaamantu annahu la ilaha illa allatheeamanat bihi banoo isra-eela waana minaalmuslimeena
10:90 We helped the Children of Israel cross the sea, and Pharaoh and his soldiers followed them out of hatred and animosity. But when drowning overtook him, he said, "I acknowledge that there is no god except the One in whom the Children of Israel acknowledge, and I am of those who have peacefully surrendered."
10:90 And We helped the Children of Israel cross the sea, and Pharaoh and his soldiers followed them out of hatred and animosity. But when he was certain to drown, he said: "I believe that there is no god except the One in whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am of those who have submitted."
10:90 And We brought the children of Israel across the sea; and thereupon Pharaoh and his hosts pursued them with vehement insolence and tyranny, until [they were overwhelmed by the waters of the sea. And] when he was about to drown, [Pharaoh] exclaimed:110 "I have come to believe that there is no deity save Him in whom the children of Israel believe, and I am of those who surrender themselves unto Him!"
Lit., "until, when drowning overtook him, he said". For the full story of Moses and Pharaoh, the latter's tyrannical oppression of the Israelites and their ultimate deliverance, see Exodus i-xiv, and especially (with reference to the above Qur'an-verse), ch. xiv, which narrates in great detail the miraculous escape of the Israelites and the doom of Pharaoh and his forces. It should always be remembered that all Qur'anic references to historical or legendary events whether described in the Bible or in the oral tradition of pre-Islamic Arabia-are invariably meant to elucidate a particular lesson in ethics and not to narrate a story as such: and this explains the fragmentary character of these references and allusions.
10:90 We delivered the Children of Israel across the sea. Pharaoh and his troops pursued them, aggressively and sinfully. When drowning became a reality for him, he said, "I believe that there is no god except the One in whom the Children of Israel have believed; I am a submitter.",
10:90 We brought the Children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh with his armies pursued them in rage and bitter enmity. When Pharaoh was drowning, he cried out, "I believe that there is no god but the One in Whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am of those who surrender.”
10:91 ءالان وقد عصيت قبل وكنت من المفسدين
10:91 Al-ana waqad AAasaytaqablu wakunta mina almufsideena
10:91 Right now? But before you disobeyed and were of the corrupters!
10:91 "Now you say this? While before you disobeyed and were of the corrupters!"
10:91 [But God said:] "Now?111 -when ever before this thou hast been rebelling [against Us], and hast been among those who spread corruption?
Le., "Dost thou repent now, when it is too late?" Cf. 4:18 - "repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour, and then say, `Behold, I now repent'."
10:91 "Too late! For you have rebelled already, and chose to be a transgressor.,6
Believing in God is the first step. Thereafter, one needs to nourish and develop the soul through the practices of worship (see Appendix 15).
10:91 What? Now! You rebelled ardently all your life. And you committed bloody crimes and spread inequities on earth.27
‘Fasaad’, see glossary
10:92 فاليوم ننجيك ببدنك لتكون لمن خلفك ءاية وان كثيرا من الناس عن ءاياتنا لغافلون
10:92 Faalyawma nunajjeeka bibadanikalitakoona liman khalfaka ayatan wa-inna katheeran mina alnnasiAAan ayatina laghafiloona
10:92 This day, We will preserve your body, so that you become a sign for those after you. But many people are oblivious to Our signs!16
God preserved the bodies of the Pharaohs by giving them the special knowledge of mummification.
10:92 "This day, We will preserve your body, so that you become a sign for those after you." But most of the people are unaware of Our signs!
10:92 [Nay,] but today We shall save only thy body,112 so that thou mayest be a [warning] sign unto those who will come after thee: for, behold, a good many people are heedless of Our messages!"113
Lit., "We shall save thee in thy body": probably an allusion to the ancient Egyptian custom of embalming the bodies of their kings and nobles and thus preserving them for posterity. Some Egyptologists assume that the "evil Pharaoh" of the Qur'an and the Bible was Ramses II (about 1324-1258 B.C.), while others identify him with his unlucky predecessor, Tut-ankh-amen, or even with Thotmes (or Thutmosis) III, who lived in the 15th century B.C. However, all these "identifications" are purely speculative and have no definitive historical value. In this connection it should be remembered that the designation "Pharaoh" (fir'awn in Arabic) is not a proper name but a title borne by all the kings of ancient Egypt.
Lit., "We settled the children of Israel in an abode of excellence"- which latter term, according to almost all commentators, conveys the meaning of sidq in this context.
Pharaoh's Body Preserved10:92 "Today, we will preserve your body, to set you up as a lesson for future generations." Unfortunately, many people are totally oblivious to our signs.7 ,
God endowed the Egyptians with the exclusive knowledge of mummification.Today, Pharaoh's mummified body is on display at the Cairo Museum.
10:92 Nay, but this day We will preserve your body so that you may remain a lesson for generations to come. A great many of mankind remain heedless of Our signs.28
The Pharaoh’s body was only discovered during the excavations of 1898. Today it is on display in the Royal Mummies Chamber of the Egyptian Museum
10:93 ولقد بوانا بنى اسراءيل مبوا صدق ورزقناهم من الطيبات فما اختلفوا حتىا جاءهم العلم ان ربك يقضى بينهم يوم القيامة فيما كانوا فيه يختلفون
10:93 Walaqad bawwa/na banee isra-eelamubawwaa sidqin warazaqnahum mina alttayyibatifama ikhtalafoo hatta jaahumualAAilmu inna rabbaka yaqdee baynahum yawma alqiyamatifeema kanoo feehi yakhtalifoona
10:93 We helped the Children of Israel reach a place of sanctity, and We provided them from the good things, and they did not differ until the knowledge came to them. Your Lord will judge between them on the day of Resurrection for what they differed in.
10:93 And We helped the Children of Israel reach a place of sanctity, and We provided them from the good things, and they did not differ until the knowledge came to them. Your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection for what they differed in.
10:93 And [thereafter], indeed, We assigned unto the children of Israel a most goodly abode,114 and provided for them sustenance out of the good things of life. And it was not until knowledge [of God's revelation] was vouchsafed to them that they began to hold divergent views: [but,] verily, thy Sustainer will judge between them on Resurrection Day regarding all on which they were wont to differ.*
Commenting on this verse, Razi says: "The people of Moses remained of one religious persuasion (`ala millah wahidah) and of one opinion, without any disagreement, until they began to study the Torah: whereupon they became aware of the [various] problems and obligations involved, and disagreements [regarding their interpretation] arose among them. And so God makes it clear [in the above Qur'an-verse] that this kind of disagreement is inevitable (la-budd) and will always occur in the life of this world." Razi's penetrating psychological comment is in tune with the oft-repeated Qur'anic statement that proneness to intellectual dissension is a permanent characteristic of human nature (see the last sentences of 2:213 and 253, respectively, as well as the corresponding notes; also 23:53 and note 30).
10:93 We have endowed the Children of Israel with a position of honor, and blessed them with good provisions. Yet, they disputed when this knowledge came to them. Your Lord will judge them on the Day of Resurrection regarding everything they disputed.,
10:93 Thereafter, We assigned to the Children of Israel an honorable dwelling place, and gave them decent provision. But they began to hold divergent views and divided themselves despite the knowledge (of revelation). Your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection regarding wherein they differed.
10:94 فان كنت فى شك مما انزلنا اليك فسل الذين يقرءون الكتاب من قبلك لقد جاءك الحق من ربك فلا تكونن من الممترين
10:94 Fa-in kunta fee shakkin mimma anzalnnailayka fais-ali allatheena yaqraoona alkitabamin qablika laqad jaaka alhaqqu min rabbika falatakoonanna mina almumtareena
When In Doubt, Question and Study10:94 If you are in doubt regarding what We have sent down to you, then ask those who have been studying the book from before you. The truth has come to you from your Lord, so do not be of those who doubt.
10:94 If you are in doubt regarding what We have sent down to you, then ask those who have been reading the Book from before you. The truth has come to you from your Lord, so do not be of those who doubt.
10:94 AND SO, [O man,] if thou art in doubt about [the truth of] what We have [now] bestowed upon thee from on high,115 ask those who read the divine writ [revealed] before thy time:116 [and thou wilt find that,] surely, the truth has now come unto thee from thy Sustainer. Be not, then, among the doubters -
Some of the commentators assume that verses 94 and 95 are addressed to the Prophet Muhammad -an assumption which is highly implausible in view of the admonition (in verse 95), "Be not among those who are bent on giving the lie to God's messages": for it is obvious that God's chosen Prophet was never in danger of falling into such a sin. Consequently, Razi interprets these two verses as being addressed to man in general, and explains the reference to "what We have bestowed upon thee from on high" in the sense given in my rendering. This interpretation makes it clear, moreover, that the above passage is closely connected with verses 57-58, which speak of the guidance vouchsafed to mankind through the ultimate divine writ, the Qur'an.
I.e., the Jews and the Christians. The "reading" is here a metonym for belief, namely, in the Bible, which-notwithstanding the fact that its text has been corrupted in the course of time-still contains clear references to the advent of the Prophet Muhammad and thus, by implication, to the truth of the divine message revealed through him. In its wider sense, the above verse alludes to the unbroken continuity of man's religious experience and to the fact, frequently stressed in the Qur'an, that every one of God's apostles preached one and the same basic truth. (See in this connection the second paragraph of 5:48 and the corresponding notes 66 and 67.)
The Messenger's Doubt10:94 If you have any doubt regarding what is revealed to you from your Lord, then ask those who read the previous scripture. Indeed, the truth has come to you from your Lord. Do not be with the doubters.,
10:94 (O Reader!) If you carry any doubts about what We have sent to you, ask those who have been reading the scripture before you. Indeed, the truth has come to you from your Lord. Do not be of those who waver.29
Bible readers will confirm many facts given about them in the Qur’an
10:95 ولا تكونن من الذين كذبوا بايات الله فتكون من الخاسرين
10:95 Wala takoonanna mina allatheenakaththaboo bi-ayati Allahi fatakoonamina alkhasireena
10:95 Do not be of those who denied God's signs, for you will be of the losers.
10:95 And do not be of those who have denied the revelations of God, for you will be of the losers.
10:95 and neither be among those who are bent on giving the lie to God's messages, lest thou find thyself among the lost.
10:95 Nor shall you join those who rejected GOD's revelations, lest you be with the losers.,
10:95 (Those who consider Divine revelations as intrinsic inspiration or intuition, in fact deny them.) Be not of those who deny Our revelations and become losers.
10:96 ان الذين حقت عليهم كلمت ربك لا يؤمنون
10:96 Inna allatheena haqqatAAalayhim kalimatu rabbika la yu/minoona
10:96 Those who deserved your Lord's word against them do not acknowledge,
10:96 Those who have deserved the retribution of your Lord do not believe.
10:96 Verily, they against whom thy Sustainer's word [of judgment] has come true117 will not attain to faith -
See verse 33 and note 53 above; also note 4 on 14:4.
10:96 Surely, those condemned by a decree from your Lord cannot believe.,
10:97 ولو جاءتهم كل ءاية حتىا يروا العذاب الاليم
10:97 Walaw jaat-hum kullu ayatin hattayarawoo alAAathaba al-aleema
10:97 Even if every sign were to come to them; until they see the painful retribution.
10:97 Even if every sign were to come to them; until they see the painful retribution.
10:97 even though every sign [of the truth] should come within their ken - until they behold the grievous suffering [that awaits them in the life to come].118
Sc., "when belief will be of no avail to them": an allusion to verses 90-91, which speak of Pharaoh's "conversion" at the point of death. Cf. also 4:17.
10:97 No matter what kind of proof you show them, (they cannot believe), until they see the painful retribution.,
10:97 Though every evidence may come to them, until they see the painful doom.
10:98 فلولا كانت قرية ءامنت فنفعها ايمانها الا قوم يونس لما ءامنوا كشفنا عنهم عذاب الخزى فى الحيواة الدنيا ومتعناهم الىا حين
10:98 Falawla kanat qaryatun amanatfanafaAAaha eemanuha illa qawmayoonusa lamma amanoo kashafna AAanhum AAathabaalkhizyi fee alhayati alddunyawamattaAAnahum ila heenin
Appreciation of God's Signs and Blessings Brings Prosperity10:98 Why was there not a single town that benefited from its acknowledgement, with the exception of the people of Jonah? When they acknowledged, We removed from them the retribution of disgrace in this worldly life, and We let them enjoy until a time.
10:98 If there was any town that benefited from its belief, then that was the people of Jonah. When they believed, We removed from them the retribution of disgrace in this worldly life, and We let them enjoy until a time.
10:98 For, alas,119 there has never yet been any community that attained to faith [in its entirety,] and thereupon benefited by its faith, except the people of Jonah.120 When they came to believe, We removed from them the suffering of disgrace [which otherwise would have befallen them even] in the life of this world, and allowed them to enjoy their life during the time allotted to them.121
The particle law-la ("were it not that" or "were it not for") is sometimes synonymous with hal-la, and could therefore be translated as "why not" ("why was there not... ?", etc.). However, neither the interrogative nor the above-mentioned literal rendering would bring out the purport of this passage. Its meaning becomes obvious only if we remember that law-la is-apart from its primary significance-one of the so-called hunuf at-tahdid ("particles denoting insistence"). Whenever it is followed by a verb in the future tense, it expresses an urgent exhortation to do a thing; if followed by a verb in the past tense, as in the above case, it implies reproof for one's not having done something that should have been done. There is no idiomatic equivalent in modern English to convey this meaning. The nearest approach to it would be, I believe, the archaic exclamation "alack", expressive of deep sorrow or reproach; but the use of this expression (probably a compound of "ah! lack!"-i.e., loss or misfortune) is ruled out by its obsoleteness. Consequently, I am constrained to employ the more current interjection "alas", despite the fact that it does not possess the intensity of the ancient "alack". At any rate, the reader must bear in mind that the passage under consideration, although seemingly phrased in a conditional or an interrogatory form, implies a positive statement: namely-as has been stressed by several classical commentators, and most explicitly by Tabari-the statement that "there has never yet been...", etc.
The Qur'an points out in many places that no prophet has ever been immediately accepted as such and followed by all of his people, and that many a community perished in result of the stubborn refusal, by the majority of its members, to listen to the divine message. The only exception in this respect is said to have been the people of Nineveh, who-after having at first rejected their prophet Jonah, so that "he went off in wrath" (cf. 21:87) - later responded to his call in unison, and were saved. For the story of Jonah, see 21:87 and 37:139, as well as the corresponding notes; a fuller narrative, which does not conflict with the Qur'anic references, is forthcoming from the Bible (The Book of Jonah). In the context of the passage which we are now considering, the mention of Jonah's people - who alone among the communities of the past heeded their prophet before it was too late - is meant to warn the hearers and readers of the Qur'an that a deliberate rejection of its message by "those against whom God's word [of judgment] has come true" (see verse 96) is bound to result in their spiritual doom and, consequently, in grievous suffering in the life to come.
Lit., "for a time", i.e., their natural life-span (Manar XI, 483).
Believing Nations Prosper10:98 Any community that believes will surely be rewarded for believing. For example, the people of Jonah: when they believed, we relieved the humiliating retribution they had been suffering in this world, and we made them prosperous.,
10:98 Sad is their state. There has never yet been any community that attained belief, and benefited by its belief, except the people of Jonah. When they embraced belief, We removed from them the suffering of disgrace, and let them enjoy their term. (37:147-148).31
Jonah’s people used to live in humiliation in Nineveh. When they accepted the Divine message, they prospered for about two centuries between 800-612 BC. Then the Midyans conquered them. After the demise of Jonah, his people had been fast ignoring the Divine Word revealed to Jonah, and leaning towards the resurging priest class. The invaders set on fire the wonderful town of Nineveh. The spacious 60 mile wide and beautiful town was reduced to ashes. The king of Assyria got himself burnt alive in the palace, and that was the end of the Assyrian dynasty
10:99 ولو شاء ربك لءامن من فى الارض كلهم جميعا افانت تكره الناس حتىا يكونوا مؤمنين
10:99 Walaw shaa rabbuka laamana manfee al-ardi kulluhum jameeAAan afaanta tukrihu alnnasahatta yakoonoo mu/mineena
10:99 Had your Lord willed, all the people on earth in their entirety would have acknowledged. Would you force the people to make them acknowledge?17
10:99 And had your Lord willed, all the people on the earth in their entirety would have believed. Would you force the people to make them believe?
10:99 And [thus it is:] had thy Sustainer so willed, all those who live on earth would surely have attained to faith, all of them:122 dost thou, then, think that thou couldst compel people to believe,
The Qur'an stresses repeatedly the fact that, "had He so willed, He would have guided you all aright" (6:149) - the obvious implication being that He has willed it otherwise: namely, that He has given man the freedom to choose between right and wrong, thus raising him to the status of a moral being (in distinction from other animals, which can only follow their instincts). See, in this context, surah 6, note 143, as well as - in connection with the allegory of the Fall - surah 7, note 16.
10:99 Had your Lord willed, all the people on earth would have believed. Do you want to force the people to become believers?,8
The test demands that we denounce idolatry on our own, without divine intervention in our initial decision. God blocks out those who chooseto disbelieve.
10:99 If your Lord willed, all who are on earth, would have believed. Would you then, compel people to become believers? [2:256, 76:4-6]
10:100 وما كان لنفس ان تؤمن الا باذن الله ويجعل الرجس على الذين لا يعقلون
10:100 Wama kana linafsin an tu/minailla bi-ithni Allahi wayajAAalu alrrijsaAAala allatheena la yaAAqiloona
10:100 It is not for a person to acknowledge except by God's leave. He casts the affliction upon those who do not reason.
10:100 And it is not for a soul to believe except with the permission of God. And He lets taint those who do not comprehend.
10:100 notwithstanding that no human being can ever attain to faith otherwise than by God's leave,123 and [that] it is He who lays the loathsome evil [of disbelief] upon those who will not use -their reason?124
I.e., by virtue of God's guidance and within the compass of what He has decreed to be man's nature, comprising the ability to discriminate between right and wrong. Since man's freedom of moral choice expresses itself in his willingness or unwillingness to conform to his true, God-willed nature, it can be said to depend, in the last resort, on God's grace. (Cf. in this respect surah 2, note 19, as well as surah 14, note 4.)
Cf. 8:22 and 55, as well as the corresponding note 58. As in those verses, unbelief is here shown to be the result of a person's a-priori unwillingness to use his reason with a view to understanding God's messages, be they directly expressed in the revelations granted to His prophets, or - as the Qur'an once again stresses in the next verse - open to man's perception in the observable phenomena of His creation.
The Disbelievers Blocked Out10:100 No soul can believe except in accordance with GOD's will. For He places a curse upon those who refuse to understand.*,
10:100 No person can attain conviction except by following God’s law of guidance (using the faculty of reason). And His law will place confusion on those who do not use their intellect.32
10:101 قل انظروا ماذا فى السماوات والارض وما تغنى الءايات والنذر عن قوم لا يؤمنون
10:101 Quli onthuroo mathafee alssamawati waal-ardi wamatughnee al-ayatu waalnnuthuru AAanqawmin la yu/minoona
10:101 Say, "Look at all that is in the heavens and the earth." But what good are the signs and warnings to a people who do not acknowledge?
10:101 Say: "Look at all that is in the heavens and the earth." But what good are the signs and warnings to a people who do not believe?
10:101 Say: "Consider whatever there is in the heavens and on earth!" But of what avail could all the messages and all the warnings be to people who will not believe?
10:101 Say, "Look at all the signs in the heavens and the earth." All the proofs and all the warnings can never help people who decided to disbelieve.,
10:101 Say, “Look and ponder what is in the heavens and earth! No miracles and no warnings will help those people who have chosen to disbelieve. [2:6-7, 41:53]
10:102 فهل ينتظرون الا مثل ايام الذين خلوا من قبلهم قل فانتظروا انى معكم من المنتظرين
10:102 Fahal yantathiroona illamithla ayyami allatheena khalaw min qablihim qul faintathirooinnee maAAakum mina almuntathireena
10:102 Are they waiting for the days like those who passed away before them? Say, "Wait, for I am with you waiting."
10:102 Are they waiting for the days like those who have passed away before them? Say: "Wait, for I am with you waiting."
10:102 Can such, then, expect anything else [to befall them] but the like of the days of [calamity which befell] those [deniers of the truth] who passed away before them? Say: "Wait, then, [for what will happen) verily, I shall wait with you!"
10:102 Can they expect other than the fate of their counterparts in the past? Say, "Just wait, and, along with you, I am also waiting.",
10:102 Can they expect other than the days of calamity that befell those who passed on before them? Say, “Wait then! I shall wait with you.”
10:103 ثم ننجى رسلنا والذين ءامنوا كذالك حقا علينا ننج المؤمنين
10:103 Thumma nunajjee rusulana waallatheenaamanoo kathalika haqqan AAalaynanunjee almu/mineena
Put Your Full Trust In God10:103 Then We will save Our messengers and those who acknowledge. It is thus binding upon Us that We save those who acknowledge.
10:103 Then We will save Our messengers and those who believe. It is thus binding upon Us that We save the believers.
10:103 [For thus it always happens: We seal the doom of all who deny the truth and give the lie to Our messages;] and thereupon We save Our apostles and those who have attained to faith.125 Thus have We willed it upon Ourselves: We save all who believe [in Us],126
My long interpolation at the beginning of this verse is based, in the main, on Zamakhshari's interpretation of it. It is necessitated by the fact that the adverbial conjunction thumma ("thereupon" or "thereafter") does not relate here to the immediately preceding passage but to a theme repeatedly occurring in the Qur'an and only indirectly alluded to in verse 102 above: namely, the experiences of the earlier prophets with their recalcitrant communities, the doom of those who gave the lie to their messages and, in every case, a divine deliverance of the prophet concerned and of those who followed him. Rashid Rida' describes this passage, rightly, as "one of the most outstanding examples of the elliptic mode of expression (ijaz) to be found in the Qur'an" (Manar XI, 487).
Razi explains the phrase haqqan `alayna (lit., "as is incumbent upon Us") as denoting no more than a logical necessity, i.e., the unavoidable fulfilment of God's "willing it upon Himself", and not a "duty" on His part: for, neither is anything "incumbent" upon Him who has the power to will anything, nor-as Razi points out-has man any "right" with regard to his Creator.
Guaranteed Victory10:103 We ultimately save our messengers and those who believe. It is our immutable law that we save the believers.,
10:103 We ultimately save Our Messengers and those who believe. It is incumbent upon Us to save the believers.
10:104 قل ياايها الناس ان كنتم فى شك من دينى فلا اعبد الذين تعبدون من دون الله ولاكن اعبد الله الذى يتوفىاكم وامرت ان اكون من المؤمنين
10:104 Qul ya ayyuha alnnasuin kuntum fee shakkin min deenee fala aAAbudu allatheenataAAbudoona min dooni Allahi walakin aAAbudu Allahaallathee yatawaffakum waomirtu an akoona minaalmu/mineena
10:104 Say, "O people, if you are in doubt of my system, then I do not serve those that you serve besides God. But I serve God who terminates you, and I have been commanded to be of those who acknowledge."
10:104 Say: "O people, if you are in doubt of my system, then I do not serve those whom you serve besides God. But I serve God; the One who will terminate your lives; and I have been commanded to be of the believers."
10:104 SAY [O Prophet]: "O mankind! If you are in doubt as to what my faith is, then [know that] I do not worship those beings whom you worship beside God,127 but [that] I worship God alone, who shall cause you [all] to die:128 for I have been bidden to be among those who believe [in Him alone]."
Sc., "and call you to account on Judgment Day". The use of the pronoun alladhina in the phrase "those whom you worship" shows that it relates here to rational beings-like saints, etc. - and not to inanimate representations. As regards the term din (rendered here as "faith", see the first half of note 249 on 2:256.
The specific reference, in this context, to God as the One who causes all living beings to die is meant to impress upon "those who deny the truth" the fact that after their death they will be placed before Him for judgment.
10:104 Say, "O people, if you have any doubt regarding my religion, I do not worship what you worship beside GOD. I worship GOD alone; the One who will terminate your lives. I am commanded to be a believer.",
10:104 Say, "O Mankind! If you are in doubt about my religion, I do not worship and do not obey those whom you worship and obey instead of God. But I obey God Who causes you to die (and Who controls the laws of life and death of individuals and nations). I have been commanded to be of the believers.”33
10:105 وان اقم وجهك للدين حنيفا ولا تكونن من المشركين
10:105 Waan aqim wajhaka lilddeeni haneefanwala takoonanna mina almushrikeena
10:105 Set your direction to the system of monotheism, and do not be of those who set up partners.
10:105 And set your face to the system of monotheism, and do not be of the polytheists.
10:105 Hence, [O man,] set thy face steadfastly towards the [true] faith, turning away from all that is false,129 and be not among those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God.
In classical Arabic usage, and particularly in the Qur'an, the word "face" is often employed as a metonym for one's whole being because it is the face, more than any other part of the human body, that expresses man's personality (cf. surah 2, note 91).- For an explanation of the term hanif, see surah 2, note 110.
10:105 I was commanded: "Keep yourself devoted to the religion of monotheism; you shall not practice idol worship.,
10:105 (O Prophet) set your purpose resolutely for the Upright System of life and do not be of those who associate anyone with God in any form.
10:106 ولا تدع من دون الله ما لا ينفعك ولا يضرك فان فعلت فانك اذا من الظالمين
10:106 Wala tadAAu min dooni Allahima la yanfaAAuka wala yadurruka fa-infaAAalta fa-innaka ithan mina alththalimeena
10:106 Do not call upon other than God what does not benefit you or harm you; if you do, then you are of the wicked.
10:106 And do not call upon other than God what does not benefit you or harm you; if you do, then you are of the wicked.
10:106 Thus, do not invoke, side by side with God, anything that can neither benefit thee nor harm thee: for, behold, if thou do it, thou wilt surely be among the evildoers!
10:106 "You shall not worship beside GOD what possesses no power to benefit you or harm you. If you do, you will be a transgressor.",
10:106 Do not ever call on deities besides God. They have no control over your harm or benefit. If you expected help outside the laws of God, you will be among the wrongdoers.
10:107 وان يمسسك الله بضر فلا كاشف له الا هو وان يردك بخير فلا راد لفضله يصيب به من يشاء من عباده وهو الغفور الرحيم
10:107 Wa-in yamsaska Allahu bidurrinfala kashifa lahu illa huwa wa-in yuridkabikhayrin fala radda lifadlihi yuseebubihi man yashao min AAibadihi wahuwa alghafooru alrraheemu
10:107 If God afflicts you with any harm, then none can remove it except Him; and if He wanted good for you, then none can turn away His grace. He bestows it to whom He wishes of His servants. He is the Forgiver, the Compassionate.
10:107 And if God afflicts you with any harm, then none can remove it except He; and if He wanted good for you, then none can turn away His grace, He brings it to whom He wishes of His servants. And He is the Forgiver, the Merciful.
10:107 And [know that] if God should touch thee with misfortune, there is none who could remove it save Him; and if He intends good for thee, there is none who could turn away His bounty: He causes it to alight upon whomsoever He wills of His servants. And He alone is truly forgiving, truly a dispenser of grace.
All Power Belongs To God10:107 If GOD touches you with a hardship, none can relieve it except He. And when He blesses you, no force can prevent His grace. He bestows it upon whomever He chooses from among His servants. He is the Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
10:107 If God afflicts you, there is none who can remove it but He. And when He intends some benefit for you, there is none who can prevent His bounty. He sends it to His servants according to His laws. And He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.34
Affliction, relief or bounty from God must draw our attention to His laws
10:108 قل ياايها الناس قد جاءكم الحق من ربكم فمن اهتدىا فانما يهتدى لنفسه ومن ضل فانما يضل عليها وما انا عليكم بوكيل
10:108 Qul ya ayyuha alnnasuqad jaakumu alhaqqu min rabbikum famani ihtadafa-innama yahtadee linafsihi waman dalla fa-innamayadillu AAalayha wama ana AAalaykumbiwakeelin
10:108 Say, "O people, the truth has come to you from your Lord, so whosoever is guided is guided for himself, and whosoever is misguided is misguided against himself. I am not a caretaker over you."
10:108 Say: "O people, the truth has come to you from your Lord, so whoever is guided is being guided for himself, and whoever is misguided will remain so, and I am not a caretaker over you."
10:108 SAY [O Prophet]: "O mankind! The truth from your Sustainer has now come unto you. Whoever, therefore, chooses to follow the right path, follows it but for his own good; and whoever chooses to go astray, goes but astray to his own hurt. And I am not responsible for your conduct."
10:108 Proclaim: "O people, the truth has come to you herein from your Lord. Whoever is guided is guided for his own good. And whoever goes astray, goes astray to his own detriment. I am not a guardian over you.",
10:108 Say, "O Mankind! Now has come to you the truth from your Lord. So whoever chooses to follow the right path, follows it for the good of his own ‘self’. And whoever chooses to go astray, goes astray to the hurt of his own ‘self’. And I am not a guardian over you."
10:109 واتبع ما يوحىا اليك واصبر حتىا يحكم الله وهو خير الحاكمين
10:109 WaittabiAA ma yoohailayka waisbir hatta yahkumaAllahu wahuwa khayru alhakimeena
10:109 Therefore, follow what is being inspired to you and be patient until God judges. He is the best of judges.
10:109 And follow what is being inspired to you and be patient until God judges. And He is the best of judges.
10:109 And [as for thyself, O Muhammad,] follow but what is being revealed unto thee, and be patient in adversity, until God shall give His judgment: for He is the best of all judges.
10:109 Follow what is revealed to you, and be patient until GOD issues His judgment; He is the best judge.,
10:109 (O Messenger) follow what is revealed to you and be steadfast in adversity until God issues His Judgment. And He is the Best of judges.