بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
13:1 Alif-lam-meem-ra tilka ayatualkitabi waallathee onzila ilayka minrabbika alhaqqu walakinna akthara alnnasila yu/minoona
13:1 A1L30M40R200. These are the signs of the book. What has been sent down to you from your Lord is the truth; but most of the people do not acknowledge.1
13:1 ALMR, these are the signs of the Book. And what has been sent down to you from your Lord is the truth; but most of the people do not believe.
13:1 Alif. Lam. Mim. Ra.1 THESE ARE MESSAGES of revelation:2 and what has been bestowed upon thee from on high by thy Sustainer is the truth-yet most people will not believe [in it]?3
See Appendix II.
Although some commentators are of the opinion that the term kitab ("divine writ" or "revelation") refers here to this particular surah, Ibn `Abbas states emphatically that it denotes the Qur'an as a whole (Baghawi).
This passage connects with the concluding verses (102-111) of the preceding surah, and particularly with verse 103, all of which, stress the divine origin of the Qur'an.
13:1 A. L. M. R.1 These (letters) are proofs of this scripture. What is revealed to you from your Lord is the truth, but most people do not believe.,
These initials constitute a major component of the Quran's built-in proof of divine authorship, the miraculous mathematical code. See Appendix 1.
13:1 A.L.M.R. Alif–Laam-Meem-Ra. (Allah, Lateef the Unfathomable, Majeed the Magnificent, Raaziq the Provider, states that), These are the verses of the Divine Writ, the scripture. What is revealed to you (O Prophet) from your Lord is the truth. Yet most people do not believe in it.1
This is the 13th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 43 verses. 13:13 indicates thunder being an angel of God. And a reported saying of the exalted Messenger emphasizes this fact. Yet, under the Biblical influence most Muslims think of angels only as winged creatures flying across the Universe. The Qur’an, in all compassion, does not expect us to know the exact nature of all what is beyond the present state of our mind. For example, we believe according to the Book of God that His verses were conveyed to the Prophets' hearts, through the angels of revelation. How exactly this process took place, then carries little significance. In general, the Qur’an describes ‘angels’ as God’s physical laws and forces operative in the Universe.
(“The real existence on earth is of the one who benefits humanity.” 13:17)
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
13:2 Allahu allathee rafaAAa alssamawatibighayri AAamadin tarawnaha thumma istawa AAalaalAAarshi wasakhkhara alshshamsa waalqamara kullunyajree li-ajalin musamman yudabbiru al-amra yufassilu al-ayatilaAAallakum biliqa-i rabbikum tooqinoona
13:2 God, Who raised the skies without any pillars that you can see, then He established the authority, and He commissioned the sun and the moon; each running to a fixed destiny. He manages all affairs, and He details the signs so that you will be aware of the meeting with your Lord.
13:2 God, Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see, then He settled upon the Throne, and He commissioned the sun and the moon, each running for an appointed term. He manages all affairs, and He details the signs so that you will be aware of the meeting with your Lord.
13:2 It is God who has raised the heavens without any supports that you could see, and is established on the throne of His almightiness;4 and He [it is who] has made the sun and the moon subservient [to His laws], each running its course for a term set [by Him].5 He governs all that exists. Clearly does He spell out these messages, so that you might be certain in your innermost that you are destined to meet your Sustainer [on Judgment Day].6
For an explanation of this phrase, see surah 7, note 43. As regards the "raising of the heavens without any supports" visible to man, it should be borne in mind that the noun sama' denotes, primarily, "something that is above [another thing]", and is used -mostly in its plural form samawat - to describe (a) the visible skies (as well as, occasionally, the clouds), (b) the cosmic space in which the stars, the solar systems (including our own) and the galaxies pursue their course, and (c) the abstract concept of the forces emanating from God (since He is, in the metonymical sense of this word, "above" all that exists). To my mind, it is the second of these three meanings of samawat to which the 'above verse refers: namely, to the spatial universe in which all aggregations of matter - be they planets, stars, nebulae or galaxies - are, as it were, "suspended" in space within a system of unceasing motion determined by centrifugal forces and mutual, gravitational attraction.
This may refer either to the end of the world as we know it-thus indicating the finality of all creation - or, according to `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas (as quoted by Baghawi and Razi), to the "mansions" or stages through which the sun and the moon, like all other celestial bodies, move in time as well as in space.
Le., "so that you might realize that He who has created the universe and governs all that exists is equally able to resurrect the dead, and to judge you in the life to come in accordance with what you did when you were alive on earth".
13:2 GOD is the One who raised the heavens without pillars that you can see, then assumed all authority. He committed the sun and the moon, each running (in its orbit) for a predetermined period. He controls all things, and explains the revelations, that you may attain certainty about meeting your Lord.,
13:2 God is the One Who raised the skies without pillars visible to you. Then, upon the Throne of His Almightiness, He assumed Supreme Control of the entire Universe. He committed the sun and the moon to be of service, each running to an appointed term. He keeps Order in the Universe and He explains His messages in detail, so that you may be sure of meeting with your Lord.2
Studying the Book of nature will bring mankind closer to their Lord. Until recently, the sun was thought to be stationary, but today we know that the sun, along with Solar System, is moving toward the "Constellation of Hercules," also known as the "Solar Apex", at a speed of 12 miles per second, 43,200 miles per hour. 36:38
13:3 Wahuwa allathee madda al-ardawajaAAala feeha rawasiya waanharan waminkulli alththamarati jaAAala feeha zawjayniithnayni yughshee allayla alnnahara inna fee thalikalaayatin liqawmin yatafakkaroona
13:3 He is the One who stretched out the land, made in it stabilizers and rivers, and from every fruit He made a pair of two; the night covers the day. In that are signs for a people who will think.
13:3 And He is the One who has spread out the land, and made in it stabilizers and rivers, and all the fruits He made in pairs. The night covers the day. In that are signs for a people who think.
13:3 And it is He who has spread the earth wide and placed on it firm mountains and running waters, and created thereon two sexes of every [kind of] plant;7 [and it is He who] causes the night to cover the day. Verily, in all this there are messages indeed for people who think!
Lit., "and out of all [kinds of] fruits He made thereon (i.e., on earth] pairs (zawjayn ithnayn)". The term zawj denotes, according to the context, either "a pair" or "one of a pair". Whenever the dual form zawjan is followed by the additional numerical definition ithnan ("two"), it invariably signifies "a pair comprising both sexes". Thus, the above phrase states that there are two sexes to every kind of plant: a statement fully in accord with botanical science. (Usually, the male and female organs of reproduction exist together in one and the same flower of a particular plant, e.g., cotton; alternatively, they are placed in separate flowers of one and the same plant, e.g., in most of the cucurbitaceae; and, in some rare cases, e.g., the date-palm, in entirely separate, uni-sexual plants of the same species.)
13:3 He is the One who constructed the earth and placed on it mountains and rivers. And from the different kinds of fruits, He made them into pairs - males and females. The night overtakes the day. These are solid proofs for people who think.,
13:3 He is the One Who has spread the earth wide and placed therein mountains firm like pegs, and flowing streams. And He created thereon couples of every kind of plants (and their fruit). He causes the night to cover the day. In all this, there are signs for people who think.3
Plants have male and female flowers, and some trees like the date-palm are unisexual, male and female
13:4 Wafee al-ardi qitaAAun mutajawiratunwajannatun min aAAnabin wazarAAun wanakheelun sinwanunwaghayru sinwanin yusqa bima-in wahidinwanufaddilu baAAdaha AAala baAAdinfee alokuli inna fee thalika laayatinliqawmin yaAAqiloona
13:4 On earth are neighboring pieces of land with gardens of grapes and plants and palm trees, some of which may be twins sharing the same root, or single, even though they are being watered with the same water source; and We make preference for some of them over others in what they consume. In that are signs for a people who reason.
13:4 And on the earth are neighboring pieces of land with gardens of grapes and plants and palm trees, some of which may be twin sharing the same root, or single, even though they are being watered with the same water source; and We make preference for some of them over others in what they consume. In that are signs for a people who comprehend.
13:4 And there are on earth [many] tracts of land close by one another [and yet widely differing from one another8 ]; and [there are on it] vinyards, and fields of grain, and date-palms growing in clusters from one root or standing alone,9 [all] watered with the same water: and yet, some of them have We favoured above others by way of the food [which they provide for man and beast].10 Verily, in all this there are messages indeed for people who use their reason!
Le., regarding the nature of the soil, fertility and kind of vegetation. The necessity of this interpolation - which, in the consensus of all commentators, conveys the meaning of the above phrase - becomes apparent from the subsequent clauses.
Lit., "non-clustered" (qhayr sinwan) - i.e., each tree having separate roots.
Cf. 6:99 and 141, where a similar stress is laid on the multiformity of plants-and their varying beneficence to man and animal - as some of the signs of God's purposeful, creative activity.
13:4 On earth, there are adjacent lots that produce orchards of grapes, crops, palm trees - dioecious and non-dioecious. Although they are irrigated with the same water, we prefer some of them over others in eating. These are solid proofs for people who understand. Belief in the Hereafter Required For Salvation,
13:4 On earth there are many lots and tracts of land in proximity, yet widely differing from one another in composition and quality. On it, there are vineyards, and fields of grain, date and palm-trees, growing in clusters or standing alone. All of them receive the same water and yet, We have made some of them excel others in fruit. In all this, there are signs for people who use their intellect.
13:5 Wa-in taAAjab faAAajabun qawluhum a-ithakunna turaban a-inna lafee khalqin jadeedinola-ika allatheena kafaroo birabbihim waola-ikaal-aghlalu fee aAAnaqihim waola-ika as-habualnnari hum feeha khalidoona
13:5 If you wonder, then what is more wondrous is their saying: "Can it be that when we are dust, we will be created anew!" These are those who rejected their Lord, and they will have chains around their necks, and they are the dwellers of the fire, in it they will abide.
13:5 And if you are surprised, then what is more surprising is their saying: "Can it be that when we are dust, we will be created anew!" These are the ones who have rejected their Lord, and they will have shackles around their necks, and they are the dwellers of the Fire, in it they will abide.
13:5 BUT IF thou art amazed [at the marvels of God's creation], amazing, too, is their saying, "What! After we have become dust, shall we indeed be [restored to life] in a new act .of creation?"11 It is they who [thus show that they] are bent on denying their Sustainer;12 and it is they who carry the shackles [of their own making] around their necks;13 and it is they who are destined for the fire, therein to abide.
Le., while it is amazing that one can refuse to believe in God despite all the evidence, accessible to human observation, of the existence of a definite purpose in all life-phenomena, and thus of the existence of a conscious Creative Power, it is no less amazing to see people who, while vaguely believing in God, can yet refuse to believe in individual resurrection: for, if God has created the universe and the phenomenon of life as such, He obviously has the power to re-create life -and its requisite physical vehicle -in a new act of creation.
By denying the possibility of resurrection, they implicitly deny God's almightiness, and thus, in effect, His reality.
A metaphor of man's wilful self-abandonment to false values and evil ways, and of the resulting enslavement of the spirit (cf. Zamakhshari, Razi, Baydawi). See also surah 34, note 44.
13:5 If you ever wonder, the real wonder is their saying: "After we turn into dust, do we get recreated anew?" These are the ones who have disbelieved in their Lord. These are the ones who have incurred shackles around their necks. These are the ones who have incurred Hell, wherein they abide forever.,
13:5 If you wonder at this, then even more wondrous is their saying, "What! After we have become dust, shall we be restored to life in a new act of creation?" They are the ones who deny their Lord. And they are the ones who will carry the shackles of their own making around their necks. They will be dwellers of the fire, to dwell therein.
13:6 WayastaAAjiloonaka bialssayyi-atiqabla alhasanati waqad khalat min qablihimu almathulatuwa-inna rabbaka lathoo maghfiratin lilnnasiAAala thulmihim wa-inna rabbaka lashadeedualAAiqabi
13:6 They ask you to hasten with the doom rather than the good, yet the examples of those before them have already been given. Your Lord is with great forgiveness to the people despite their transgression, and your Lord is severe in retribution.
13:6 And they hasten towards you with evil before good, and the examples of those before them have already been given. And your Lord is with forgiveness towards the people for their transgression, and your Lord is severe in retribution.
13:6 And [since, O Prophet, they are bent on denying the truth,] they challenge thee to hasten the coming upon them of evil instead of [hoping for] good14 although [they ought to know that] the exemplary punishments [which they now deride] have indeed come to pass before their time. Now, behold, thy Sustainer is full of forgiveness unto men despite all their evildoing:15 but, behold, thy Sustainer is [also] truly severe in retribution!
Lit., "they ask thee to hasten the evil before the good": i.e., instead of willingly accepting the guidance offered them by the Prophet, they mockingly challenge him to bring about the exemplary punishment with which, according to him, God threatens them. (For a fuller explanation of this "challenge", referred to here and in several other places in the Qur'an, see 6:57 and 8:32, as well as the corresponding notes.)
Cf. the first sentence of 10:11 and the corresponding note 17.
13:6 They challenge you to bring doom upon them, rather than turning righteous! Sufficient precedents have been set for them in the past. Indeed, your Lord is full of forgiveness towards the people, in spite of their transgressions, and your Lord is also strict in enforcing retribution.,
13:6 (Instead of reflecting on the message), they challenge you (O Prophet) to hasten the disaster, rather than doing acts of benevolence. Sufficient examples have been set for them in the past. Your Lord is full of forgiveness for mankind despite their transgressions. But your Lord is also Strict in grasping.4
He has designed the Law of Respite, the interim period when people can safely mend their ways
13:7 Wayaqoolu allatheena kafaroo lawlaonzila AAalayhi ayatun min rabbihi innama anta munthirunwalikulli qawmin hadin
13:7 Those who reject say, "If only a sign was sent down to him from his Lord." You are but a warner, and to every nation is a guide.
13:7 And those who reject say: "If only a sign was sent down to him from his Lord." You are but a warner, and to every people is a guide.
13:7 However, they who are bent on denying the truth [refuse to believe and] say, "Why has no miraculous sign ever been bestowed on him from on high by his Sustainer?"16 [But] thou art only a warmer; and [in God] all people have a guide.17
Le., to prove that he (Muhammad) is really a prophet inspired by God. But the Qur'an makes it clear in several places (e.g., 6:7 and 111, 10:96 or 13:31) that even a miracle would not convince those who are "bent on denying the truth".
According to the classical commentators, this sentence lends itself to several interpretations: (1) "Thou art only a warmer; and every nation has had a guide like thee (i.e., a prophet)"-which would be in consonance with the Qur'anic doctrine of the continuity of prophetic guidance; or (2) "Thou art only a warmer - but [at the same time] also a guide unto all people" - which would stress the universality of the Qur'anic message as contrasted with the time-bound and ethnically limited missions of the earlier prophets; or (3) "Thou art only a warmer bound to do no more than deliver the message entrusted to thee, while it is God alone who can truly guide men's hearts towards faith". Since the last of the above three interpretations is the most plausible and has, moreover, the support of `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas, Sa`id ibn Jubayr, Mujahid and Ad-Dahhak, I have adopted it in my rendering. According to Zamakhshari, this interpretation is further strengthened by the subsequent reference to God's omniscience.
13:7 Those who disbelieved say, "If only a miracle could come down to him from his Lord (we will then believe)." You are simply a warner - every community receives a guiding teacher.,
13:7 Those who deny the truth keep saying, "Why has no miracle ever been bestowed upon him from his Lord?" But you (O Prophet) are only a warner and to every community is a guide.5
13:8 Allahu yaAAlamu ma tahmilukullu ontha wama tagheedu al-arhamuwama tazdadu wakullu shay-in AAindahu bimiqdarin
13:8 God knows what every female carries, and how short her pregnancy or how long. Everything with Him is measured.2
13:8 God knows what every female carries, and how short her pregnancy is or how long. And everything with Him is measured.
13:8 God knows what any female bears [in her womb], and by how much the wombs may fall short [in gestation], and by how much they may increase [the average period]:18 for with Him everything is [created] in accordance with its scope and purpose.19
The term untha denotes any female being, whether human or animal. The "falling short" may refer either to a shortening of the usual period of gestation (e.g., to seven months in human beings) or to a falling short of the completion of pregnancy, i.e., a miscarriage; it is to be noted that the noun qhayd signifies "an abortive foetus" (Taj al-'Arus), i.e., in human beings, a foetus less than seven months old. The "increase", on the other hand, may mean either the completion of gestation or its being in excess of the average period (as, for instance, the occasional lengthening of human pregnancy from the usual period of about 280 days to 305 or, according to some medical authorities, even 307 days). In addition to this, God's knowledge of "what any female bears [in her womb]" obviously relates also to the sex of the unborn embryo as well as to the number of offspring involved in one pregnancy.-As the sequence shows, this reference to the mysteries of gestation, fully known only to God, is meant to bring out the idea that He who knows what is in the wombs knows also the innermost disposition of every human being and the direction in which that human being will develop.
Lit., "according to a measure" (bi-migdar) -i.e., in accordance with the particular purpose for which it has been created, the exigencies of its existence and the role which it is destined to play within God's plan of creation.
13:8 GOD knows what every female bears, and what every womb releases, or gains. Everything He does is perfectly measured.,
13:8 God knows what every female bears, and what every womb releases or gains. Everything has a due measure with Him.6
God’s Guidance is a mercy to humanity. We may liken it to the nourishment of the embryo in the evolving environment of the womb. The embryo lodges in security and its needs are met in a timely fashion in perfect balance. Then the fetus comes to the world ready to thrive. This is how the Divine System, when established in a society, nourishes the individual
13:9 AAalimu alghaybi waalshshahadatialkabeeru almutaAAali
13:9 The knower of the unseen and the seen, the Great, the most High.
13:9 The Knower of the unseen and the seen, the Great, the Most High.
13:9 He knows all that is beyond the reach of a created being's perception as well as all that can be witnessed by a creature's senses or mind20 -the Great One, the One far above anything that is or could ever be!21
See surah 6, note 65.
God's attribute al-muta'al, which occurs in the Qur'an only in this one instance, denotes His infinite exaltedness above anything existing or potential; also, according to Zamakhshari, above anything that could be circumscribed by human definitions. (See in this connection the last sentence of 6:100 and the corresponding note 88.)
13:9 The Knower of all secrets and declarations; the Supreme, the Most High.,
13:9 He has perfect knowledge of the visible and the invisible. He is the Great, Most High.
13:10 Sawaon minkum man asarra alqawlawaman jahara bihi waman huwa mustakhfin biallayli wasaribunbialnnahari
13:10 It is the same whether any of you conceals the word or openly declares it; whether he is hiding in the night or going openly in the day.
13:10 It is the same whether any of you openly declares what he says, or conceals it; whether he is hiding in the night or going openly in the day.
13:10 It is all alike [to Him] whether any of you conceals his thought22 or brings it into the open, and whether he seeks to hide [his evil deeds] under the cover of night or walks [boldly] in the light of day,23
The term qawl denotes, primarily, "a saying" or "an utterance", but it is also used tropically, in the sense of "an idea", irrespective of whether it is expressed in actual words (as a statement, an assertion, a formulated doctrine, etc.) or merely conceived in the mind (e.g., an opinion, a view, or a connected set of ideas). Since in the above verse this term obviously refers to unspoken thoughts, I have rendered it accordingly.
Lit., "and goes forth by day" - i.e., commits evil deeds openly (Ibn `Abbas, as quoted by Baghawi and Razi). In the Arabic construction, the sentence reads thus: "All alike [to Him] is he from among you who conceals his thought (al-qawl) and he who brings it into the open, as well as he who. .. ," etc.
13:10 It is the same whether you conceal your thoughts, or declare them, or hide in the darkness of the night, or act in the daylight.,
13:10 It is all alike to Him whether any of you conceals his thoughts or declares them, and whether he seeks to hide under the cover of night or walks boldly in daylight.
13:11 Lahu muAAaqqibatun min bayni yadayhiwamin khalfihi yahfathoonahu min amri Allahiinna Allaha la yughayyiru ma biqawmin hattayughayyiroo ma bi-anfusihim wa-itha aradaAllahu biqawmin soo-an fala maradda lahu wamalahum min doonihi min walin
Will to Change the Condition of the Society13:11 As if he has followers in his presence and behind him guarding him from God's command! God is not to change what is in a people until they change what is within themselves. If God wanted to harm a people, then there is no turning Him back, nor will they have any protector against Him.3
This verse is traditionally rendered as "For each there are succeeding controllers, before and behind him, guarding him by God's command." However, the context of the verse led us to prefer a different understanding.
13:11 Present with him and behind him are retainers, they preserve him from the command of God. God does not change the condition of a people until they change the condition of their souls. And if God wanted to harm a people, then there is no turning Him back, nor will they have any protector against Him.
13:11 [thinking that] he has hosts of helpers-both such as can be perceived by him and such as are hidden from him24 -that could preserve him from whatever God may have willed.25 Verily, God does not change men's condition unless they change their inner selves;26 and when God wills people to suffer evil [in consequence of their . own evil deeds], there is none who could avert it: for they have none who could protect them from Him.
Lit., "from between his hands and from behind him". As in 2:255, the expression "between his hands" denotes "something that is perceivable by him" or "evident to him", while that which is "behind him" is a metonym for something "beyond his ken" or "hidden from him". See also next note.
Lit., "from God's command (amr)". The rendering of the above passage hinges on the meaning given to the term mu'aqqibat-a double plural of mu'agqib, which signifies "something that comes immediately after another thing" or "succeeds another thing without interruption". Most of the classical commentators understand by mu'aqqibat "hosts of angels", i.e., the recording angels who attend on every human being, succeeding one another without interruption. Consequently, they interpret the phrase min bayni yadayhi wa-min khalfihi as meaning "ranged before him and behind him", i.e., surrounding man from all sides; and they explain the words "from God's command" as being here synonymous with "by God's command", and take them to refer to the angels or to their function of guardianship. However, this interpretation has by no means the support of all the commentators. Some of the earliest ones assume that the term mu'aqqibat refers to all manner of worldly forces or concepts on which man so often relies in the mistaken belief that they might help him to achieve his aims independently of God's will: and this is the meaning given to this elliptic passage by the famous commentator Abu Muslim al-Isfahani, as quoted by Razi. Explaining verse 10 and the first part of verse 11, he says: "All alike are, in God's knowledge, deeds done secretly or openly, as well as he who hides in the darkness of night and he who walks [boldly] in the light of day ... : for he that resorts to the [cover of] night can never elude God's will (amr), just as he [cannot] that walks in the light of day, surrounded by hosts of helpers (mu'aqqibat)-that is, guards and aids-meant to protect him: [for] those guards of his cannot save him from [the will of] God." It is on this convincing interpretation that I have based my rendering. The worldly "guards and aids" on which a sinner relies may be tangible (like wealth, progeny, etc.) or intangible (like personal power, high social standing, or the belief in one's "luck"): and this explains the phrase "both such as can be perceived by him and such as are hidden from him" (see preceding note).
Lit., "that which is in themselves". This statement has both a positive and a negative connotation: i.e., God does not withdraw His blessings from men unless their inner selves become depraved (cf. 8:53), just as He does not bestow His blessings upon wilful sinners until they change their inner disposition and become worthy of His grace. In its wider sense, this is an illustration of the divine law of cause and effect (sunnat Allah) which dominates the lives of both individuals and communities, and makes the rise and fall of civilizations dependent on people's moral qualities and the changes in "their inner selves".
13:11 Shifts (of angels) take turns, staying with each one of you - they are in front of you and behind you. They stay with you, and guard you in accordance with GOD's commands. Thus, GOD does not change the condition of any people unless they themselves make the decision to change. If GOD wills any hardship for any people, no force can stop it. For they have none beside Him as Lord and Master.,
13:11 For each person there are universal forces surrounding him. They record his actions according to God's command. Most certainly, God does not change the condition of a nation until they first change themselves. When God intends a nation to suffer punishment (as a consequence of their misdeeds), there is none who can repel it and they have no defender besides Him.7
13:12 Huwa allathee yureekumu albarqakhawfan watamaAAan wayunshi-o alssahaba alththiqala
13:12 He is the One who shows you the lightning, giving you fear and hope. He establishes the heavy clouds.
13:12 He is the One who shows you the lightning, giving you fear and hope. And He establishes the heavy clouds.
13:12 HE IT IS who displays before you the lightning, to give rise to [both] fear and hope,27 and calls heavy clouds into being;
I.e., hope of rain, which in the Qur'an frequently symbolizes faith and spiritual life. With this verse, the discourse returns to the theme enunciated at the beginning of this surah (verses 2-4): namely, to the evidence of a consciously devised plan and purpose inherent in all nature and, thus, of the existence of God.
13:12 He is the One who shows you the lightning as a source of fear, as well as hope, and He initiates the loaded clouds.,
13:12 He is the One Who displays before you the lightning, to cause fear and hope, and initiates heavy clouds.8
Similarly, the light of guidance brings to you the warning and a good tiding
13:13 Wayusabbihu alrraAAdu bihamdihiwaalmala-ikatu min kheefatihi wayursilu alssawaAAiqafayuseebu biha man yashao wahum yujadiloonafee Allahi wahuwa shadeedu almihali
13:13 The thunder glorifies with His praise, the controllers are in awe of Him, and He sends the thunderbolts, thus striking with them whomever He wills. Yet they are still arguing regarding God, while He is severe in punishment.
13:13 Andthe thunder glorifies His praise, and the angels are in awe of Him, and He sends the thunderbolts, and strikes with them whom He wills. Yet they are still arguing regarding God, while He is severe in punishment.
13:13 and the thunder extols His limitless glory and praises Him, and [so do] the angels, in awe of Him; and He [it is who] lets loose the thunderbolts and strikes with them whom He wills. And yet, they stubbornly argue about God,28 notwithstanding [all evidence] that He alone has the power to contrive whatever His unfathomable wisdom wills!29
I.e., about His transcendental existence or the quality of His Being.
According to Raghib, the expression shadid al-mihal (which occurs in the Qur'an only in this one place) signifies "powerful in contriving, in a manner hidden from man, that wherein wisdom lies"; hence my rendering.
13:13 The thunder praises His glory, and so do the angels, out of reverence for Him. He sends the lightning bolts, which strike in accordance with His will. Yet, they argue about GOD, though His power is awesome.,
13:13 And the thunder and the (other) angels strive to glorify Him by carrying out their duties in awe of Him. And He is the One Whose physical laws let loose the thunderbolt to strike the earth. And yet they stubbornly argue about God (and fall for superstitions), though He is Awesome in Power!
13:14 Lahu daAAwatu alhaqqi waallatheenayadAAoona min doonihi la yastajeeboona lahum bishay-in illakabasiti kaffayhi ila alma-iliyablugha fahu wama huwa bibalighihi wamaduAAao alkafireena illa fee dalalin
Those Who Expect Help from Saints, Shrines, Prophets, etc.13:14 To Him is the call of truth. Those who are called on besides Him, they will not respond to them in anything. It is like one who places his hands openly in the water to drink, but it never reaches his mouth. The call of the ingrates is nothing but in misguidance.
13:14 To Him is the call of truth. And those who are called on besides Him, they will not respond to them in anything; like one who places his hands openly in the water to drink, except it never reaches his mouth. The call of the rejecters is nothing but in misguidance.
13:14 Unto Him [alone] is due all prayer aiming at the Ultimate Truth,30 since those [other beings or powers] whom men invoke instead of God31 cannot respond to them in any way - [so that he who invokes them is] but like one who stretches his open hands32 towards water, [hoping] that it will reach his mouth, the while it never reaches him. Hence, the prayer of those who deny the truth amounts to no more than losing oneself in grievous error.
Lit., "His is the call [or "invocation"] of the truth"; or, possibly, "to Him [alone] is due all true invocation". It should, however, be remembered that the term al-haqq ("the Truth") is one of the Qur'anic attributes of God, signifying the Ultimate Reality or Primal Cause of all that exists (the Urgrund in German philosophical terminology): consequently, the expression da`wat al-haqq may be understood in the sense of "prayer directed towards Him who is the Ultimate Reality", implying-as the sequence clearly states-that the invocation of any other being, power or principle is eo ipso wrong and futile.
Or: "side by side with God".
Lit., "his two palms".
13:14 Imploring Him is the only legitimate supplication, while the idols they implore beside Him cannot ever respond. Thus, they are like those who stretch their hands to the water, but nothing reaches their mouths. The supplications of the disbelievers are in vain.,
13:14 Calling upon Him is the True calling. Those unto whom they call besides God, cannot respond to them at all. Thus, they are like the one who stretches forth his two palms towards water hoping for it to reach his mouth from distance, and it will never reach. Likewise, the calling of those who are oblivious to Divine laws is misdirected. [4:123]
13:15 Walillahi yasjudu man fee alssamawatiwaal-ardi tawAAan wakarhan wathilaluhumbialghuduwwi waal-asali
13:15 To God prostrate all who are in the heavens and the earth, willingly and unwillingly, as do their shadows in the morning and the evening.4
The unappreciative opponents of the monotheistic message also prostrate for God; in other words, willingly or unwillingly they follow God's laws in nature. Unappreciative people are obliged to follow the laws of nature. Those who do not cognitively wish to accept God's sovereignty might speculate about their ability to control their biological bodies, but the Quran challenges them with a simple example that they can never escape: your shadow obeys God. The shade created by sunlight follows a precise path depending on geographic coordinates, hour of the day, and the day of the year. In other words, the motion of your shadow follows the laws of reflection of light that comes from the sun and changes in accordance to earth's motion. As long as you live on this moving planet and under this illuminating and radiating sun, you cannot change the motion of your shade. See 2:258, 16:48.
13:15 Andto God will prostrate all who are in the heavens and the earth, willingly and unwillingly, as do their shadows in the morning and the evening.
13:15 And before God prostrate themselves, willingly or unwillingly, all [things and beings] that are in the heavens and on earth,33 as do their shadows in the mornings and the evenings.34
The expression yasjud ("prostrates himself" or "prostrate themselves") is a metonym for complete submission to His will (Zamakhshari), that is, to the natural laws decreed by Him with regard to everything that exists. According to most of the classical commentators, those who submit to God willingly (i.e., consciously) are the angels and the believers, whereas the deniers of the truth, who are "not willing" to submit to Him, are nevertheless, without being conscious of it, subject to His will. However, in view of the subsequent reference to "shadows" it is logical to assume that the relative pronoun man relates in this context not merely to conscious beings but also to all other physical objects, whether animate or inanimate-i.e., to "all things and beings that are in the heavens and on earth". (See also 16:48 and 22:18.)
Le., the varying lengths of the shadow projected by any material object depend on the position of the sun in relation to the earth; and since the earth's rotation around the sun is -as everything else in the universe - an outcome of God's creative will, the greater length of a shadow in the morning and evening and its contraction towards noon visibly expresses the shadow's subjection to Him.
All Creation Has Submitted to God13:15 To GOD prostrates everyone in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, and so do their shadows in the mornings and the evenings.,2
Even the disbelievers prostrate; they cannot, for example, control their heartbeats, their lungs, or peristalsis. The shadows are predeterminedby God's design of the solar and the lunar orbits, and by the peculiar shapeof the planet earth which causes the four seasons. The absolute precisionof the sun/earth relation is proven by the invention of solar clocks andtheir shadows.
13:15 And before God bow, willingly or unwillingly, all beings that are in the heavens and earth, as do their shadows in the mornings and evenings. [3:82, 41:11]
13:16 قل من رب السماوات والارض قل الله قل افاتخذتم من دونه اولياء لا يملكون لانفسهم نفعا ولا ضرا قل هل يستوى الاعمىا والبصير ام هل تستوى الظلمات والنور ام جعلوا لله شركاء خلقوا كخلقه فتشابه الخلق عليهم قل الله خالق كل شىء وهو الواحد القهار
13:16 Qul man rabbu alssamawatiwaal-ardi quli Allahu qul afaittakhathtummin doonihi awliyaa la yamlikoona li-anfusihimnafAAan wala darran qul hal yastawee al-aAAmawaalbaseeru am hal tastawee alththulumatuwaalnnooru am jaAAaloo lillahi shurakaakhalaqoo kakhalqihi fatashabaha alkhalqu AAalayhim quliAllahu khaliqu kulli shay-in wahuwa alwahidualqahharu
13:16 Say, "Who is the Lord of the heavens and earth," Say, "God." Say, "Have you taken besides Him allies who do not possess for themselves any benefit or harm?" Say, "Is the blind and the seer the same? Or, does the darkness and the light equate?" Or have they made partners with God who have created like His creation, so the creations all seemed the same to them? Say, "God has created all things, and He is the One, the Supreme."
13:16 Say: "Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth?" Say: "God." Say: "Have you taken besides Him allies who do not possess for themselves any benefit or harm?" Say: "Is the blind and the seer the same? Or do the darkness and the light equate? Or have they set up partners with God who have created like His creation, so the creations all seemed the same to them?" Say: "God has created all things, and He is the One, the Supreme."
13:16 Say: "Who is the Sustainer of the heavens and the earth?" Say: "[It is] God." Say: "[Why,] then, do you take for your protectors, instead of Him, such as have it not within their power to bring benefit to, or avert harm from, themselves?" Say: "Can the blind and the seeing be deemed equal? -or can the depths of darkness and the light be deemed equal?" Or do they [really] believe that there are, side by side with God, other divine powers35 that have created the like of what He creates, so that this act of creation appears to them to be similar [to His]?36 Say: "God is the Creator of all things; and He is the One who holds absolute sway over all that exists."
Lit.. "do they assign to God partners . . .", etc. - i.e.. beings that supposedly have a share in God's divinity and/or His creative power. (See also surah 6, note 15.)
Although the term khalq ("creation" or "act of creation") is often used metaphorically with reference to human achievements, there is an intrinsic difference between the "creation" of an artist, a poet or a philosopher, and the act of creation as attributed to God: for whereas the human "creator" produces his work out of already-existing elements and does no more than bring those elements together in a (possibly) new combination, God alone has the power to create in the true sense of the word - that is, to bring into being something that did not exist, either in its entirety or in its components, before this particular act of creation (cf. 2:117-"when He wills a thing to be, He but says unto it, 'Be'- and it is"). This is the significance of the allusion, in the above verse, to the erroneous belief that any other power or being could ever have "created the like of what He creates".
13:16 Say, "Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth?" Say, "GOD." Say, "Why then do you set up besides Him masters who do not possess any power to benefit or harm even themselves?" Say, "Is the blind the same as the seer? Is darkness the same as the light?" Have they found idols besides GOD who created creations similar to His creations, to the point of not distinguishing the two creations? Say, "GOD is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Supreme.",
13:16 Ask them, "Who is the Lord of the heavens and earth?” Say, “It is God!” (23:84-90, 29:21-23). Then ask, “Why then, do you take as protectors besides Him those who have neither benefit, nor harm even for themselves?” (When you acknowledge Him as God of the heavens, what stops you from acknowledging Him as God of the earth, and thus, as the law-giving authority? (6:3, 21:21-22, 43:84). Say, “Is the blind of reason equal to the seer, or is darkness equal to light?” (11:24, 35:19). Have their so-called partners of God created something like He has created, so that this act of creation appears to them to be similar? Say, “God is the Creator of all things. He is the One, Dominating.”
13:17 انزل من السماء ماء فسالت اودية بقدرها فاحتمل السيل زبدا رابيا ومما يوقدون عليه فى النار ابتغاء حلية او متاع زبد مثله كذالك يضرب الله الحق والباطل فاما الزبد فيذهب جفاء واما ما ينفع الناس فيمكث فى الارض كذالك يضرب الله الامثال
13:17 Anzala mina alssama-i maanfasalat awdiyatun biqadariha faihtamalaalssaylu zabadan rabiyan wamimma yooqidoonaAAalayhi fee alnnari ibtighaa hilyatinaw mataAAin zabadun mithluhu kathalika yadribuAllahu alhaqqa waalbatila faammaalzzabadu fayathhabu jufaan waamma mayanfaAAu alnnasa fayamkuthu fee al-ardi kathalikayadribu Allahu al-amthala
13:17 He sent down water from the sky, so valleys flowed according to their capacity, and the flood produces foam. From what they burn to smelt jewelry or goods similar foam is produced. It is in such a manner that God strikes the falsehood with the truth. As for the foam, it passes away; as for what benefits the people, it remains in the earth. It is such that God cites the examples.
13:17 He sends down water from the sky, so valleys flow according to their capacity, and the flood produces foam. And from what they burn to smelt jewelry or goods is produced a similar foam. It is in such a manner that God strikes the falsehood with the truth. As for the foam, it passes away, and as for what benefits the people, it remains in the earth. It is such that God puts forth the examples.
13:17 [Whenever] He sends down water from the sky, and [once-dry] river-beds are running high37 according to their measure, the stream carries scum on its surface;38 and, likewise, from that [metal] which they smelt in the fire in order to make ornaments or utensils, [there rises] scum. In this way does God set forth the parable of truth and falsehood: for, as far as the scum is concerned, it passes away as [does all] dross; but that which is of benefit to man abides on earth. In this way does God set forth the parables
The interpolation of the adjective "once-dry" before "river-beds" (awdiyah) is necessitated by the absence of the definite article al before this noun. According to Zamakhshari, this indicates that only some of the river-beds are streaming with water while others, not affected by this particular rainfall, remain dry. It is to be borne in mind that the term wad (or wadi in popular parlance) denotes, primarily, a "water-course" or "river-bed" which is normally dry and carries water only after copious rainfalls; it is only by extension that this term is sometimes applied to an actual river.
Sc., "while the water beneath remains clear".
The Truth vs Falsehood13:17 He sends down water from the sky, causing the valleys to overflow, then the rapids produce abundant foam. Similarly, when they use fire to refine metals for their jewelry or equipment, foam is produced. GOD thus cites analogies for the truth and falsehood. As for the foam, it goes to waste, while that which benefits the people stays close to the ground. GOD thus cites the analogies.,
13:17 He sends down water from the height causing the riverbeds to flow according to their measure and the flood bears on its surface swelling foam. When they use fire to refine metals for their jewelry or equipment, foam is produced like it. In this way, God is citing for you the example of the truth and falsehood. For, as far as the foam is concerned, it passes away as scum upon the riverbanks - While that which is of benefit to mankind, exists on earth. This is how God uses analogies for you to understand.9
The real existence on earth is of that which benefits humanity
13:18 Lillatheena istajaboolirabbihimu alhusna waallatheena lamyastajeeboo lahu law anna lahum ma fee al-ardijameeAAan wamithlahu maAAahu laiftadaw bihi ola-ikalahum soo-o alhisabi wama/wahum jahannamuwabi/sa almihadu
13:18 For those who responded to their Lord is goodness. As for those who did not respond to Him, if they had all that is in the earth twice over, they would offer it to be saved. To these will be a terrible reckoning, and their abode is hell; what a miserable abode.
13:18 Forthose who have responded to their Lord is goodness. As for those who have not responded to Him, if they had all that is on the earth twice over, they would ransom it to be saved. For these will be a terrible reckoning, and their abode is Hell; what a miserable abode.
13:18 of those who have responded to their Sustainer with a goodly response, and of those who did not respond to Him.39 [As for the latter,] if they possessed all that is on earth, and twice as much,40 they would surely offer it as ransom [on the Day of Judgment] :41 a most evil reckoning awaits them, and their goal is hell: and how evil a resting-place!
This rendering is based on Zamakhshari 's interpretation of the above passage. According to other commentators, the beginning of verse 18 is independent of the last sentence of the preceding verse, and is a new sentence, reading thus: "For those who have responded to their Sustainer there is the ultimate good (al-husna) [in store]; but as for those who did not respond to Him. . .", etc. In my opinion, Zamakhshari's reading-in which the expression al-husna is regarded as an adjective qualifying the believers' response - is preferable inasmuch as it fully justifies the repetition of the reference to "God's parables".
Lit., "and the like of it with it".
Cf. 3:91 and the corresponding note 71.
13:18 Those who respond to their Lord deserve the good rewards. As for those who failed to respond to Him, if they possessed everything on earth - even twice as much - they would readily give it up as ransom. They have incurred the worst reckoning, and their final abode is Hell; what a miserable destiny.,
13:18 For those who respond to their Lord’s call, is a state of bliss. And those who do not respond to Him, even if they had all the treasures of the world and more like it, they would readily give it as ransom. But, a terrible reckoning awaits them, and Hell will be their abode. What a miserable bed to lie on!
13:19 Afaman yaAAlamu annama onzila ilaykamin rabbika alhaqqu kaman huwa aAAma innamayatathakkaru oloo al-albabi
13:19 Is one who knows that the truth has been sent down to you from your Lord like one who is blind? Only those with understanding will remember.
13:19 Is he who knows that the truth has been sent down to you from your Lord like he who is blind? Only those who possess intelligence will remember.
13:19 CAN, THEN, he who knows that whatever has been bestowed from on high upon thee by thy Sustainer is the truth be deemed equal to one who is blind? Only they who are endowed with insight keep this in mind:
Believers Versus Disbelievers (1) The Believers13:19 Is one who recognizes that your Lord's revelations to you are the truth equal to one who is blind? Only those who possess intelligence will take heed.,
13:19 Is he, then who knows that what has been revealed to you (O Prophet) is the truth from your Lord, like him who chooses to remain blind? Only those who develop their insight will bear this in mind.
13:20 Allatheena yoofoona biAAahdi Allahiwala yanqudoona almeethaqa
13:20 Those who fulfill God's covenant, and they do not break the Covenant.
13:20 Those who fulfill the pledge of God, and they do not break the covenant.
13:20 they who are true to their bond with God and never break their covenant;42
The "covenant" is, in this context, a general term embracing the spiritual obligations arising from one's faith in God and the moral and social obligations, resulting from that faith, towards one's fellow-men (Zamakhshari)-1 see in this connection the first sentence of 5:1 (where the term `aqd is used) and the corresponding note 1. As regards my rendering of `ahd Allah as "bond with God", see surah 2, note 19.
13:20 They are the ones who fulfill their pledge to GOD, and do not violate the covenant.,
13:20 Those who are true to their bond with God (in their allegiance to the Divine System), keep their pledge with God and with people,
13:21 Waallatheena yasiloonama amara Allahu bihi an yoosala wayakhshawnarabbahum wayakhafoona soo-a alhisabi
13:21 Those who deliver what God has ordered be delivered, and they revere their Lord and they fear the terrible reckoning.
13:21 Andthose who deliver what God has ordered to be delivered, and they are concerned towards their Lord and they fear a terrible reckoning.
13:21 and who keep together what God has bidden to be joined,43 and stand in awe of their Sustainer and fear the most evil reckoning [which awaits such as do not respond to Him];
This refers to all ties arising from human relationships- e.g., the bonds of family, responsibility for orphans and the poor, the mutual rights and duties of neighbours -as well as the spiritual and practical bonds which ought to exist between all who belong to the brotherhood of Islam (cf. 8:75 and the corresponding notes). In its widest sense, the phrase "what God has bidden to be joined" applies to the spiritual obligation, on the part of man, to remain conscious of the unity of purpose underlying all of God's creation, and hence - according to Razi - man's moral duty to treat all living beings with love and compassion.
13:21 They join what GOD has commanded to be joined, reverence their Lord, and fear the dreadful reckoning.,
13:21 Build bridges of goodwill between people, and strengthen ties of human relationships as God has commanded, and stand in awe of their Lord. (not relegating His commands to others’ utterances), and fear the eventuality of a tough accountability,
13:22 Waallatheena sabarooibtighaa wajhi rabbihim waaqamoo alssalatawaanfaqoo mimma razaqnahum sirran waAAalaniyatanwayadraoona bialhasanati alssayyi-ata ola-ikalahum AAuqba alddari
13:22 Those who are patient seeking their Lord's direction; and they hold the contact prayer, and they spend from what We bestowed upon them secretly and openly, and they counter sin with good; these will have an excellent abode.
13:22 Andthose who are patient seeking the face of their Lord; and they hold the contact prayer, and they spend from what We have bestowed upon them secretly and openly, and they counter evil with good; these will have an excellent abode.
13:22 and who are patient in adversity out of a longing for their Sustainer's countenance, and are constant in prayer, and spend on others, secretly and openly, out of what We provide for them as sustenance, and [who] repel evil with good.44 It is these that shall find their fulfilment in the hereafter:45
Some of the commentators take this to mean that "if they have committed a sin, they repel it [i.e., its effect] by repentance" (Ibn Kaysan, as quoted by Zamakhshari), while others think that the "repelling" connotes the doing of a good deed in atonement of a -presumably unintentional - bad deed (Razi), or that it refers to endeavours to set evil situations to rights by word or deed (an alternative interpretation mentioned by Zamakhshari). But the great majority of the classical commentators hold that the meaning is "they repay evil with good"; thus Al-Hasan al-Basri (as quoted by Baghawi, Zamakhshari and Razi): "When they are deprived [of anything], they give; and when they are wronged, they forgive." Tabari's explanation is very similar: "They repel the evil done to them by doing good to those who did it"; and "they do not repay evil with evil, but repel it by [doing] good". See also 41:34.
Lit., "For them there will be the end-result [or "fulfilment"] of the [ultimate] abode". The noun `ugba is regarded by almost all the philological authorities as synonymous with `aqibah ("consequence" or "end" or "end-result"; hence also "recompense" and, tropically, "destiny" or "fulfilment"). The term ad-dar stands for ad-dar al-akhirah, "the ultimate abode", i.e., life in the hereafter.
13:22 They steadfastly persevere in seeking their Lord, observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), spend from our provisions to them secretly and publicly, and counter evil with good. These have deserved the best abode.,
13:22 They persevere in the face of adversities seeking the approval of their Lord, help establish and consolidate the Divine System, and uphold the Permanent Values, spend on others of the provision We have given them, in secret and in public, and they counter harshness with kindness. Theirs will be the Eternal Home. [2:27]
13:23 Jannatu AAadnin yadkhuloonahawaman salaha min aba-ihim waazwajihimwathurriyyatihim waalmala-ikatuyadkhuloona AAalayhim min kulli babin
13:23 The gardens of Eden, they will enter it with those who are good doers from their fathers and their mates and their progeny. The controllers will enter upon them from every gate:
13:23 The gardens of delight; which they will enter with those who are good doers from their fathers and their mates and their progeny. And the angels will enter upon them from every gate.
13:23 gardens of perpetual bliss, which they shall enter together with the righteous from among their parents, their spouses, and their offspring;46 and the angels will come unto them from every gate [and will say]:
As I have pointed out in several places, the term zawj denotes "a pair" or "a couple" as well as each of the components of a couple - i.e., with reference to human couples, "a spouse": hence it signifies either "husband" or "wife": Similarly, the term aba' (lit., "fathers" or "forefathers") usually denotes both fathers and mothers, i.e., "parents"; and this is, according to Zamakhshari, the meaning in this instance. - As regards the expression `adn, rendered by me as "perpetual bliss", see note on 38: 50, the earliest instance of the Qur'anic use of this term.
13:23 They enter the gardens of Eden, together with the righteous among their parents, their spouses, and their children. The angels will enter in to them from every door.,
13:23 They will enter the Gardens of Eden, along with all who are righteous, of their parents, spouses and children. Angels will greet them at every gate.
13:24 Salamun AAalaykum bima sabartumfaniAAma AAuqba alddari
13:24 "Peace be upon you for what you have been patient for. Excellent indeed is the final abode."
13:24 "Peace be upon you for what you have been patient for. Excellent indeed is the final abode."
13:24 "Peace be upon you, because you have persevered!" How excellent, then, this fulfilment in the hereafter!
13:24 "Peace be upon you, because you steadfastly persevered. What a joyous destiny.",
13:24 Saying, "Peace be upon you, since you remained steadfast in your commitment! Oh, what an excellent final home!"
13:25 Waallatheena yanqudoonaAAahda Allahi min baAAdi meethaqihi wayaqtaAAoonama amara Allahu bihi an yoosala wayufsidoonafee al-ardi ola-ika lahumu allaAAnatu walahum soo-oalddari
13:25 As for those who break the pledge of God after making its covenant, and they sever what God ordered that it be joined, and they corrupt in the earth; to those is a curse and they will have a miserable abode.
13:25 As for those who break their pledge with God after having made its covenant, and they withhold what God has ordered to be delivered, and they cause corruption on the earth; upon those is a curse and they will have a miserable abode.
13:25 But as for those who break their bond with God after it has been established [in their nature],47 and cut asunder what God has bidden to be joined, and spread corruption on earth -their due is rejection [by God],48 and theirs is a most evil fate [in the life to come].
Lit., "after its establishment (mithaq)". For a full explanation of the expression "bond with God" and of my interpolation, between brackets, of the words "in their nature", see surah 2, note 19.
The Qur'anic term la'nah - usually but inexactly translated as "curse" (and popularly used in this sense in post-classical Arabic parlance) -denotes "banishment" or "alienation" (ib'ad), i.e., from all that is good (Lisan al-Arab). Whenever it is attributed in the Qur'an to God with reference to a sinner, it signifies the latter's "exclusion from God's grace" or his "rejection by God". In the present context, this meaning is reinforced by the subsequent reference to "a most evil fate" (lit., "abode") in afterlife. - For an explanation of the phrase "what God has bidden to be joined", see note 43 above.
(2) The Disbelievers13:25 As for those who violate GOD's covenant after pledging to keep it, and sever what GOD has commanded to be joined, and commit evil, they have incurred condemnation; they have incurred the worst destiny.,
13:25 But those who broke the pledge with God after ratifying it, and cut asunder what God has commanded to be joined (13:20-21), and spread corruption and disorder on earth, their due is (God’s) rejection. And theirs is the terrible Home!
13:26 Allahu yabsutu alrrizqaliman yashao wayaqdiru wafarihoo bialhayatialddunya wama alhayatu alddunyafee al-akhirati illa mataAAun
13:26 God extends the provisions for whom He wishes, or restricts. They celebrated the worldly life, but the worldly life compared to the Hereafter was nothing but a brief enjoyment.
13:26 Godgives the provisions for whom He wishes, and He is Capable. And they were happy with the worldly life, but the worldly life compared to the Hereafter is nothing except a brief enjoyment.
13:26 GOD GRANTS abundant sustenance, or gives it in scant measure, unto whomever He wills; and they [who are given abundance] rejoice in the life of this world - even though, as compared with the life to come, the life of this world is nought but -a fleeting pleasure.
God Controls All Provisions13:26 GOD is the One who increases the provision for whomever He wills, or withholds it. They have become preoccupied with this life; and this life, compared to the Hereafter, is nil.,
13:26 God grants abundant provision, or gives it in scant measure according to His laws (17:18-21). They rejoice in the life of this world alone. But the life of this world is a fleeting pleasure compared with the Hereafter (2:200-201).
13:27 Wayaqoolu allatheena kafaroo lawlaonzila AAalayhi ayatun min rabbihi qul inna Allahayudillu man yashao wayahdee ilayhi man anaba
13:27 Those who have rejected say, "If only a sign were sent down to him from his Lord!" Say, "God misguides whom He wishes and guides to Him whoever is repenting."
13:27 Andthose who have rejected say: "If only a sign were sent down to him from his Lord!" Say: "God misguides whom He wishes and guides to Him whoever is repenting."
13:27 NOW THOSE who are bent on denying the truth [of the Prophet's message] say, "Why has no miraculous sign ever been bestowed upon him from on high by his Sustainer?"49 Say: "Behold, God lets go astray him who wills [to go astray],50 just as He guides unto Himself all who turn unto Him-
See verse 7 of this surah and the corresponding note 16. The repetition of this question at this place points to its connection with the reference to "those who break their bond with God after it has been established [in their nature]" in verse 25 above (elucidated in note 19 on 2:27). The abandonment of their original, innate faculty to realize the existence of God and their own dependence on His guidance-caused by their utter immersion in the passing pleasures of this world's life - makes it impossible for "those who are bent on denying the truth" to sense the breath of the divine in the message propounded to them by Muhammad: and so they refuse to accept it as true unless it is supported by an outward "miracle". (See in this connection note 94 on 6:109.)
Or: "God lets go astray whomever He wills". Regarding the rendering adopted by me, see surah 14, note 4.
13:27 Those who disbelieve would say, "If only a miracle could come down to him from his Lord (we would believe)." Say, "GOD sends astray whomever He wills, and guides to Him only those who obey.",
13:27 (These laws are unwavering.) Now those who are bent upon denying the truth say, “Why has no miracle ever been bestowed upon him from his Lord?” Say, “People go astray according to God’s laws, and attain guidance according to His laws.10
13:28 Allatheena amanoo watatma-innuquloobuhum bithikri Allahi ala bithikriAllahi tatma-innu alquloobu
13:28 The ones who acknowledged and their hearts are satisfied by the remembrance of God; for in God's remembrance the hearts are satisfied.
13:28 The ones who have believed, and their hearts are relieved by the remembrance of God; for in the remembrance of God the hearts are relieved.
13:28 those who believe, and whose hearts find their rest in the remembrance of God - for, verily, in the remembrance of God [men's] hearts do find their rest-:
13:28 They are the ones whose hearts rejoice in remembering GOD. Absolutely, by remembering GOD, the hearts rejoice.,
13:28 Those who attain faith through reason, their hearts find rest in the practical remembrance of God, that is, in following His commands. Remembering God (by following His commands) ensures tranquility in the hearts.
13:29 Allatheena amanoo waAAamiloo alssalihatitooba lahum wahusnu maabin
13:29 Those who acknowledged, and promoted reforms, there will be happiness for them and a good abode.
13:29 The ones who have believed, and have done good works, there will be happiness for them and a wonderful abode.
13:29 [and so it is that] they who attain to faith and do righteous deeds are destined for happiness [in this world] and the most beauteous of all goals [in the life to come]!"
13:29 Those who believe and lead a righteous life have deserved happiness and a joyous destiny.,
13:29 The abode of bliss is guaranteed to those who accept the message and fulfill the needs of others. [3:13]
13:30 Kathalika arsalnaka feeommatin qad khalat min qabliha omamun litatluwa AAalayhimuallathee awhayna ilayka wahum yakfuroona bialrrahmaniqul huwa rabbee la ilaha illa huwa AAalayhitawakkaltu wa-ilayhi matabi
Dogmatism and Bigotry of Ingrates13:30 As such, We have sent you to a nation as other nations that have come before, so that you may recite for them what has been inspired to you; while they are still rejecting the Gracious. Say, "He is my Lord, there is no god but He; in Him I place my trust and to Him is my repentance."
13:30 Thus, We have sent you to a nation, as with other nations before it, so that you may recite to them that which has been inspired to you; while they are still rejecting the Almighty. Say: "He is my Lord, there is no god except He, in Him I place my trust and to Him is my repentance."
13:30 Thus51 have We raised thee [O Muhammad] as Our Apostle amidst a community [of unbelievers] before whose time [similar] communities have come and gone,52 so that thou might propound to them what We have revealed unto thee: for [in their ignorance] they deny the Most Gracious !53 Say: "He is my Sustainer. There is no deity save Him. In Him have I placed my trust, and unto Him is my recourse!"
Most of the commentators explain the "thus" or "thus it is" (kadhalika) as referring to the earlier prophets, namely, "Thus, [or "in like manner"] as We sent prophets before thee, O Muhammad, We have now sent thee. . .", etc. It seems to me, however, that this speculative interpolation is unnecessary, and that the adverb "thus" connects directly with the preceding statement that God "guides unto Himself all who turn unto Him": in other words, the "thus" qualifies Muhammad's mission as an instrument of God's guidance. (This is, apparently, how Tabari understands the above phrase.)
Lit., "before whom [other] communities have passed away": an indirect reference to the continuity of prophetic revelation before and up to the time of the Last Prophet, Muhammad (Zamakhshari, Razi). The interpolation of the words "of unbelievers" is based on Ibn Kathir's commentary on this verse, whereas my rendering of arsalnaka (lit., "We have sent thee") as "We have raised thee as Our Apostle" is necessitated, in English, by the subsequent preposition "amidst".
Le., by refusing to acknowledge His existence, or by rejecting His guidance, or by ascribing divine qualities to other beings or forces side by side with Him.
God's Messenger of the Covenant13:30 We have sent you (O Rashad)3 to this community, just as we did for other communities in the past. You shall recite to them what we reveal to you, for they have disbelieved in the Most Gracious. Say, "He is my Lord. There is no god except He. I put my trust in Him alone; to Him is my ultimate destiny."*,
If we add the gematrical value of "Rashad" (505), plus the value of "Khalifa" (725), plus the sura number (13), plus the verse number (30),we get 505+725+13+30 = 1273 = 19x67. God thus specifies the name of His messenger(see Appendix 2 for the details).
13:30 (O Messenger) We have sent you as We sent the Messengers before you so that you convey to them what We reveal to you, for in their ignorance, they deny the Most Gracious. Say, “He is my Lord, there is no god but He. In Him I put my trust and to Him do I turn (for grace).”
13:31 ولو ان قرءانا سيرت به الجبال او قطعت به الارض او كلم به الموتىا بل لله الامر جميعا افلم يايس الذين ءامنوا ان لو يشاء الله لهدى الناس جميعا ولا يزال الذين كفروا تصيبهم بما صنعوا قارعة او تحل قريبا من دارهم حتىا ياتى وعد الله ان الله لا يخلف الميعاد
13:31 Walaw anna qur-anan suyyirat bihialjibalu aw quttiAAat bihi al-ardu awkullima bihi almawta bal lillahi al-amru jameeAAanafalam yay-asi allatheena amanoo an law yashaoAllahu lahada alnnasa jameeAAan walayazalu allatheena kafaroo tuseebuhum bimasanaAAoo qariAAatun aw tahullu qareeban mindarihim hatta ya/tiya waAAdu Allahiinna Allaha la yukhlifu almeeAAada
13:31 If there were a Quran/recitation with which mountains were moved, the earth were sliced, or the dead were made to speak… No, to God is all matters. Did not those who acknowledge know that if God wished He would have guided all the people? As for those who reject, until God's promise comes true, a disaster will continue to strike them or alight at near their homes because of what they do. God does not breach the appointment.
13:31 Andif a revelation were to be used to move mountains, or to slice the earth, or the dead were spoken to with it! Indeed, to God are all matters. Did not those who have believed know that if God had wished He would have guided all the people? As for those who reject, they continue to be stricken with disaster or it comes near to their homes, until the promise of God comes true. God does not break the appointment.
13:31 Yet even if [they should listen to] a [divine] discourse by which mountains could be moved, or the earth cleft asunder, or the dead made to speak - [they who are bent on denying the truth would still refuse to believe in it]!54 Nay, but God alone has the power to decide what shall be.55 Have, then, they who have attained to faith not yet come to know that, had God so willed; He would indeed have guided all mankind aright?56 But as for those who are bent on denying the truth-in result of their [evil] deeds, sudden calamities will always befall them or will alight close to their homes;57 [and this will continue] until God's promise [of resurrection] is fulfilled: verily, God never fails to fulfil His promise!
The sentence added by me between brackets corresponds to the interpretation given to the above passage by Tabari and also by Az-Zajjaj (as quoted by, Razi and-without the mention of Az-Zajjaj by name - by Baghawi and Zamakhshari as well); cf. 6:109.
Lit., "God's alone is all [power of] command": i.e., no "miraculous sign" can ever convince those whose hearts God has "sealed" in consequence of their "breaking their bond with Him" (see surah 2, notes 7 and 19).
The meaning is that God grants man the freedom to choose between right and wrong: "He guides unto Himself all who turn unto Him" (verse 27 above) and "are true to their bond with God" (verse 20); on the other hand, He withholds His guidance from "the iniquitous, who break their bond with "God" (2:26). See also the last sentence of 6:149 and the corresponding note 143.
Lit., "a sudden calamity (qari'ah) will not cease (la yazal) to befall them or to alight close to their home". However, since this phrase connotes repetition and continuity, the singular form of the noun qari'ah has here obviously a cumulative sense - namely, an unceasing succession of social catastrophes, fratricidal wars and mutual deprivations which, in consequence of their deliberate disregard of all spiritual values, will directly befall "those who are bent on denying the truth" (alladhina kafaru), or will, indirectly, cause them to suffer by affecting their whole organic environment: and this, to my mind, is the meaning of the phrase "or will alight close to their homes". (Cf. in this connection 5:33 and the corresponding notes, especially note 45.)
Mathematical Miracle of the Quran13:31 Even if a Quran caused mountains to move, or the earth to tear asunder, or the dead to speak (they will not believe). GOD controls all things. Is it not time for the believers to give up and realize that if GOD willed, He could have guided all the people? The disbelievers will continue to suffer disasters, as a consequence of their own works, or have disasters strike close to them, until GOD's promise is fulfilled. GOD will never change the predetermined destiny.,
13:31 The Divine law precludes the possibility that a Lecture would move the mountains, tear the earth asunder, or make the dead speak. Nay, all decrees belong to God. Do not the believers know that if God had willed, He could have guided all mankind (by making them driven by positive instincts)? As for those who reject the Divine laws in nature: Disasters will not cease to strike them for their deeds, even close to their homes until the promise of God come to pass. Surely, God never fails in His promise.11
Mankind will keep devising various political and socio-economic systems in search for the best. Those systems will keep collapsing and they will keep suffering far and close to their towns and homes. Then, ultimately, they will realize that the Qur’an offers the solutions to all the problems humanity faces at any given time. 5:3, 9:31, 10:100, 13:31:48, 18:48, 41:53, 48:28, 51:20, 61:9. The Qur’an is intended to move hearts, not mountains. 6:7, 6:25, 6:112, 15:14, 17:90
13:32 Walaqadi istuhzi-a birusulin min qablikafaamlaytu lillatheena kafaroo thumma akhathtuhumfakayfa kana AAiqabi
13:32 Messengers before you were ridiculed, but I gave time to those who rejected, then I took them. Then how was My punishment?
13:32 Andmessengers before you were mocked, but I gave time to those who had rejected, then I took them; so how was My punishment?
13:32 And, indeed, [even] before thy time have [God's] apostles been derided, and for a while I gave rein to those who were [thus] bent on denying the truth: but then I took them to task - and how awesome was My retribution!
All Messengers Must Be Ridiculed13:32 Messengers before you have been ridiculed; I permitted the disbelievers to carry on, then I punished them. How terrible was My retribution!,
13:32 Messengers were mocked before you, but I gave the rejecters plenty of respite. At length I seized them, then how awesome My requital was!
13:33 Afaman huwa qa-imun AAalakulli nafsin bima kasabat wajaAAaloo lillahi shurakaaqul sammoohum am tunabbi-oonahu bima la yaAAlamufee al-ardi am bithahirin minaalqawli bal zuyyina lillatheena kafaroo makruhum wasuddooAAani alssabeeli waman yudlili Allahu famalahu min hadin
13:33 Who is the One standing over every person for what it has earned? Yet they make partners with God. Say, "Name them? Or are you informing Him of what He does not know on earth? Or is it just a show of words?" But to the ingrates, their scheming is made to appear clever, and they are turned away from the path. Whoever God misguides will have no guide.
13:33 It is He who is standing upon every soul for what it has earned; yet they set up partners with God. Say: "Name them?" Or are you informing Him of what He does not know on the earth or is it just a show of words? Indeed, to the rejecters, their scheming is made to appear pleasing, and they are repelled from the path. And whoever God misguides will have no guide.
13:33 IS, THEN, HE who has every living being58 in His almighty care, [dealing with each] according to what it deserves59 -[is, then, He like anything else that exists]? And yet, they ascribe to other beings a share in God's divinity! Say: "Give them any name [you please]:60 but do you [really think that you could] inform Him of anything on earth that He does not know-or [do you] but play with words ?,61 Nay, goodly seems their false imagery62 to those who are bent on denying the truth, and so they are turned away from the [right] path: and he whom God lets go astray can never find any guide.63
The term nafs has here apparently the general meaning of "soul" or "living being", applying both to humans and animals.
Lit., "what it has acquired" - i.e., according to the exigencies of its life, and - in the case of a human being-according to his or her moral deserts as well.
Lit., "Name them!" Most of the commentators explain this phrase as an expression of utter contempt for those allegedly "divine" beings: i.e., "they are so unreal and meaningless as not to deserve even a name". It is also conceivable that we have here an echo of the statement, to be found in 7:71, 12:40 and 53:23, to the effect that those false objects of worship are but "[empty] names which you have invented". However, in view of the next sentence - which refers to God's omniscience and is similar to 10:18, where imaginary "intercessors" are explicitly mentioned - it is possible to interpret the above phrase still more precisely, viz., "Call them `divine intercessors', if you so like: but. . .", etc. (According to Zamakhshari, the particle am, which usually denotes "or", stands here for bal, "nay, but" or simply "but".)
Lit., "or [do you say this] in the outward appearance (bi-zahir) of a saying". Cf. the second part of 10 :18 (preceded by a reference to deified "intercessors") and the corresponding note 27.
Lit., "their cunning [or "artful"] device (makr)": but since, as Tabari points out, this term relates here mainly to conscious shirk ("the attribution of divine qualities to aught but God") and, hence, to false religious ideas in general, it can be suitably rendered as above.
See surah 7, note 152, and surah 14, note 4.
13:33 Is there any equal to the One who controls every single soul? Yet, they set up idols to rival GOD. Say, "Name them. Are you informing Him of something on earth that He does not know? Or, are you fabricating empty statements?" Indeed, the schemes of those who disbelieve have been adorned in their eyes. They are thus diverted from the right path. Whomever GOD sends astray can never find a guiding teacher.,
13:33 Is there any equal to the One Who stands witness over what every person does? Yet, they ascribe partners to God. Say, “Name them! Are you informing Him of something that He does not know on earth? Or is it a mere show of words?” Nay, whatever the unbelievers contrive seems fair to them. But they get hindered from the right path. Whoever chooses to go astray according to God’s law, for him there is no guide. [4:88]
13:34 Lahum AAathabun fee alhayatialddunya walaAAathabu al-akhiratiashaqqu wama lahum mina Allahi min waqin
13:34 They will have a punishment in the worldly life, and the punishment of the Hereafter is more difficult. They will have no protector against God.
13:34 They will have a punishment in the worldly life, and the punishment of the Hereafter is more difficult. And they will have no defender against God.
13:34 For such, there is suffering in the life of this world;64 but, truly, [their] suffering in the life to come will be harder still, and they will have none to shield them from God.
See the last paragraph of verse 31 and note 57 above.
13:34 They have incurred retribution in this life, and the retribution in the Hereafter is far worse. Nothing can protect them against GOD.,
13:34 For them is torment in the life of this world, and certainly the doom of the life to come is harder, and they will have no defender against God.
13:35 Mathalu aljannati allatee wuAAidaalmuttaqoona tajree min tahtiha al-anharuokuluha da-imun wathilluhatilka AAuqba allatheena ittaqaw waAAuqba alkafireenaalnnaru
Heaven is Described Allegorically13:35 The allegory of paradise that the righteous have been promised is that rivers flow beneath it, and its provisions are continuous as is its shade. Such is the abode of those who were righteous, while the abode of the ingrates is the fire.
13:35 Theexample of the Paradise which the righteous are promised, is that rivers flow beneath it, and its provisions are continuous as is its shade. Such is the abode of those who were righteous, while the abode of the rejecters is the Fire.
13:35 THE PARABLE of the paradise promised to those who are conscious of God [is that of a garden] through which running waters flow:65 [but, unlike an earthly garden,] its fruits will be everlasting, and [so will be] its shade.66 Such will be the destiny of those who remain conscious of God-just as the destiny of those who deny the truth will be the fire.67
This rendering (and the interpolation of the words "is that of a garden") reproduces literally the interpretation given to the above passage by Az-Zajjaj, as quoted by Zamakhshari and-in an abbreviated form - by Razi; according to Zamakhshari, this passage serves "as a parabolic illustration, by means of something which we know from our experience, of something that is beyond the reach of our perception" (tamthilan li-ma ghaba `anna bi-ma nushahid). As in the similar (but wider) reference to "the parable of paradise" in 47:15, we are here reminded that the Qur'anic descriptions of what awaits man after resurrection are, of necessity, metaphorical, since the human mind cannot conceive of anything that is - both in its elements and its totality - entirely different from anything that can be experienced in this world. (See in this connection Appendix I.)
I.e., its gift of happiness. Regarding this metaphorical meaning of; zill ("shade"), see the last clause of 4:57 and the corresponding note 74.
For my rendering of `ugba, in this context, as "destiny" see note 45 above.
Heaven Allegorically Described13:35 The allegory of Heaven, which is promised for the righteous, is flowing streams, inexhaustible provisions, and cool shade. Such is the destiny for those who observe righteousness, while the destiny for the disbelievers is Hell.,
13:35 The similitude of the Garden which is promised for the righteous, is flowing streams beneath, its fruit everlasting, and cool shades (14:25, 47:15). This is the end result of the righteous, while the end of the rejecters is Fire.
13:36 Waallatheena ataynahumualkitaba yafrahoona bima onzila ilaykawamina al-ahzabi man yunkiru baAAdahu qulinnama omirtu an aAAbuda Allaha wala oshrikabihi ilayhi adAAoo wa-ilayhi maabi
13:36 Those to whom We have previously given the book rejoice at what has been sent down to you, but there are some of the groups that reject parts of it. Say, "I am only ordered to serve God and not to associate any partner with Him. To Him I pray and to Him is the return."
13:36 Andthose to whom We have previously given the Book rejoice at what has been sent down to you, but there are some from the Confederates who reject parts of it. Say: "I am only ordered to serve God and not set up any partner with Him. Towards Him I implore and towards Him is the return."
13:36 Hence, they unto whom We have vouchsafed this revelation68 rejoice at all that has been bestowed upon thee [O Prophet] from on high;69 but among the followers of other creeds there are such as deny the validity of some of it.70 Say [unto them, O Prophet]: "I have only been bidden to worship God, and not to ascribe divine. powers to aught beside Him :71 unto Him do I call [all mankind], and He is my goal!"
Sc., "and who believe in it".
I.e., because it offers them guidance in this world and holds out to them the promise of ultimate happiness in the life to come.
I.e., while admitting that the Qur'an contains much that coincides with the spiritual concepts taught by their own religions. The designation ahzab (lit., "parties" or "sects", sing. hizb) connotes here the followers of other religions or creeds (Tabari and Razi).
The particle "only" (innama) at the beginning of this sentence "clearly shows that there is [in Islam] no obligation, no ordinance and no prohibition that is not connected with this [principle]" (Razi).
13:36 Those who received the scripture rejoice in what was revealed to you; some others may reject parts of it. Say, "I am simply enjoined to worship GOD, and never associate any idols with Him. I invite to Him, and to Him is my ultimate destiny.",
13:36 So, those to whom We have given the Book, rejoice in what is revealed to you (O Prophet). But, among the (dissenting) groups, there are those who deny a part of it. Say, “I am commanded only that I serve God and associate none with Him. Unto Him I invite all mankind, and He is my goal.”12
The dissenting groups even preach that some of the verses are abrogated or that they have a hidden meaning
13:37 Wakathalika anzalnahu hukmanAAarabiyyan wala-ini ittabaAAta ahwaahum baAAda majaaka mina alAAilmi ma laka mina Allahi minwaliyyin wala waqin
The Miraculous Signs for Future Generations13:37 Thus, We have sent it down a law in Arabic. If you follow their desires after what has come to you of the knowledge, then you will not have any ally or protector against God.
13:37 Andas such, We have sent it down a law which is in Arabic. And if you follow their desires after what has come to you of the knowledge, then you will not have any ally or defender against God.
13:37 Thus, then, have We bestowed from on high this [divine writ] as an ordinance in the Arabic tongue.72 And, indeed, if thou shouldst defer to men's likes and dislikes73 after all the [divine] knowledge that has come unto thee, thou wouldst have none to protect thee from God, and none to shield thee [from Him].
Lit., "as an Arabic ordinance (hukm)": i.e., so as to enable the Arabian Prophet to propound it to the people of his immediate environment and, through them, to the whole world. Cf. in this connection 14:4, where it is stated that every one of God's prophets was entrusted with a message "in his own people's tongue, so that he might make [the truth] clear unto them". That the message of the Qur'an is universal, and not restricted to the Arabs alone, is brought out clearly in many places, e.g., in 7:158, "Say [O Prophet]: 'O mankind! Verily, I am an apostle of God to all of you."
Lit., "follow their likes and dislikes (ahwahum)" - i.e., by compromising with the followers of other creeds who, while accepting some of the fundamental verities of the Qur'an, are unwilling to accept the whole of it.
Divine Authorization of the Quran's Mathematical Code13:37 We revealed these laws in Arabic, and if you ever acquiesce to their wishes, after this knowledge has come to you, you will have no ally, nor a protector, against GOD.4 ,
The verse number (38) =19x2. Placing the values of "Rashad" (505) and "Khalifa" (725) next to 13:37, gives 505 725 13 37 38, or19x26617112302(Appendix 2).
13:37 Thus, We have revealed it, a decisive authority in Arabic. (O Prophet) if you follow their likes and dislikes after the knowledge has come to you, you will have no protector or defender against God.
13:38 Walaqad arsalna rusulan min qablikawajaAAalna lahum azwajan wathurriyyatan wamakana lirasoolin an ya/tiya bi-ayatin illabi-ithni Allahi likulli ajalin kitabun
13:38 We have sent messengers before you and We have made for them mates and offspring. It was not for a messenger to come with any sign except by God's leave, but for every time there is a decree.5
The Quran informs us about many miracles/evidences (aya/beyyinat) given to previous messengers, as extraordinary evidences for their extraordinary claims. However, many dogmatic skeptics or dogmatic followers of a particular teaching always managed to find excuses to blind themselves to those evidences. They considered them to be magic, tricks, illusions or mythology. Some modern Muslim scholars, perhaps because of their lack of appreciation of God's power, tried very hard to deny the existence of miracles; they tried to transform them into natural events, or symbolic statements. Those who have witnessed the perpetual mathematical miracle of the Quran, will have no problem in accepting the examples of miracles given in the Quran. Miracles remove the doubts of those who sincerely seek for truth, and strengthen those who already acknowledged the message. The Quran repeatedly informs us that God does not change His sunna (law); and sending messengers with supporting miracles/signs has been God's law. Below is a list of miracles/signs mentioned in the Quran:
Some of the Children of Israel are resurrected on Earth after being killed (2:56).
Moses causes 12 springs to gush forth (2:60).
A man dies and is resurrected after 100 years (2:259).
Abraham kills four birds and brings them back to life (2:260).
Zechariah’s wife gives birth while infertile (3:40).
Mary gives birth while being a virgin (3:47).
Jesus heals the blind, lepers (3:49).
Jesus raises the dead (3:49).
Controllers descend to fight alongside the prophet (3:125).
God speaks to Moses (4:164).
Jesus brings down a feast from heaven (5:112).
Moses turns his staff into a serpent (7:107).
Moses’ hand becomes pure white (7:108).
God reveals Himself physically to a mountain (7:143).
Abraham’s wife gives birth while beyond menstruation (11:72).
The sleepers of the cave survive 309 years in sleep (18:25).
Jesus speaks from birth (19:29).
Abraham survives being burned alive by the fire turning cold (21:69).
Solomon commands the winds (21:81).
Moses parts the sea and saves the Children of Israel (26:63).
Solomon speaks to the birds (27:16).
Solomon moves a palace across time and space (27:40).
13:38 AndWe have sent messengers before you and We have made for them mates and offspring. It was not for a messenger to come with any sign except with the permission of God; for each period there is a Book.
13:38 And, truly, We sent forth apostles before thee, and We appointed for them wives and offspring;74 and it was not given to any apostle to produce a miracle save at God's behest.75 Every age has had its revelation:76
I.e., they were mortals like all other men, and were not endowed with any "supernatural" qualities. This is a rejoinder to those who refuse to'accept a divine message as true on the grounds of its having been conveyed to mankind by an "ordinary mortal". (Cf. 25:7, where the unbelievers are speaking derisively of Muhammad as an apostle "who eats food [like all other mortals] and goes about in the market-places", and the many references to their incredulous wondering that God should have chosen as His prophet "a man from among themselves".) In addition to this, the above verse stresses, by implication, the positive value of man's natural, physical life-summarized, as it were, in the expression "wives and offspring"-and the rejection of exaggerated asceticism and self-mortification as an allegedly desirable "way to God".
Lit., "by God's leave". Cf. 6:109 - "Miracles are in the power of God alone" - and the corresponding note 94. In the present context, this is an answer to those who refuse to believe in Muhammad's message unless "a miraculous sign" is bestowed upon him.
Or: "a divine writ" (kitab). See 5:48 - "Unto every one of you have We appointed a [different] law and way of life"-and the corresponding note 66, which explains the succession of divine messages culminating in, and ending with, the revelation of the Qur'an. This interpretation of the above phrase - adopted, among others, by Ibn Kathir - connects it plausibly with the preceding mention of the apostles who came before Muhammad, and with the subsequent reference to the super-session of the earlier divine messages by that of the Qur'an. Apart from this, the statement that every age had a revelation suited to the particular needs of the time and the people_ concerned (Zamakhshari) constitutes an answer to the objection, often raised by followers of other creeds, that the message of the Qur'an differs in many respects from the earlier divine revelations (Razi).
13:38 We have sent messengers before you, and we made them husbands with wives and children. No messenger can produce a miracle without GOD's authorization, and in accordance with a specific, predetermined time.,
13:38 And certainly We sent Messengers before you, and We appointed for them wives and children as well. It was not given to any Messenger that he could bring a sign (the requital they hastened for), but it came according to God’s Law of Respite. For every rise and for every fall, there is a written law.13
13:39 Yamhoo Allahu ma yashaowayuthbitu waAAindahu ommu alkitabi
13:39 God erases what He wishes and affirms, and with Him is the source of the book.
13:39 Goderases and confirms what He wishes, and with Him is the source of the Book.
13:39 God annuls or confirms whatever He wills [of His earlier messages] -for with Him is the source of all revelation.77
I.e., He is the fountainhead or source (asl) of all revelation.-As regards the preceding reference to the abrogation of earlier divine dispensations and their super-session by later ones - ending with the final revelation, the Qur'an - see 2:106 and the corresponding note 87. (According to Qatadah, as quoted by Tabari and Ibn Kathir, the passage under consideration has the same purport as 2:106.)
13:39 GOD erases whatever He wills, and fixes (whatever He wills). With Him is the original Master Record.,
13:39 God blots out and establishes communities according to His laws. Nations rise and fall accordingly, and with Him is the Ultimate Decree.14
Ummul Kitaab = The Ultimate Decree = Divine Database
13:40 Wa-in ma nuriyannaka baAAdaallathee naAAiduhum aw natawaffayannaka fa-innamaAAalayka albalaghu waAAalayna alhisabu
13:40 If We show you some of what We promise them or if We let you pass away, for you is only to deliver, while for Us is the reckoning.6
These verses contain one of the many implied prophecies about the mathematical miracle of the Quran, which was designed by God to be unveiled in 1974. The Arabic word we translated with the word "reckoning" is hesab, which also means "to number" or "to count." The Arabic of the Quran contains many such rich meanings, which are usually lost in translation. In the endnotes, we have pulled the attention to a few of them. Furthermore, the reduction of the land from its edges might be a prophetic reference to the feared consequence of global warming. Melting of the icebergs can increase the height of ocean and claim the shores of many regions, thereby reducing the land from its edges.
13:40 Andif We show you some of what We promise them, or We terminate your life, then you are only to deliver while for Us is the reckoning.
13:40 BUT WHETHER We let thee see [in thy lifetime, O Prophet, the fulfilment of] some of what We have promised them,78 or whether We cause thee to die [before its fulfilment] - thy duty is no more than to deliver the message; and the reckoning is Ours.
I.e., the calamities which, according to the last paragraph of verse 31 above, are in store for "those who are bent on denying the truth" (alladhina kafaru).
13:40 Whether we show you what we promise them, or terminate your life before that, your sole mission is to deliver (the message). It is us who will call them to account.,
13:40 (O Messenger) whether We show you what We promise them, or cause you to die before that, your duty is to convey the message. And the reckoning is Ours.
13:41 Awa lam yaraw anna na/tee al-ardananqusuha min atrafiha waAllahuyahkumu la muAAaqqiba lihukmihi wahuwasareeAAu alhisabi
The Consequence of Arrogance and Indulgence13:41 Do they not see that We come to the land and reduce it from its borders? God gives judgment and there is none to override His judgment. He is quick reckoning.*
13:41 Do they not see that We come to the land and reduce it from its ends? And God gives judgment and there is none to override His judgment. And He is swift to reckoning.
13:41 Have, then, they [who deny the truth] never yet seen how79 We visit the earth [with Our punishment], gradually depriving it of all that is best thereon?80 For, [when] God judges, there is no power that could repel His judgment: and swift in reckoning is He!
Or: "curtailing it from [all] its sides" (min atrafiha) -depending on whether one understands by atraf the "sides" or "extremities" or "outlying parts" (of a concrete body or land) or, alternatively, the "outstanding men" - i.e., the great leaders, scholars and thinkers (Taj al-'Arus) - and "the best of the [earth's] inhabitants and fruits" (ibid.). Many commentators, taking the primary meaning of atraf, are of the opinion that the above sentence relates to the struggle between the early Muslim community at Medina and the pagans of Mecca, and interpret it thus: "Do they [i.e., the pagans of Mecca] not see that we are visiting [with Our punishment] the land [held by them], gradually curtailing it from [all] its sides?"- which would imply a prophecy of the gradual conquest of all Arabia by the Muslims. Other commentators, however, prefer the secondary meaning of atraf and - without denying its relevance to the early history of Islam - interpret this passage in a more general sense similar to the rendering adopted by me. Thus, for instance, Razi: "Have they [i.e., the deniers of the truth] never yet seen the turns of fortune (ikhtilafat) that take place in this world-destruction after prosperity, death after life, humiliation after glory, deficiency after perfection? ... Hence, what makes those deniers of the truth so sure that God will not render them abject after they had been mighty, and subjected [by others] after they had been rulers?" Thus, in its widest sense, the phrase "gradually depriving it of all that is best in it" may be taken to relate not merely to physical and social catastrophes but also to the ` loss of all ethical values - and, thus, to the loss of all worldly power - which "those who are bent on denying the truth" are bound to suffer in the end.
13:41 Do they not see that every day on earth, brings them closer to the end, and that GOD decides their life span, irrevocably? He is the most efficient Reckoner.,
13:41 Do they not see that every day on earth brings them closer to the end? For, when God judges, there is no power that could repel His Judgment. And Swift in reckoning He is!
13:42 Waqad makara allatheena min qablihimfalillahi almakru jameeAAan yaAAlamu ma taksibukullu nafsin wasayaAAlamu alkuffaru liman AAuqba alddari
13:42 Those before them have schemed, but to God is all scheming. He knows what every person earns and the ingrates will come to know to whom is the ultimate abode.
13:42 Andthose before them had schemed, but to God is all scheming. He knows what every soul earns and the rejecters will come to know to whom is the better abode.
13:42 Now those who lived before these [sinners] did, too, devise many a blasphemy81 -but the most subtle devising is that of God, who knows what each human being deserves :82 and the deniers of the truth will [in time] come to know to whom the future belongs.83
Lit., "did scheme"-an expression which in this context apparently refers to blasphemous ideas and attitudes.
Lit., "earns" -i.e., of good and evil.
For an explanation of this rendering of `ugba 'd-dar (which is here synonymous with `aqibat ad-dar), see surah 6, note 118.
13:42 Others before them have schemed, but to GOD belongs the ultimate scheming. He knows what everyone is doing. The disbelievers will find out who the ultimate winners are.,
13:42 Those who lived before these people, also devised schemes, but the most comprehensive devising is that of God. He knows what every ‘self’ earns. The rejecters will soon come to know for whom will be the future Home.
13:43 Wayaqoolu allatheena kafaroo lastamursalan qul kafa biAllahi shaheedan bayneewabaynakum waman AAindahu AAilmu alkitabi
13:43 Those who reject say, "You are not a messenger." Say, "God is sufficient as a witness between me and you, and those who have the knowledge of the book."
13:43 Andthose who reject say: "You are not a messenger." Say: "God is enough as a witness between me and you; the One who has the knowledge of the Book."
13:43 And [if] they who are bent on denying the truth say [unto thee, O Prophet], "Thou hast not been sent [by God]", say thou: "None can bear witness between me and you as God does; and [none can bear witness as does] he who truly understands this divine writ.84
Lit., "and anyone who possesses (man `indahu) knowledge of the revelation"-implying that a true understanding of the Qur'an unavoidably leads one to the conviction that it has been revealed by God.
13:43 Those who disbelieved will say, "You are not a messenger!" Say, "GOD suffices as a witness between me and you, and those who possess knowledge of the scripture.",
13:43 The disbelievers say, “You have not been sent (by God).” Say, "None can bear witness between me and you as God does; and then, none can bear witness as the one who truly understands this Book by way of reason.”15
God will soon prove me true