بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
4:1 ياايها الناس اتقوا ربكم الذى خلقكم من نفس واحدة وخلق منها زوجها وبث منهما رجالا كثيرا ونساء واتقوا الله الذى تساءلون به والارحام ان الله كان عليكم رقيبا
4:1 Ya ayyuha alnnasuittaqoo rabbakumu allathee khalaqakum min nafsin wahidatinwakhalaqa minha zawjaha wabaththa minhumarijalan katheeran wanisaan waittaqoo Allahaallathee tasaaloona bihi waal-arhamainna Allaha kana AAalaykum raqeeban
4:1 O people, be aware of your Lord who has created you from one person and He created from it its mate and sent forth from both many men and women; and be aware of God whom you ask about, and the relatives. God is watcher over you.1
Male and female, with little difference, share the same genetic program. The creation of the female from Adam's ribs found in Genesis 2:21-22 does not fit the Quranic description of creation. There is most likely a misunderstanding or deliberate distortion of an original word. On the Biblical account of the creation of Eve, the commentator Matthew Henry makes a beautiful comment, which might give us insight into the original meaning of the text: "This companion was taken from his side to signify that she was to be dear unto him as his own flesh. Not from his head, lest she should rule over him; nor from his feet, lest he should tyrannize over her; but from his side, to denote that species of equality which is to subsist in the marriage state." Ironically, many misogynistic Christian scholars interpreted the Biblical account of Eve's creation to belittle and condemn women. For instance, the 19th century Scottish Presbyterian scholar Easton provides the following information on the verse: "Through the subtle temptation of the serpent she violated the commandment of God by taking of the forbidden fruit, which she gave also unto her husband (1Timothy 2:13-15 ; 2Corinthians 11:3). When she gave birth to her first son, she said, "I have gotten a man from the Lord" (R.V., "I have gotten a man with the help of the Lord," Genesis 4:1 ). Thus she welcomed Cain, as some think, as if he had been the Promised One the 'Seed of the woman.'" See 2:36; 49:13.
4:1 O people, be aware of your Lord who has created you from one person and He created from it its mate and sent forth from it many men and many women; and be aware of God whom you ask about, and the relatives. God is Watcher over you.
4:1 O MANKIND! Be conscious of your Sustainer, who has created you out of one living entity, and out of it created its mate, and out of the two spread abroad a multitude of men and women.1 And remain conscious of God, in whose name you demand [your rights] from one another, and of these ties of kinship. Verily, God is ever watchful over you!
Out of the many meanings attributable to the term nafs - soul, spirit, mind, animate being, living entity, human being, person, self (in the sense of a personal identity), humankind, life-essence, vital principle, and so forth - most of the classical commentators choose "human being", and assume that it refers here to Adam. Muhammad 'Abduh, however, rejects this interpretation (Manar IV, 323 ff.) and gives, instead, his preference to "humankind" inasmuch as this term stresses the common origin and brotherhood of the human race (which, undoubtedly, is the purport of the above verse), without, at the same time, unwarrantably tying it to the Biblical account of the creation of Adam and Eve. My rendering of nafs, in this context, as "living entity" follows the same reasoning - As regards the expression zawjaha ("its mate"), it is to be noted that, with reference to animate beings, the term zawj ("a pair", "one of a pair" or "a mate") applies to the male as well as to the female component of a pair or couple; hence, with reference to human beings, it signifies a woman's mate (husband) as well as a man's mate (wife). Abu Muslim - as quoted by Razi - interprets the phrase "He created out of it (minha) its mate" as meaning "He created its mate [i.e., its sexual counterpart] out of its own kind (min jinsiha)", thus supporting the view of Muhammad 'Abduh referred to above. The literal translation of minha as "out of it" clearly alludes, in conformity with the text, to the biological fact that both sexes have originated from "one living entity".
4:1 O people, observe your Lord; the One who created you from one being, and created from it its mate, then spread from the two many men and women. You shall regard GOD, by whom you swear, and regard the parents. GOD is watching over you.,1
This is the second longest sura, and the title indicates that it aims at defending the women's rights. Any interpretationmust favor the women's rights, not the other way around.
4:1 (The development of human personality can be easier achieved in a benevolent society (9:111, 16:71, 43:32, 59:9). In that situation, the individual and the society complement each other (14:34). At the outset, it is imperative to know that all people have a common origin, therefore, you must consider all mankind as one community. 10:19, 57:25)1
This is the 4th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 176 verses. In general, Nisaa means women in the society unless the description involves husbands, when it would mean wives. Azwaaj means spouses, Zaujah is wife and Zaujmeans husband. Zaujalso refers to either of the spouses - a companion for life. The context will define the exact connotation of these terms on each occasion.
The Qur’an is the foremost guardian of women's rights. Sir Iqbal once commented that if he were an atheist, he would have thought that the Qur’an was the authorship of a group of intelligent women!
Respected readers of QXP (The Qur’an As It Explains Itself) might have already noticed that any discussion whether a particular Surah was revealed in Makkah or in Madinah is completely unnecessary and irrelevant to the Message of the Qur’an. The same observation applies to the conjecture of Shaan-e-Nuzool (the circumstances of any particular revelation). These futile exercises cause disputes among commentators, confuse the reader, and take up everyone's time in a “vain sport”. More noxiously, this deplorable practice tends to bind the verses of the Glorious and Timeless Book to events that are supposed to have happened.
While confirming the ongoing evolution in the entire Universe, the Qur’an does not support every facet of Darwin's Theory.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
Evolution took place, as has been alluded to in this Book 16:8, 20:50, 21:30, 22:45, 30:20, 31:28, 51:49 Eventually, numerous men and women came into existence on the earth. Be careful of your duty to God in Whose Name you expect rights from one another, and you must strengthen your blood relations. God ever watches over you.
4:2 وءاتوا اليتامىا اموالهم ولا تتبدلوا الخبيث بالطيب ولا تاكلوا اموالهم الىا اموالكم انه كان حوبا كبيرا
4:2 Waatoo alyatama amwalahumwala tatabaddaloo alkhabeetha bialttayyibiwala ta/kuloo amwalahum ila amwalikuminnahu kana hooban kabeeran
Polygamy For Protection Of Orphans4:2 Give the orphans their money; do not replace the good with the bad, and do not consume their money to your money, for truly it is a great sin!
4:2 And give the orphans their money, and do not replace the good with the bad, and do not consume their money with your money; for truly this is a great sin!
4:2 Hence, render unto the orphans their possessions, and do not substitute bad things [of your own] for the good things [that belong to them], and do not consume their possessions together with your own:2 this, verily, is a great crime.
This relates to the legal guardians of orphans during the latter's minority.
Regard the Orphans4:2 You shall hand over to the orphans their rightful properties. Do not substitute the bad for the good, and do not consume their properties by combining them with yours. This would be a gross injustice.,
4:2 Orphans in the community are like your family members (33:5). Be vigilant in guarding their rights (4:127). Protect their property honestly, and give it to them when they have come of age. Do not exchange their valuables with your worthless items, nor consume their property by combining it with yours; doing such would be a grave offense.
4:3 وان خفتم الا تقسطوا فى اليتامىا فانكحوا ما طاب لكم من النساء مثنىا وثلاث ورباع فان خفتم الا تعدلوا فواحدة او ما ملكت ايمانكم ذالك ادنىا الا تعولوا
4:3 Wa-in khiftum alla tuqsitoo feealyatama fainkihoo ma tabalakum mina alnnisa-i mathna wathulathawarubaAAa fa-in khiftum alla taAAdiloo fawahidatanaw ma malakat aymanukum thalika adnaalla taAAooloo
4:3 If you fear that you cannot be just to fatherless orphans, then marry those whom you see fit from the women, two, and three, and four. But if you fear you will not be fair then only one, or whom you already have contract with. So that you do not commit injustice and suffer hardship.2
Polygamy is allowed only to provide psychological, social and economic support for widows with orphans (See 4:127). Muhammed's practice of polygamy must have been in accordance with the condition to serve an important social service. Sure, physical attraction of widows might be one of the factors for marriage and there is nothing wrong with that. Those who could afford practicing polygamy, mentally and financially, should try hard to treat them equally, though 4:129 expresses the practical impossibly of attaining that ideal. Additionally, the consent of the first wife is necessary; otherwise, she can always seek divorce. It is clear that polygamy is not an ideal form of marriage and an unusual practice allowed for difficult times, such as a dramatic reduction in the male population during wartime. The age gap between marrying men and women creates a surplus of women who will never be able to find a monogamous partner. By a strict prohibition on polygamy, millions of young women are deprived from having a legitimate relationship with men. The only hope for millions of young girls is to get married with already divorced men, perhaps with kids, or to have a relationship born out of promiscuous sexual practices. The Western world does not prohibit polygamy since many males have sexual relationships with more than one woman at the same time. The only thing that modern societies do is deprive those women from the protection of law; they are there to be used, disposed of and recycled by men! The hypocrisy in the modern attitude becomes clear when homosexuality is defended on the pretext of "consenting adults," but the same standards are not afforded to the polygamists. The conditional permission for polygamy is for the psychological and financial protection of children and their widow mothers, in cases of war or natural disaster.
Polygamy, according to the Old Testament, started with the seventh generation after Cain and continued as a common practice in the patriarchal age together with having concubines (Genesis 4:19 ; 6:2; 16:1; 22:21; 28:8; 29:23, etc.). However, the Old Testament also disapproves of polygamy (Deuteronomy 17:17 ).
The Old Testament contains numerous exaggerated stories. One is about the number of Solomon's wives. The roundness of the numbers of wives and concubines and their total, the three numbers being perfectly round, indicate an intentional exaggeration. "And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines: and his wives turned away his heart” (1 Kings 11:3 ). It is highly plausible that the word "hundred" was inserted in the text by later scribes to damage the reputation of Solomon for some political agenda. The following verses depict Solomon as an evil person and idolater. The Quran neither accuses Solomon of indulging in a hedonistic sexual life nor of associating partners with God. Ironically, modern Christians are now bashing Solomon for not sticking to monogamy. To be politically correct, modern Christians do not hesitate to condemn the common practice of polygamy among Jews and their prophets.
Contrary to the Quran, which exhorts muslims to help widows, the misogynistic Rabbinical teachings inserted into the Old Testament put them in the category of harlots, and finds them unworthy of marriage by the privileged class: priests (Leviticus 21:14 ).
The expression Ma malakat aymanukum has been translated by most translations as "whom your right hands posses" or "captives" or "concubines." (See the note 23:6). We translated this and similar expressions found in 4:3; 16:71; 23:6; 24:31; 30:28; 33:50; and 70:30, as "those with whom you have contractual rights." These were the wives of the enemy combatants who were persecuted because they acknowledged the message of Islam and sought asylum at the Muslim community (60:10). Since they did not get through a normal divorce process, an exceptional contract allows them to marry muslims as free women. Marrying them could create some social, economic and personal complications for the husband. They have nothing to do with IBaD (slaves), as sectarian translations and commentaries state. As we will learn, the Quran categorically rejects slavery and considers it to be the greatest sin (See 3:79; 4:25; 5:89; 8:67; 24:32; 58:3; 90:13; 2:286; 12:39; 79:24). The practice of slavery was justified and resurrected to a certain extent via the influence of Jewish and Christian scholars, as well as fabricated hadith and sharia laws, decades after Muhammed's departure.
It is ironic that Jews who suffered the most from slavery and were saved by God through the leadership of Moses (Exodus 1:13-14 ), later justified enslaving other people, including selling one's own daughter, and inserted that practice into their holy books (Exodus 21:7-8 ; 21:21; 26-27; Leviticus 25:44-46 ; Joshua 9:6-27 ).
Though Jesus never condoned slavery, St. Paul, the founder of modern Christianity, once asked the masters to treat their slaves nicely (Colossians 3:22 ), and asked the slaves to be "submissive to your masters with all fear" (1 Peter 2:18 ; Ephesians 6:5 ; 1 Timothy 6:2 ; Colossians 3:22 ; Titus 2:9 ) justifying the Marxist maxim, "Religion is the opium of masses." The use of religion by the privileged class to enslave or exploit people is vividly depicted by the South African archbishop Desmond Tutu: "When the missionaries came to Africa, they had the Bible and we had the land. They said 'let us close our eyes and pray'. When we opened them, we had the Bible, and they had the land."
The word YaMYN means "right hand" or metaphorically "right," "power" or "control." However, its plural form aYMaN is consistently mentioned in the Quran to mean not "right hands" but to mean "oaths" or "promises," implying the mutual nature of the relationship (See 4:33 5:89; 9:12; 16:91; 2:224; 30:28; 66:2; 5:53; 6:109). This unique Quranic usage is similar to the semantic difference between the singular and plural forms of the word Ayat (signs) (see 2:106).
The expression in question, thus could be translated as "those whom your oaths/contracts have rights over" or "those whom you hold rights through your contracts," or by reading aYMaN (oaths/contracts) as an object rather than a subject, "those who hold/possess your contracts."
The marriage declaration is a mutual partnership between two sexes and is formed by participation of family members. A married woman cannot marry another man without getting divorced from her husband. However, if a woman escapes and joins muslims while her husband stayed behind participating in a war against muslims, she may marry a Muslim man without actually getting divorced from her combatant husband; she will legally be considered a divorcee (60:10). Since this contract is different from the normal marriage contract, this special relationship is described in different words. The same is valid for a man whose wife allies with the hostile enemy. See 24:31 and 33:55. Those who work for another person according to employment contracts are also referred to with the same expression. See 16:71; 30:28. Also, see 4:25; 23:6; 24:58; 33:50; 33:52; 70:30.
The Quran does not demand those who lived together based on a mutual promise (AYMaN) during the days of ignorance, without a marriage contract, to get divorced. Similarly, it does not want those who married two sisters before accepting islam to be a way of life (4:23). This tolerance does not encourage living together without marriage. It only does not want to incur further damage to the family structure and does not want to create hurdles for those who wish to live according to the principles of islam.
4:3 And if you fear that you cannot be just to the orphans, then you may marry those who are agreeable to you of the women: two, and three, and four. But if you fear you will not be fair, then only one, or whom you maintain by your oaths. This is best that you do not face financial hardship.
4:3 And if you have reason to fear that you might not act equitably towards orphans, then marry from among [other] women such as are lawful to you3 - [even] two, or three, or four: but if you have reason to fear that you might not be able to treat them with equal fairness, then [only] one - or [from among] those whom you rightfully possess.4 This will make it more likely that you will not deviate from the right course.
Lit., "such as are good for you" - i.e., women outside the prohibited degrees enumerated in verses 22-23 of this surah (Zamakhshari, Razi). According to an interpretation suggested by a'ishah, the Prophet's widow, this refers to the (hypothetical) case of orphan girls whom their guardians might wish to marry without, however, being prepared or able to give them an appropriate marriage-portion - the implication being that they should avoid the temptation of committing such an injustice and should marry other women instead (cf. Bukhari, Kitab at-Tafsir, as well as Muslim and Nasa'i). However, not all of a'ishah's contemporaries subscribed to her explanation of this verse. Thus, according to Sa'id ibn Jubayr, Qatadah, and other successors of the Companions, the purport of the above passage is this: "Just as you are, rightly, fearful of offending against the interests of orphans, you must apply the same careful consideration to the interests and rights of the women whom you intend to marry." In his commentary on this passage, Tabari quotes several variants of the above interpretation and gives it his unequivocal approval.
Lit., "whom your right hands possess" - i.e., from among the captives taken in a war in God's cause (regarding which see notes on surah 2, notes 167 and 168, and surah 8, note 72). It is obvious that the phrase "two, or three, or four: but if you have reason to fear...", etc. is a parenthetic clause relating to both the free women mentioned in the first part of the sentence and to female slaves - for both these nouns are governed by the imperative verb "marry". Thus, the whole sentence has this meaning: "Marry from among [other] women such as are lawful to you, or [from among] those whom you rightfully possess - [even] two, or three, or four: but if you have reason to fear that you might not be able to treat them with equal fairness, then [only] one"- implying that, irrespective of whether they are free women or, originally, slaves, the number of wives must not exceed four. It was in this sense that Muhammad 'Abduh understood the above verse (see Manar IV, 350). This view is, moreover, supported by verse 25 of this surah as well as by 22, where marriage with female slaves is spoken of. Contrary to the popular view and the practice of many Muslims in the past centuries, neither the Qur'an nor the life-example of the Prophet provides any sanction for sexual intercourse without marriage. As regards the permission to marry more than one wife (up to the maximum of four), it is so restricted by the condition, "if you have reason to fear that you might not be able to treat them with equal fairness, then [marry only] one", as to make such plural marriages possible only in quite exceptional cases and under exceptional circumstances (see also the first clause of 22 and the corresponding note). Still, one might ask why the same latitude has not been given to women as well; but the answer is simple. Notwithstanding the spiritual factor of love which influences the relations between man and woman, the determinant biological reason for the sexual urge is, in both sexes, procreation: and whereas a woman can, at one time, conceive a child from one man only and has to carry it for nine months before she can conceive another, a man can beget a child every time he cohabits with a woman. Thus, while nature would have been merely wasteful if it had produced a polygamous instinct in woman, man's polygamous inclination is biologically justified. It is, of course, obvious that the biological factor is only one - and by no means always the most important - of the aspects of marital love: none the less, it is a basic factor and, therefore, decisive in the institution of marriage as such. With the wisdom that always takes human nature fully into account, Islamic Law undertakes no more than the safeguarding of the socio-biological function of marriage (which includes also care of the progeny), allowing a man to have more than one wife ald not allowing a woman to have more than one husband at one time; while the spiritual problem of marriage, being imponderable and therefore outside the scope of law, is left to the discretion of the partners. In any event - since marriage in Islam is a purely civil contract - recourse to divorce is always open to either of the two partners. (Regarding the dissolution of a marriage at the wife's instance, see note on surah 2, verse 229.)
Grounds For Polygamy4:3 If you deem it best for the orphans, you may marry their mothers - you may marry two, three, or four. If you fear lest you become unfair, then you shall be content with only one, or with what you already have. Additionally, you are thus more likely to avoid financial hardship.2 ,
See Appendix 30 for a detailed discussion of polygamy.
4:3 If you fear that you (the society) shall not be able to do justice with the orphans, (as may happen in times of war and political turbulence, the government shall announce a state of Emergency), then, in order to accommodate widows and orphans, men of sound finances and character shall be encouraged to marry among these widows with mutual choice; two, three, and four (4:127). But, if you fear that you will not be able to deal justly, then, you must not take additional wives, and may continue with what you already have (4:129). This will be more suitable to prevent you from doing injustice and face financial hardship.2
Second marriage during peace time is a frank violation of the Qur’an – note ‘If you fear’ in the beginning
4:4 وءاتوا النساء صدقاتهن نحلة فان طبن لكم عن شىء منه نفسا فكلوه هنيا مريا
4:4 Waatoo alnnisaa saduqatihinnanihlatan fa-in tibna lakum AAan shay-in minhunafsan fakuloohu hanee-an maree-an
4:4 Give the women their property willingly, and if they remit any of it to you of their own will, then you may take it with good feelings.
4:4 And give the women their dues willingly, and if they remit any of it to you of their own will, then you may take it with good feelings.
4:4 And give unto women their marriage portions in the spirit of a gift;5 but if they, of their own accord, give up unto you aught thereof, then enjoy it with pleasure and good cheer.
The expression nihlah signifies the giving of something willingly, of one's own accord, without expecting a return for it (Zamakhshari). It is to be noted that the amount of the marriage-portion, or dower which the bridegroom has to give to the bride has not been circumscribed by the Law: it depends entirely on the agreement of the two parties, and may consist of anything, even a mere token. According to several authentic Traditions recorded in most of the compilations, the Prophet made it clear that "even an iron ring" may be enough if the bride is willing to accept it, or, short of that, even "the imparting to thy bride of a verse of the Qur'an".
4:4 You shall give the women their due dowries, equitably. If they willingly forfeit anything, then you may accept it; it is rightfully yours.,
4:4 Upon marriage, give women their marital gifts, a generous portion of your property, unless they forgo it voluntarily. In that case you are welcome to accept it as rightfully yours.
4:5 ولا تؤتوا السفهاء اموالكم التى جعل الله لكم قياما وارزقوهم فيها واكسوهم وقولوا لهم قولا معروفا
4:5 Wala tu/too alssufahaaamwalakumu allatee jaAAala Allahu lakum qiyamanwaorzuqoohum feeha waoksoohum waqooloo lahumqawlan maAAroofan
4:5 Do not give the immature ones your money, which God has entrusted to you. Spend on them from it and clothe them, and speak to them nicely.
4:5 And do not give the immature ones your money for which God has made you overseers, and spend on them from it and clothe them, and speak to them in goodness.
4:5 And do not entrust to those who are weak of judgment the possessions which God has placed in your charge6 for [their] support; but let them have their sustenance therefrom, and clothe them, and speak unto them in a kindly way.
Lit., "your possessions which God has assigned to you". The context makes it obvious that this relates to the property of orphans who have not yet reached the age of discretion and are, therefore, "weak of judgment" (lit., "weak-minded").
4:5 Do not give immature orphans the properties that GOD has entrusted with you as guardians. You shall provide for them therefrom, and clothe them, and treat them kindly.,
4:5 Do not let the immature manage their property that God has entrusted with you as guardians, until they are able to make sound financial decisions. Feed and clothe them decently, take care of all their needs, interact with them kindly and speak to them in a decent, recognized manner.
4:6 وابتلوا اليتامىا حتىا اذا بلغوا النكاح فان ءانستم منهم رشدا فادفعوا اليهم اموالهم ولا تاكلوها اسرافا وبدارا ان يكبروا ومن كان غنيا فليستعفف ومن كان فقيرا فلياكل بالمعروف فاذا دفعتم اليهم اموالهم فاشهدوا عليهم وكفىا بالله حسيبا
4:6 Waibtaloo alyatama hattaitha balaghoo alnnikaha fa-in anastumminhum rushdan faidfaAAoo ilayhim amwalahum walata/kulooha israfan wabidaran an yakbaroowaman kana ghaniyyan falyastaAAfif waman kanafaqeeran falya/kul bialmaAAroofi fa-itha dafaAAtumilayhim amwalahum faashhidoo AAalayhim wakafa biAllahihaseeban
4:6 Test the orphans until they reach the age of marriage, then if you determine in them sound judgment, then give them their wealth, and do not deliberately consume it wastefully or quickly before they grow up. Whoever is rich, then let him not claim anything, and if he is poor then let him consume only properly. If you give to them their wealth, then make a witness for them, and God is enough for Reckoning.
4:6 And test the orphans when they reach puberty, then, if you have determined from them comprehension, then give them their money, and do not deliberately consume it wastefully or quickly before they grow up. And whoever is rich, then let him not claim anything, and if he is poor then let him consume in kindness. If you give to them their money, then make a witness for them, and God is enough for Reckoning.
4:6 And test the orphans [in your charge] until they reach a marriageable age; then, if you find them to be mature of mind, hand over to them their possessions; and do not consume them by wasteful spending, and in haste, ere they grow up. And let him who is rich abstain entirely [from his ward's property]; and let him who is poor partake thereof in a fair manner. And when you hand over to them their possessions, let there be witnesses on their behalf - although none can take count as God does.
4:6 You shall test the orphans when they reach puberty. As soon as you find them mature enough, give them their property. Do not consume it extravagantly in a hurry, before they grow up. The rich guardian shall not charge any wage, but the poor guardian may charge equitably. When you give them their properties, you shall have witnesses. GOD suffices as Reckoner.,
4:6 Train and educate the orphans well. When they reach the age of marriage, and attain sound judgment, release their property to them. The marriageable age shall mean attainment of physical and mental maturity when one can express free consent and make a solemn, legal contract (4:21). Do not consume their property, nor hastily spend it fearing that they will come of age. If the guardian is well off, let him claim no compensation for the management of the property. But, if he is poor he may have a just and reasonable compensation. When you are releasing the property to the orphans be sure to take witnesses. Remember that God is Competent in taking account.
4:7 للرجال نصيب مما ترك الوالدان والاقربون وللنساء نصيب مما ترك الوالدان والاقربون مما قل منه او كثر نصيبا مفروضا
4:7 Lilrrijali naseebun mimmataraka alwalidani waal-aqraboona walilnnisa-inaseebun mimma taraka alwalidani waal-aqraboonamimma qalla minhu aw kathura naseeban mafroodan
Inheritance Rights4:7 For the men is a portion from what the parents and the relatives left behind, and for the women is a portion from what the parents and relatives left behind, be it little or much; an imposed portion.3
Compare this verse to the Old Testament, Numbers 27:8-11 .
4:7 For the men is a portion from what the parents and the relatives left behind, and for the women is a portion from what the parents and relatives left behind, be it little or much; a forced portion.
4:7 MEN SHALL have a share in what parents and kinsfolk leave behind, and women shall have a share in what parents and kinsfolk leave behind, whether it be little or much - a share ordained [by God].
Women's Inheritance Rights4:7 The men get a share of what the parents and the relatives leave behind. The women too shall get a share of what the parents and relatives leave behind. Whether it is a small or a large inheritance, (the women must get) a definite share.,
4:7 Men get a share of what the parents and near relatives leave behind. Women get a share of what the parents and near relatives leave behind. Whether the inheritance is small or large, these shares have been ordained as a duty. [4:12]
4:8 واذا حضر القسمة اولوا القربىا واليتامىا والمساكين فارزقوهم منه وقولوا لهم قولا معروفا
4:8 Wa-itha hadara alqismataoloo alqurba waalyatama waalmasakeenufaorzuqoohum minhu waqooloo lahum qawlan maAAroofan
4:8 If the distribution is attended by the relatives, the orphans, and the needy, then you shall give them part of it and say to them a kind saying.
4:8 And if the distribution is attended by the relatives and the orphans and the needy, then you shall give them part of it and say to them a kind saying.
4:8 And when [other] near of kin and orphans and needy persons7 are present at the distribution [of inheritance], give them something thereof for their sustenance, and speak unto them in a kindly way.
I.e., people who do not have any legal claim to the inheritance, but nevertheless deserve to be considered.
4:8 During distribution of the inheritances, if relatives, orphans, and needy persons are present, you shall give them therefrom, and treat them kindly.,
4:8 If at the time of distribution of the inheritance, relatives, orphans, and the needy are present, give them from it and treat them kindly.
4:9 وليخش الذين لو تركوا من خلفهم ذرية ضعافا خافوا عليهم فليتقوا الله وليقولوا قولا سديدا
4:9 Walyakhsha allatheena law tarakoo minkhalfihim thurriyyatan diAAafan khafooAAalayhim falyattaqoo Allaha walyaqooloo qawlan sadeedan
4:9 What if it was them who had left behind a weak progeny? Would they not be concerned for them? Let them revere God and let them say what is appropriate.
4:9 And let them be concerned, that if it was they who had left behind them a weak progeny, would they not fear for them? Let them reverence God and let them say what is appropriate.
4:9 And let them stand in awe [of God], those [legal heirs] - who, if they [themselves] had to leave behind weak offspring, would feel fear on their account - and let them remain conscious of God, and let them speak [to the poor] in a just manner.
4:9 Those who are concerned about their own children, in case they leave them behind, shall observe GOD and be equitable.,
4:9 (The distribution of inheritance must be done responsibly. Treat others, as you would like to be treated.) The disposers of inheritance must fear as they would fear injustice done to their own children if left behind. So, be mindful of God and speak clearly and straight to the point. [33:70]
4:10 ان الذين ياكلون اموال اليتامىا ظلما انما ياكلون فى بطونهم نارا وسيصلون سعيرا
4:10 Inna allatheena ya/kuloona amwalaalyatama thulman innamaya/kuloona fee butoonihim naran wasayaslawnasaAAeeran
4:10 Those who consume the money of the orphans illicitly, in fact are consuming fire in their bellies, and they will end up in a blaze.
4:10 Those who consume the money of the orphans illicitly, in fact they are consuming fire in their bellies, and they will endure the Blaze.
4:10 Behold, those who sinfully devour the possessions of orphans but fill their bellies with fire: for [in the life to come] they will have to endure a blazing flame!
4:10 Those who consume the orphans' properties unjustly, eat fire into their bellies, and will suffer in Hell.,
4:10 Those who unjustly consume the wealth of orphans, are filling their bellies with fire and will be exposed to burning Flame.
4:11 يوصيكم الله فى اولادكم للذكر مثل حظ الانثيين فان كن نساء فوق اثنتين فلهن ثلثا ما ترك وان كانت واحدة فلها النصف ولابويه لكل واحد منهما السدس مما ترك ان كان له ولد فان لم يكن له ولد وورثه ابواه فلامه الثلث فان كان له اخوة فلامه السدس من بعد وصية يوصى بها او دين ءاباؤكم وابناؤكم لا تدرون ايهم اقرب لكم نفعا فريضة من الله ان الله كان عليما حكيما
4:11 Yooseekumu Allahu fee awladikumlilththakari mithlu haththialonthayayni fa-in kunna nisaan fawqa ithnatayni falahunnathulutha ma taraka wa-in kanat wahidatanfalaha alnnisfu wali-abawayhi likulli wahidinminhuma alssudusu mimma taraka in kanalahu waladun fa-in lam yakun lahu waladun wawarithahu abawahufali-ommihi alththuluthu fa-in kana lahu ikhwatunfali-ommihi alssudusu min baAAdi wasiyyatin yooseebiha aw daynin abaokum waabnaokum latadroona ayyuhum aqrabu lakum nafAAan fareedatan mina Allahiinna Allaha kana AAaleeman hakeeman
4:11 God directs you regarding the inheritance of your children, "To the male shall be as that given to two females. If they are only females and more than two, then they will have two thirds of what is inherited. If there is only one female, then she will have one-half, and to his parents each one of them one sixth of what is inherited if he has children. If he has no children and his parents are the heirs, then to his mother is one third; if he has siblings then to his mother is one sixth. All after a will is carried through or a debt. Your parents and your children, you do not know which is closer to you in benefit, a directive from God, God is Knowledgeable, Wise."4
In this and following verses and from 2:180 we learn that priority is given to the will in the distribution of inheritance. According to these verses, first the debt is paid and the distribution according to the will is fulfilled. This Quranic rule allows the testator and the testatrix to adjust their will depending on specific conditions and needs of the inheritors or other personal issues. For instance, one may leave more inheritance to a daughter whom might be more in need than the others might. The testator or the testatrix might leave more to someone who is sick or handicapped. The Quran, by giving precedence to the will over the default distribution provides flexibility and thus accommodates special circumstances. Unfortunately, unable to comprehend the wisdom behind this divine arrangement, the followers of hadith and sunna have abrogated these verses via hadith fabrications and sectarian rules and thereby have deprived the so-called Muslims from God's mercy.
4:11 God directs you regarding the inheritance of your children: "To the male shall be as that given to two females. If they are women, more than two, then they will have two thirds of what is inherited. And if she is only one, then she will have one half. And to his parents, each one of them shall have one sixth of what is inherited, if he has a child. If he has no child and his parents are the heirs, then to his mother is one third; if he has siblings then to his mother is one sixth. All after a will is carried through or a debt. Your parents and your children, you do not know which are closer to you in benefit, a directive from God, for God is Knowledgeable, Wise."
4:11 CONCERNING [the inheritance of] your children, God enjoins [this] upon you:8 The male shall have the equal of two females' share; but if there are more than two females, they shall have two-thirds of what [their parents] leave behind; and if there is only one daughter, she shall have one-half thereof. And as for the parents [of the deceased], each of them shall have one-sixth of what he leaves behind, in the event of his having [left] a child; but if he has left no child and his parents are his [only] heirs, then his mother shall have one-third; and if he has brothers and sisters, then his mother shall have one-sixth after [the deduction of] any bequest he may have made, or any debt [he may have incurred]. As for your parents and your children - you know not which of them is more deserving of benefit from you: [therefore this] ordinance from God. Verily, God is all-knowing, wise.
In my notes on verses 11-12, which spell out the legal shares of inheritance due to the next of kin, no attempt has been made to analyze all the legal implications of this ordinance. The laws of inheritance are the subject of a special, and very elaborate, branch of Islamic jurisprudence, and their full elucidation would go far beyond the scope of explanatory notes which aim at no more than making the text of the Qur'an accessible to the understanding of the non-specialized reader.
If No Will Is Left4:11 GOD decrees a will for the benefit of your children; the male gets twice the share of the female3 . If the inheritors are only women, more than two, they get two-thirds of what is bequeathed. If only one daughter is left, she gets one-half. The parents of the deceased get one-sixth of the inheritance each, if the deceased has left any children. If he left no children, and his parents are the only inheritors, the mother gets one-third. If he has siblings, then the mother gets one-sixth. All this, after fulfilling any will the deceased has left, and after paying off all debts. When it comes to your parents and your children, you do not know which of them is really the best to you and the most beneficial. This is GOD's law. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.*,
Generally, the son is responsible for a family, while the daughter is taken care of by a husband. However, the Quran recommends in 2:180 thata will shall be left to conform with the specific circumstances of the deceased.For example, if the son is rich and the daughter is poor, one may leave a will giving the daughtereverything, or twice as much as the son.
4:11 Preparing a will is a duty ordained (2:180-183). God decrees a will for the benefit of your children. (Since the sons have the responsibility of taking care of the family, and daughters will be cared for by their husbands, or if unmarried, by other males in the family), sons get twice the share of daughters.3
The stipulated shares will be counted first before proceeding with rest of the distribution - the ‘wa’ here indicates ‘but’ as at many other places - If two or more daughters are the only inheritors, they get two-thirds. - If only one daughter is left, she gets one-half. - If the deceased has left any children, then parents get one-sixth each first before further distribution. - If there are no children, and parents are the only heirs, each of them gets a third first before further distribution. - If the deceased has left brothers or sisters, the mother gets one-sixth and the father gets one third. Remember, this distribution shall take place after fulfilling the will of the deceased and after paying off all debts. As for your parents and your children, you know not which of them is more deserving of benefit from you. Such is the ordinance from God. God is Knower, Wise.
4:12 ولكم نصف ما ترك ازواجكم ان لم يكن لهن ولد فان كان لهن ولد فلكم الربع مما تركن من بعد وصية يوصين بها او دين ولهن الربع مما تركتم ان لم يكن لكم ولد فان كان لكم ولد فلهن الثمن مما تركتم من بعد وصية توصون بها او دين وان كان رجل يورث كلالة او امراة وله اخ او اخت فلكل واحد منهما السدس فان كانوا اكثر من ذالك فهم شركاء فى الثلث من بعد وصية يوصىا بها او دين غير مضار وصية من الله والله عليم حليم
4:12 Walakum nisfu ma taraka azwajukumin lam yakun lahunna waladun fa-in kana lahunna waladunfalakumu alrrubuAAu mimma tarakna min baAAdi wasiyyatinyooseena biha aw daynin walahunna alrrubuAAumimma taraktum in lam yakun lakum waladun fa-in kanalakum waladun falahunna alththumunu mimma taraktummin baAAdi wasiyyatin toosoona biha awdaynin wa-in kana rajulun yoorathu kalalatan awiimraatun walahu akhun aw okhtun falikulli wahidin minhumaalssudusu fa-in kanoo akthara min thalikafahum shurakao fee alththuluthi min baAAdi wasiyyatinyoosa biha aw daynin ghayra mudarrin wasiyyatanmina Allahi waAllahu AAaleemun haleemun
4:12 For you is half of what your wives leave behind if they have no children; but if they have a child then to you is one quarter of what they leave behind. All after a will is carried through or a debt. To them is one quarter of what you leave behind if you have no child; but if you have a child then to them is one eighth of what you leave behind. All after a will is carried through or a debt. If a man or a woman has no one, but has a brother or sister, then to each one of them is one sixth, but if they are more than this then they are to share in one third. All after a will is carried through or a debt, which does not cause harm. A directive from God, and God is Knowledgeable, Compassionate.5
After paying the debt and distributing the shares according to the will, the inheritance will be distributed if the diseased had a mother, father, or wife, and the rest will be distributed to men and women according to the instructed ratio. It is important to remember that the ratio of shares instructed by the Quran to each other is as important as their ratio to the whole. In brief, the fractions are compared both to the whole and to each other. A deceased person might leave behind hundreds of combinations of relatives, father or no father, mother or no mother, son or no son, one son or more sons, daughter or no daughter, one daughter or more daughters, brother or no brother, one brother or more brothers, sister or no sister, one sister or more sisters, and numerous combinations among them. If the Quran suggested the fractions as merely their ratio compared to the whole inheritance, since for each combination of inheritors the ratios too would need to be changed, we would need hundreds of verses detailing the ratio for each combination. However, when we comprehend that the ratio in suggested distributions also reflect the amount of inheritance in proportion to each other, the verses about inheritance can easily be understood and implemented.
For instance, let us assume that after deducting the debt and other shares, a man left a 50 thousand dollar inheritance to his wife and father without specially allocating the shares. Their shares should be 1/4th and 1/6th, respectively. Thus, the formula would be (1/4)+(1/6)=50,000. If we find the common denominator, then we see the ratio of inheritance as much clearer. When we take the common denominator, the numerator start to make sense in comparison to the share of each inheritor and to the inheritance: (3/12)+(2/12)=50,000. That means, the wife receives $30,000 and the father receives $20,000 of the inheritance. In sum, to learn the default shares of inheritors the fractions indicating the shares are added up and equated to the inheritance. Let's assume that we are asked to distribute 19 gold pieces among two people; one will receive 1/5th and the other 1/3rd.
(k1 + k2 + ... + kn) * x = t
pn = kn * x
k1 = 1/5
k2 = 1/3
(1/3 + 1/5) * x = 19 x = 19 * 15 / 8
p1 = (1/5) * 19 * 15 / 8 p1= 7 + 1/8
p2 = (1/3) * 19 * 15 / 8 p2= 11 + 7/8
The Old Testament does deprive daughters of inheritance from their parents and favors the first born against other children. Under the patriarchs, the property of a diseased father was divided among the sons of his legal wives and their concubines would not get a share (Genesis 21:10 ; 24:36; 25:5). The Mosaic law made specific regulations regarding the distribution of real property, giving the eldest son a larger portion than the rest. Deuteronomy 21:17 ; Numbers 27:8 ; 36:6; 27:9.
4:12 And for you is half of what your wives leave behind if they have no child; but if they have a child then to you is one quarter of what they leave behind. All after a will is carried through or a debt. And to them is one quarter of what you leave behind if you have no child; but if you have a child then to them is one eighth of what you leave behind. All after a will is carried through or a debt. And if a man or a woman who is being inherited has no ascendants, but has a brother or a sister, then to each one of them is one sixth, but if they are more than this then they are to share in one third. All after a will is carried through or a debt, which does not cause harm. A directive from God, and God is Knowledgeable, Compassionate.
4:12 And you shall inherit one-half of what your wives leave behind, provided they have left no child; but if they have left a child, then you shall have one-quarter of what they leave behind, after [the deduction of] any bequest they may have made, or any debt [they may have incurred]. And your widows9 shall have one-quarter of what you leave behind, provided you have left no child; but if you have left a child, then they shall have one-eighth of what you leave behind, after [the deduction of] any bequest you may have made, or any debt [you may have incurred]. And if a man or a woman has no heir in the direct line, but has a brother or a sister, then each of these two shall inherit one-sixth; but if there are more than two,10 then they shall share in one-third [of the inheritance], after [the deduction of] any bequest that may have been made, or any debt [that may have been incurred], neither of which having been intended to harm [the heirs].11 [This is] an injunction from God: and God is all-knowing, forbearing.
Lit., "more than that". According to most of the classical commentators, this passage refers to half-brothers and half-sisters. The inheritance of full brothers and sisters is dealt with at the end of this surah (verse 176).
This refers to bequests and fictitious debts meant to deprive the heirs of their legal shares. According to several authentic Traditions, the Prophet forbade, in cases where there are legal heirs, the making of bequests to other persons in excess of one-third of one's estate (Bukhari and Muslim). If, however, there are no near of kin legally entitled to a share of the inheritance, the testator is free to bequeath his fortune in any way he desires.
Inheritance For the Spouses4:12 You get half of what your wives leave behind, if they had no children. If they had children, you get one-fourth of what they leave. All this, after fulfilling any will they had left, and after paying off all debts. They get one-fourth of what you leave behind, if you had no children. If you had children, they get one-eighth of what you bequeath. All this, after fulfilling any will you had left, and after paying off all debts. If the deceased man or woman was a loner, and leaves two siblings, male or female, each of them gets one-sixth of the inheritance. If there are more siblings, then they equally share one-third of the inheritance. All this, after fulfilling any will, and after paying off all debts, so that no one is hurt. This is a will decreed by GOD. GOD is Omniscient, Clement.,
4:12 (Additionally) - If a couple had no children, the husband gets half of what the wife leaves behind. - If they had children, the husband gets one-fourth. - If they had no children, then the wives get one-fourth of what the husband leaves behind. - If they had children then the wife gets one-eighth. - If a man or a woman, whose inheritance is in question, was a loner, in the sense of leaving behind no ascendants or descendants, but leaves behind a sister and a brother, each of them gets one-sixth of the inheritance. If there are more than two siblings, they equally share one-third of the inheritance. The above applies after fully satisfying the will, and after paying off all debts, so that no one's rights are infringed upon. This is the will decreed by God Who is Knower, Clement.4
4:13 تلك حدود الله ومن يطع الله ورسوله يدخله جنات تجرى من تحتها الانهار خالدين فيها وذالك الفوز العظيم
4:13 Tilka hudoodu Allahi waman yutiAAiAllaha warasoolahu yudkhilhu jannatin tajree min tahtihaal-anharu khalideena feeha wathalikaalfawzu alAAatheemu
4:13 These are God's limits, and whoever obeys God and His messenger, He will admit him to gardens with rivers flowing beneath, eternally abiding therein. This is the greatest victory.
4:13 These are the boundaries of God, and whoever obeys God and His messenger, He will admit him to estates with rivers flowing beneath them, abiding therein. This is the great triumph.
4:13 These are the bounds set by God. And whoever pays heed unto God and His Apostle, him will He bring into gardens through which running waters flow, therein to abide: and this is a triumph supreme.
God Communicates With Us Through His Messenger4:13 These are GOD's laws. Those who obey GOD and His messenger, He will admit them into gardens with flowing streams, wherein they abide forever. This is the greatest triumph.,
4:13 These are limits set by Allah. Those who obey God and His Messenger, He will admit them into Gardens with rivers flowing beneath (all the aesthetic elegance that the human mind could ever imagine). That is the Supreme Success.
4:14 ومن يعص الله ورسوله ويتعد حدوده يدخله نارا خالدا فيها وله عذاب مهين
4:14 Waman yaAAsi Allahawarasoolahu wayataAAadda hudoodahu yudkhilhu narankhalidan feeha walahu AAathabun muheenun
4:14 Whoever disobeys God and His messenger, and transgresses His limits, He will admit him to a fire in which he abides eternally, and he will have a humiliating retribution.
4:14 And whoever disobeys God and His messenger, and transgresses His boundaries, He will admit him to a Fire, abiding therein, and he will have a humiliating retribution.
4:14 And whoever rebels against God and His Apostle and transgresses His bounds, him will He commit unto fire, therein to abide; and shameful suffering awaits him.
Health Quarantine4:14 As for the one who disobeys GOD and His messenger, and transgresses His laws, He will admit him into Hell, wherein he abides forever. He has incurred a shameful retribution.,
4:14 But those who disobey God and His Messenger and trespass His limits, He will admit them to Fire to abide therein, and for them is a humiliating punishment.
4:15 والاتى ياتين الفاحشة من نسائكم فاستشهدوا عليهن اربعة منكم فان شهدوا فامسكوهن فى البيوت حتىا يتوفىاهن الموت او يجعل الله لهن سبيلا
4:15 Waallatee ya/teena alfahishatamin nisa-ikum faistashhidoo AAalayhinna arbaAAatanminkum fa-in shahidoo faamsikoohunna fee albuyooti hattayatawaffahunna almawtu aw yajAAala Allahu lahunnasabeelan
Quarantine for Prostitutes4:15 The women who commit lewdness, you shall bring four witnesses over them from amongst you; if they bear witness, then you shall restrict them in the homes until death takes them, or God makes for them a way out.6
The relative pronoun in this verse is allati, which refers to a group of women. It indicates an organized prostitution, which might pose a grave health problem for the society. In a society that accepted the jurisdiction of the Quran, if a woman is proven four times to be involved in promiscuous sexual activity, she is considered a hazard to the society and should be quarantined. Perhaps there is also an implication for our time, where genetic identification helps us to find the real father of a child. Our genes are made of various combinations of four acid molecules: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thiamine. These four molecules, which are made of four different elements, function as witnesses for the identity of individuals to which they belong. The Quran does not necessarily require the witness to be an eyewitness. For instance, we bear witness to the oneness of God via our intelligence. The witness mentioned in 12:26 is not considered a witness because he was present during the alleged incident. That witness did not say, "I saw with my eyes." The human witness mentioned in that story is proposing the testimony of circumstantial evidence, and logical conclusions based on both inductive and deductive reasoning. In other words, the Quran accepts the testimony of reliable circumstantial evidence just as it accepts the testimony of a reliable eyewitness.
4:15 And those of your women who commit lewdness, you shall bring four witnesses over them from among you; if they bear witness, then you shall restrict them in the homes until death terminates their lives, or God makes for them a way out.
4:15 AND AS FOR those of your women who become guilty of immoral conduct, call upon four from among you who have witnessed their guilt; and if these bear witness thereto, confine the guilty women12 to their houses until death takes them away or God opens for them a way [through repentance].
4:15 Those who commit adultery among your women, you must have four witnesses against them, from among you. If they do bear witness, then you shall keep such women in their homes until they die, or until GOD creates an exit for them.4 ,
A woman witnessed by four people in the act of committing adultery on four different occasions, with four different partners, represents a dangerto public health. Such a woman is a depository of germs, and a health quarantineprotects the society from her. A good example of an exit that saves a quarantined woman ismarriage--someone may wish to marry her, and thus protect her and thesociety.
4:15 (Protection of honor and chastity for men and women, both, is the cornerstone of a virtuous society. 17:32, 4:24.) If any woman or a group of women spread sexual immorality or lewdness in the society, it is required that the appropriate court take four reliable witnesses. If their testimony corroborates with other evidence (12:26), confine them to their houses (since immorality is as contagious as good conduct). This confinement would be for an indefinite period, unless such women seek the way of God (such as repentance and reform or that the singles among them get honorably married).5
Maut,literally death,has been translated as indefinite period in agreement with Jurjani and Raghib. Protection of life, honor and property is the springboard of a vibrant social order. It is the pre-requisite for freedom, equality and character building to the point of self-actualization 4:24, 5:32, 13:24, 17:32, 38:52, 69:21, 89:27
4:16 والذان ياتيانها منكم فاذوهما فان تابا واصلحا فاعرضوا عنهما ان الله كان توابا رحيما
4:16 Waallathani ya/tiyanihaminkum faathoohuma fa-in taba waaslahafaaAAridoo AAanhuma inna Allaha kanatawwaban raheeman
4:16 The two who commit it from amongst you, then you shall reprimand them. If they repent and amend, then leave them alone. God is Redeemer, Compassionate.7
The relative pronoun is not marked; the male dual form allazani (both) includes the female partner. In this case, it appears that the illegal or extramarital sexual affair is monogamous. For the punishment of the adulterers, see 24:1.
4:16 And the two men who commit it from among you, you shall trouble them. If they repent and amend, then leave them alone. God is Redeemer, Merciful.
4:16 And punish [thus] both of the guilty parties;13 but if they both repent and mend their ways, leave them alone: for, behold, God is an acceptor of repentance, a dispenser of grace.14
Lit., "and the two from among you who become guilty thereof, punish them both". According to most of the commentators, this refers to immoral conduct on the part of a man and a woman as well as to homosexual relations.
Some of the commentators attribute to the term fahishah (here rendered as "immoral conduct") the meaning of "adultery" or "fornication" and are, consequently, of the opinion that this verse has been "abrogated" by 24:2, which lays down the punishment of one hundred stripes for each of the guilty parties. This unwarranted assumption must, however, be rejected. Quite apart from the impossibility of admitting that any passage of the Qur'an could have been "abrogated" by another of its passages (see note on surah 2 verse 106), the expression fahishah does not, by itself, connote illicit sexual intercourse: it signifies anything that is grossly immodest, unseemly, lewd, indecent or abominable in word or in deed (cf. Lane VI, 2344 f.), and is by no means restricted to sexual transgressions. Read in this context, and in conjunction with 24:2, this expression obviously denotes here immoral conduct not necessarily amounting to what is termed zina (i.e., "adultery" or "fornication"), and therefore redeemable by sincere repentance (in contrast to a proven act of zina, which is punishable by flogging).- It is noteworthy that in all cases of alleged sexual transgressions or misbehaviour the Qur'an stipulates the direct evidence of four witnesses (instead of the two required in all other judicial cases) as a sine qua non of conviction. For the reasons underlying this injunction, as well as for its judicial implications, see note on 24:4.
4:16 The couple who commits adultery shall be punished. If they repent and reform, you shall leave them alone. GOD is Redeemer, Most Merciful.,5
Public exposure of the sinners is a major deterrent, as we see in5:38 and24:2.
4:16 If the two of you men spread such immorality or lewdness in the society, punish both of them (as determined by the appropriate court of law). But if they repent and mend their ways, leave them alone. God is the Acceptor of repentance, Merciful.
4:17 انما التوبة على الله للذين يعملون السوء بجهالة ثم يتوبون من قريب فاولائك يتوب الله عليهم وكان الله عليما حكيما
4:17 Innama alttawbatu AAalaAllahi lillatheena yaAAmaloona alssoo-abijahalatin thumma yatooboona min qareebin faola-ikayatoobu Allahu AAalayhim wakana AllahuAAaleeman hakeeman
4:17 God's acceptance of repentance is only for those who commit sin out of ignorance and then repent soon after; these will be forgiven by God, God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
4:17 Repentance is only for those who commit a sin out of ignorance and then repent soon after; these will be forgiven by God, for God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
4:17 Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of ignorance and then repent before their time runs out:15 and it is they unto whom God will turn again in His mercy - for God is all-knowing, wise;
The expression min qarib, which here implies nearness in time, could also be rendered as "soon", i.e., soon after having committed the evil deed; most of the classical commentators, however, hold that in this context it denotes the time before the actual approach of death. This interpretation is borne out by the next verse.
Repentance4:17 Repentance is acceptable by GOD from those who fall in sin out of ignorance, then repent immediately thereafter. GOD redeems them. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
4:17 God graciously accepts the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance, and then return quickly to the right conduct. God blesses them with mercy. He is the Knower, the Wise.
4:18 وليست التوبة للذين يعملون السيات حتىا اذا حضر احدهم الموت قال انى تبت الان ولا الذين يموتون وهم كفار اولائك اعتدنا لهم عذابا اليما
4:18 Walaysati alttawbatu lillatheenayaAAmaloona alssayyi-ati hatta ithahadara ahadahumu almawtu qala inneetubtu al-ana wala allatheena yamootoonawahum kuffarun ola-ika aAAtadna lahum AAathabanaleeman
4:18 There will be no repentance for those who commit sin until death comes upon one of them, then he says, "I repent now!" Nor there will be repentance for those who die while they are ingrates. To those We have prepared a painful retribution.8
4:18 And there will be no repentance for those who commit sin then when death comes upon any one of them he says: "I repent now!" Nor for those who die while they are rejecters. For those We have prepared a painful retribution.
4:18 whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say,16 "Behold, I now repent"; nor from those who die as deniers of the truth: it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.
Lit., "until, when death approaches one of them, he says".
4:18 Not acceptable is the repentance of those who commit sins until death comes to them, then say, "Now I repent." Nor is it acceptable from those who die as disbelievers. For these, we have prepared a painful retribution.,
4:18 The forgiveness is not for those who commit transgressions until death comes to one of them, and then he says, “I repent now.” (They have no time to make amends.) Nor is the forgiveness for those who die as rejecters of truth. We have prepared an awful suffering for them.
4:19 ياايها الذين ءامنوا لا يحل لكم ان ترثوا النساء كرها ولا تعضلوهن لتذهبوا ببعض ما ءاتيتموهن الا ان ياتين بفاحشة مبينة وعاشروهن بالمعروف فان كرهتموهن فعسىا ان تكرهوا شيا ويجعل الله فيه خيرا كثيرا
4:19 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola yahillu lakum an tarithoo alnnisaakarhan wala taAAduloohunna litathhaboobibaAAdi ma ataytumoohunna illa anya/teena bifahishatin mubayyinatin waAAashiroohunnabialmaAAroofi fa-in karihtumoohunna faAAasa antakrahoo shay-an wayajAAala Allahu feehi khayran katheeran
Treat Women Nicely and Appreciate them4:19 O you who acknowledge, it is not lawful for you to inherit the women by force, nor that you become harsh with them to take away some of what you have given them, unless they commit a clear lewdness. Live with them in kindness. If you dislike them, then perhaps you may dislike something and God makes in it much good.9
Verse 4:19 clearly recognizes the right of women to divorce. According to the Old Testament, a rapist should be forced to marry the girl he violated. This rule punishes the victim and forces her to share the rest of her life with the violent and shameless man who violated her (Deuteronomy 22:28-30 ). How can this and many other unjust laws be imposed by a Just God? The Bible also forces the widow to marry another brother (Deuteronomy 25:5 ).
4:19 O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit from the women by force. And do not make difficulty for them so that you may take away some of what you have given them, unless they commit a clear lewdness. And live with them in kindness. If you dislike them, then perhaps you dislike something while God makes in it much good.
4:19 O YOU who have attained to faith! It is not lawful for you to [try to] become heirs to your wives [by holding onto them] against their will;17 and neither shall you keep them under constraint with a view to taking away anything of what you may have given them, unless it be that they have become guilty, in an obvious manner, of immoral conduct.18 And consort with your wives19 in a goodly manner; for if you dislike them, it may well be that you dislike something which God might yet make a source of20 abundant good.
According to one of the interpretations advanced by Zamakhshari, this refers to a man's forcibly keeping an unloved wife - and thus preventing her from marrying another man - in the hope of inheriting her property under the provisions specified in the first sentence of verse 12 above. Some authorities, however, are of the opinion that the meaning is: "It is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will"- thus expressing a prohibition of the pre-Islamic custom of inheriting the wives of deceased near relatives. But in view of the fact that Islam does not permit the "inheriting" of women under any circumstances (and not only "against their will"), the former interpretation is infinitely more plausible.
In the event that a wife's immoral conduct has been proved by the direct evidence of four witnesses, as stipulated in verse 15 above, the husband has the right, on divorcing her, to demand the return of the whole or of part of the dower which he gave her at the time when the marriage was contracted. If - as is permissible under Islamic Law - the dower has not been actually handed over to the bride at the time of marriage but has taken the form of a legal obligation on the part of the husband, he is absolved of this obligation in the case of proven immoral conduct on the part of his wife.
Lit., "with them".
Lit., "and God might place in it".
4:19 O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit what the women leave behind, against their will. You shall not force them to give up anything you had given them, unless they commit a proven adultery. You shall treat them nicely. If you dislike them, you may dislike something wherein GOD has placed a lot of good.,
4:19 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! It is not lawful for you to force women into marrying or holding on to them in marriage against their will. Pressuring women to remain in wedlock by threatening to take away the marital gift is forbidden. A wife could forfeit the right to the marital gift only if she has indulged in clear lewdness. You shall treat your wives nicely. Even if you dislike them, it may happen that God has placed much good in what you have failed to realize.
4:20 وان اردتم استبدال زوج مكان زوج وءاتيتم احدىاهن قنطارا فلا تاخذوا منه شيا اتاخذونه بهتانا واثما مبينا
4:20 Wa-in aradtumu istibdala zawjin makanazawjin waataytum ihdahunna qintaranfala ta/khuthoo minhu shay-an ata/khuthoonahubuhtanan wa-ithman mubeenan
4:20 If you wish to replace one mate instead of another, and you have given one of them a large amount, then do not take anything from it. Would you take it by falsehood while it is clearly a sin?
4:20 And if you wish to replace one wife with another, and you have given one of them a large amount, then do not take anything from it. Will you take it by falsehood while it is clearly a sin?
4:20 But if you desire to give up a wife and to take another in her stead, do not take away anything of what you have given the first one, however much it may have been.21 Would you, perchance, take it away by slandering her and thus committing a manifest sin?22
Lit., "if you desire the exchange of a wife in place of a wife, and you have given one of them a treasure (qintar), do not take away anything thereof". The allusion to the "exchange" of one wife for another is a clear indication of the Qur'anic view that a monogamous marriage is the desirable norm.
I.e., by falsely accusing her of immoral conduct in the hope of regaining her dower (see note on verse 19 above).
Protection for Women4:20 If you wish to marry another wife, in place of your present wife, and you had given any of them a great deal, you shall not take back anything you had given her. Would you take it fraudulently, maliciously, and sinfully?,
4:20 If you wish to marry another wife in place of your present wife, and you have given her a great deal, you shall not take back anything. Would you take it back by way of slander, a transgression that will drag down your own ‘self’?
4:21 وكيف تاخذونه وقد افضىا بعضكم الىا بعض واخذن منكم ميثاقا غليظا
4:21 Wakayfa ta/khuthoonahu waqad afdabaAAdukum ila baAAdin waakhathnaminkum meethaqan ghaleethan
4:21 How can you take it when you have become intimate with each other, and the women have taken from you a strong covenant?
4:21 And how can you take it when you have become intimate with each other, and they have taken from you a solemn covenant.
4:21 And how could you take it away after you have given yourselves to one another, and she has23 received a most solemn pledge from you?
Lit., "they have" - the reference being to all married women.
4:21 How could you take it back, after you have been intimate with each other, and they had taken from you a solemn pledge?,
4:21 And how could you take the marital gift back from her after you have lived intimately with each other and after she has taken from you a very solemn pledge of the marital contract?
4:22 ولا تنكحوا ما نكح ءاباؤكم من النساء الا ما قد سلف انه كان فاحشة ومقتا وساء سبيلا
4:22 Wala tankihoo ma nakahaabaokum mina alnnisa-i illa maqad salafa innahu kana fahishatan wamaqtan wasaasabeelan
Incest Prohibited4:22 Do not marry what your fathers had married from the women, except what has already been done. It is lewdness, abhorrence, and a bad path.
4:22 And do not marry who your fathers had married from the women, except what has already been done. It is a lewdness, and an abhorrence, and an evil path.
4:22 AND DO NOT marry women whom your fathers have previously married - although what is past is past:24 this, verily, is a shameful deed, and a hateful thing, and an evil way.
Lit., "except what has come to pass earlier"- i.e., forgiven shall be he who did it before the promulgation of this Qur'anic ordinance or (in the case of a conversion in later times) before one's acceptance of Islam.
Respect for the Father4:22 Do not marry the women who were previously married to your fathers - existing marriages are exempted and shall not be broken - for it is a gross offense, and an abominable act.,
4:22 Do not marry women whom your fathers ever married except what has already happened. Doing such was certainly a shameful and abominable custom.
4:23 حرمت عليكم امهاتكم وبناتكم واخواتكم وعماتكم وخالاتكم وبنات الاخ وبنات الاخت وامهاتكم الاتى ارضعنكم واخواتكم من الرضاعة وامهات نسائكم وربائبكم الاتى فى حجوركم من نسائكم الاتى دخلتم بهن فان لم تكونوا دخلتم بهن فلا جناح عليكم وحلائل ابنائكم الذين من اصلابكم وان تجمعوا بين الاختين الا ما قد سلف ان الله كان غفورا رحيما
4:23 Hurrimat AAalaykum ommahatukumwabanatukum waakhawatukum waAAammatukum wakhalatukumwabanatu al-akhi wabanatu al-okhti waommahatukumuallatee ardaAAnakum waakhawatukum mina alrradaAAatiwaommahatu nisa-ikum waraba-ibukumu allateefee hujoorikum min nisa-ikumu allateedakhaltum bihinna fa-in lam takoonoo dakhaltum bihinna falajunaha AAalaykum wahala-ilu abna-ikumuallatheena min aslabikum waan tajmaAAoobayna al-okhtayni illa ma qad salafa inna Allahakana ghafooran raheeman
4:23 Forbidden for you are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your fathers' sisters, your mothers' sisters, the daughters of your brother, and the daughters of your sister, your foster mothers who suckled you, your sisters from suckling, the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters residing in your homes from your wives which you have already consummated the marriage with; if you have not consummated the marriage then there is no sin upon you; and the wives of your sons that are from your seed, and that you join between two sisters except what has already been done. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
4:23 Forbidden for you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and the sisters of your father, and the sisters of your mother, and the daughters of your brother, and the daughters of your sister, and your foster mothers who suckled you, and your sisters from suckling, and the mothers of your women, and your step-daughters who are in your lodgings from your women with whom you have already consummated the marriage; if you have not consummated the marriage then there is no sin upon you; and those who were in wedlock with your sons who are from your seed, and that you join between two sisters except what has already been done. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
4:23 Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your aunts paternal and maternal, and a brother's daughters, and a sister's daughters; and your milk-mothers, and your milk-sisters; and the mothers of your wives; and your step-daughters - who are your foster children - born of your wives with whom you have consummated your marriage; but if you have not consummated your marriage, you will incur no sin [by marrying their daughters]; and [forbidden to you are] the spouses of the sons who have sprung from your loins; and [you are forbidden] to have two sisters [as your wives] at one and the same time - but what is past is past:25 for, behold, God is indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
See preceding note.
Incest Forbidden4:23 Prohibited for you (in marriage) are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, the sisters of your fathers, the sisters of your mothers, the daughters of your brother, the daughters of your sister, your nursing mothers, the girls who nursed from the same woman as you, the mothers of your wives, the daughters of your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage - if the marriage has not been consummated, you may marry the daughter. Also prohibited for you are the women who were married to your genetic sons. Also, you shall not be married to two sisters at the same time - but do not break up existing marriages. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
4:23 The following women are prohibited for you in marriage: Your mothers, daughters, sisters, father's sisters, mother's sisters, brother's daughters, sister's daughters, foster-mothers who have ever nursed you, foster-sisters, your wives' mothers, your step-daughters, unless you have divorced their mother without being intimate with her. Also forbidden are women who have ever been the wives of your sons. You are not allowed to keep two sisters in wedlock at one time except what has already happened in the past. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
4:24 والمحصنات من النساء الا ما ملكت ايمانكم كتاب الله عليكم واحل لكم ما وراء ذالكم ان تبتغوا باموالكم محصنين غير مسافحين فما استمتعتم به منهن فاتوهن اجورهن فريضة ولا جناح عليكم فيما تراضيتم به من بعد الفريضة ان الله كان عليما حكيما
4:24 Waalmuhsanatu mina alnnisa-iilla ma malakat aymanukum kitaba AllahiAAalaykum waohilla lakum ma waraa thalikuman tabtaghoo bi-amwalikum muhsineena ghayra musafiheenafama istamtaAAtum bihi minhunna faatoohunnaojoorahunna fareedatan wala junaha AAalaykumfeema taradaytum bihi min baAAdi alfareedatiinna Allaha kana AAaleeman hakeeman
4:24 The women who are already married, except those whom you have contractual rights, God's book is over you; and permitted for you is what is beyond this, if you are seeking with your money to be protected and not for illicit sex. As for those whom you have already had joy with them, then you shall give them their wage as an obligation. There is no sin upon you for what you agree to after the obligation. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.10 11
For a discussion regarding the expression Ma malakat aymanukum, see the note for verse 4:3.
After listing 14 classes of relatives, our Lord expressly informs us that marrying others is permitted. However, the followers of hadith and sunna, challenge this divine enumeration and rule. They prohibit marrying, at the same time, an aunt from one’s mother side and an aunt from one’s father side, and thereby imply that God forgot to add it to the list, and additionally attribute this blasphemy to Muhammed (6:19; 12:111; 19:64; 25:30).
4:24 And the independent from the women, except those maintained by your oaths; the book of God over you; and permitted for you is what is beyond this, if you are seeking with your money to be independent, not for illicit sex. As for those whom you have already had joy with, then you shall give them their dowries as an obligation. There is no sin upon you for what you agree on after the obligation. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
4:24 And [forbidden to you are] all married women other than those whom you rightfully possess [through wedlock]:26 this is God's ordinance, binding upon you. But lawful to you are all [women] beyond these, for you to seek out, offering them of your possessions,27 taking them in honest wedlock, and not in fornication. And unto those with whom you desire to enjoy marriage, you shall give the dowers due to them; but you will incur no sin if, after [having agreed upon] this lawful due, you freely agree with one another upon anything [else]:28 behold, God is indeed all-knowing, wise.
The term muhsanah signifies literally "a woman who is fortified [against unchastity]", and carries three senses: (1) "a married woman", (2) "a chaste woman", and (3) "a free woman". According to almost all the authorities, al-muhsanat denotes in the above context "married women". As for the expression ma malakat aymanukum ("those whom your right hands possess", i.e., "those whom you rightfully possess"), it is often taken to mean female slaves captured in a war in God's cause (see in this connection 8:67, and the corresponding note). The commentators who choose this meaning hold that such slave-girls can be taken in marriage irrespective of whether they have husbands in the country of their origin or not. However, quite apart from the fundamental differences of opinion, even among the Companions of the Prophet, regarding the legality of such a marriage, some of the most outstanding commentators hold the view that ma malakat aymanukum denotes here "women whom you rightfully possess through wedlock"; thus Razi in his commentary on this verse, and Tabari in one of his alternative explanations (going back to 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas, Mujahid, and others). Razi, in particular, points out that the reference to "all married women" (al-muhsanat min an-nisa'), coming as it does after the enumeration of prohibited degrees of relationship, is meant to stress the prohibition of sexual relations with any woman other than one's lawful wife.
Lit., "with your possessions" - i.e., offering them, as the Law demands, an appropriate dower.
Cf. verse 4 of this surah, and the corresponding note.
Mutual Attraction And Dowry Required4:24 Also prohibited are the women who are already married, unless they flee their disbelieving husbands who are at war with you. These are GOD's commandments to you. All other categories are permitted for you in marriage, so long as you pay them their due dowries. You shall maintain your morality, by not committing adultery. Thus, whoever you like among them, you shall pay them the dowry decreed for them. You commit no error by mutually agreeing to any adjustments to the dowry. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,6
If believing women flee their disbelieving husbands who are at war with the believers, they do not have to obtain adivorce before remarriage. See60:10.
4:24 Also forbidden to you are women who are already married, except those women who have sought asylum with you against their disbelieving husbands at war with you (60:10). This is God’s ordinance binding upon you. All other categories are permitted for you in marriage, with mutual consent, as confirmed by giving her a generous marital gift or dowry. You shall seek them in honest wedlock and let marriage be a fortress of chastity for the husband and wife. You shall maintain morality and go not near adultery (17:32). You like to marry women for a better quality of life, so give them their portions as a duty. And there is nothing wrong in adjusting the sum with mutual agreement after the duty has been done. These laws are given to you by God, the Knower, the Wise.
4:25 ومن لم يستطع منكم طولا ان ينكح المحصنات المؤمنات فمن ما ملكت ايمانكم من فتياتكم المؤمنات والله اعلم بايمانكم بعضكم من بعض فانكحوهن باذن اهلهن وءاتوهن اجورهن بالمعروف محصنات غير مسافحات ولا متخذات اخدان فاذا احصن فان اتين بفاحشة فعليهن نصف ما على المحصنات من العذاب ذالك لمن خشى العنت منكم وان تصبروا خير لكم والله غفور رحيم
4:25 Waman lam yastatiAA minkum tawlanan yankiha almuhsanati almu/minatifamin ma malakat aymanukum min fatayatikumualmu/minati waAllahu aAAlamu bi-eemanikumbaAAdukum min baAAdin fainkihoohunnabi-ithni ahlihinna waatoohunna ojoorahunna bialmaAAroofimuhsanatin ghayra masafihatin walamuttakhithati akhdanin fa-itha ohsinnafa-in atayna bifahishatin faAAalayhinna nisfu maAAala almuhsanati mina alAAathabi thalikaliman khashiya alAAanata minkum waan tasbiroo khayrunlakum waAllahu ghafoorun raheemun
4:25 Whoever of you cannot afford to marry the acknowledging independent women, then from those young women whom you have contractual rights. God is more aware of your faith; you are equal to one another. You shall marry them with the permission of their family and give them their wage in kindness, to be protected, not for illicit sex or for taking lovers. If they become protected, then any of them who come with lewdness shall have half the punishment of what is for the independent women of the retribution. This is for those who fear hardship from among you. But if you are patient it is better for you, and God is Forgiver, Compassionate.12
Slavery as an evil practice of Pharaoh and other polytheists is abolished by the Quran (3:79; 4:3; 5:89; 8:67; 24:32; 58:3; 90:13; 2:286; 12:39; 79:24). No wonder, this verse emphasizes the equality between men and women, between the free and those who were unjustly enslaved by polytheists. See 60:10.
God issues a lighter penalty for formerly slave women who commit adultery because of their past. Their tragic history and experience is considered a mitigating factor. This rule, at the same time, rejects the Sunni and Shiite punishment for adultery (death), since there cannot be half of a capital punishment. See 24:2.
4:25 And whoever of you cannot afford to marry the independent female believers, then from those maintained by your oaths of the believing young women. And God is more aware of your faith, some of you to each other. You shall marry them with the permission of their parents, and give them their dowries in kindness - to be independent - not for illicit sex or taking lovers. Until they become independent, any of them who comes with an immorality shall have half of what is the punishment for those who are independent. This is for those who fear hardship from among you. But if you are patient it is better for you, and God is Forgiver, Merciful.
4:25 And as for those of you who, owing to circumstances, are not in a position29 to marry free believing women, [let them marry] believing maidens from among those whom you rightfully possess.30 And God knows all about your faith; each one of you is an issue of the other.31 Marry them, then, with their people's leave, and give them their dowers in an equitable manner - they being women who give themselves in honest wedlock, not in fornication, nor as secret love-companions.32 And when they are married, and thereafter become guilty of immoral conduct, they shall be liable to half the penalty to which free married women are liable.33 This [permission to marry slave-girls applies] to those of you who fear lest they stumble into evil.34 But it is for your own good to persevere in patience [and to abstain from such marriages]: and God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
The phrase lam yastati tawlan is often taken to mean "he is not in a position to afford", i.e., in the financial sense; but Muhammad 'Abduh very convincingly expresses the view that it applies to all manner of preventive circumstances, be they of a material, personal or social nature (Manar V, 19).
In this context, ma malakat aymanukum (lit., "those whom your right hands possess") denotes women who were captured in a holy war and have subsequently embraced Islam. In the above phrase, the pronoun "you" refers to the community as a whole.
I.e., since all human beings - whatever their outward "social status" - are members of one and the same human family, and are therefore equal to one another in the sight of God (cf. 3:195), it is only the strength or weakness of faith which makes one person superior or inferior to another.
Lit., "and not taking unto themselves secret love-companions". This passage lays down in an unequivocal manner that sexual relations with female slaves are permitted only on the basis of marriage, and that in this respect there is no difference between them and free women; consequently, concubinage is ruled out.
The weaker social status of a slave makes her, obviously, more accessible to temptation than a free married woman is presumed to be.
I.e., to those who for one reason or another are unable to marry free women and are, at the same time, not equal to the temptations arising from celibacy. As is made clear in the next sentence, the Qur'an discourages such marriages - obviously with a view to removing a major attraction from the institution of slavery as such, and thus promoting its abolition.
4:25 Those among you who cannot afford to marry free believing women, may marry believing slave women. GOD knows best about your belief, and you are equal to one another, as far as belief is concerned. You shall obtain permission from their guardians before you marry them, and pay them their due dowry equitably. They shall maintain moral behavior, by not committing adultery, or having secret lovers. Once they are freed through marriage, if they commit adultery, their punishment shall be half of that for the free women. Marrying a slave shall be a last resort for those unable to wait. To be patient is better for you. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,7
This law proves that the punishment for adultery could not possibly be stoning to death as stated in the laws of corruptedMuslims (see24:2).
4:25 (As the Qur’an is being revealed to you O Messenger, the emancipation of the slaves, male and female, is steadily taking place.) A man among you who cannot find a free believing woman willing to marry him, should have no hesitation in asking the hand of a believing maiden from her guardian. God knows your beliefs and reiterates that all human beings are equal in the Sight of God (17:70). Pay them a generous marital gift in kindness. They shall maintain moral behavior, by not committing adultery, or having secret relations. Since their upbringing has been deficient in the environment of slavery, their punishment will be half that of the free women, if they commit indecency after marriage. The permission to marry a bonded woman is for him who fears he might commit sin. The better recourse is freeing her first from bondage. Men and women must be patient and exercise self-control while waiting to get married. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
4:26 يريد الله ليبين لكم ويهديكم سنن الذين من قبلكم ويتوب عليكم والله عليم حكيم
4:26 Yureedu Allahu liyubayyina lakumwayahdiyakum sunana allatheena min qablikum wayatoobaAAalaykum waAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
4:26 God wants to make clear for you and guide you to the ways of those before you, and pardon you, and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
4:26 God wants to clarify for you and guide you to the paths of those before you, and pardon you, and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
4:26 God wants to make [all this] clear unto you, and to guide you onto the [righteous] ways of life of those who preceded you,35 and to turn unto you in His mercy: for God is all-knowing, wise.
An allusion to the genuine religious teachings of the past, which aimed at bringing about a harmony between man's physical nature and the demands of his spirit - a harmony which is destroyed whenever asceticism is postulated as the only possible alternative to licentiousness (see also note on surah 2, verse 143). This allusion arises from the discussion of sexual morality in the preceding passages devoted to marital relations.
4:26 GOD wills to explain things for you, and to guide you through past precedents, and to redeem you. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
4:26 God will explain to you and guide you by the examples of those who were before you, and turn to you (in mercy). God is Knower, Wise.
4:27 والله يريد ان يتوب عليكم ويريد الذين يتبعون الشهوات ان تميلوا ميلا عظيما
4:27 WaAllahu yureedu an yatoobaAAalaykum wayureedu allatheena yattabiAAoona alshshahawatian tameeloo maylan AAatheeman
4:27 God wants to pardon you, but those who follow their lusts want that you would be diverted into a great diversion.
4:27 And God wants to pardon you, but those who follow desires want that you would be diverted into a great diversion.
4:27 And God wants to turn unto you in His mercy, whereas those who follow [only] their own lusts want you to drift far away from the right path.36
Lit., "want you to deviate with a tremendous deviation".
God's Mercy4:27 GOD wishes to redeem you, while those who pursue their lusts wish that you deviate a great deviation.,
4:27 God turns to you in kindness, while those who follow their desires want that you drift far astray.
4:28 يريد الله ان يخفف عنكم وخلق الانسان ضعيفا
4:28 Yureedu Allahu an yukhaffifa AAankumwakhuliqa al-insanu daAAeefan
4:28 God wants to make easy for you; and humankind was created weak.13
God created humans in an excellent design (32:7; 64:3; 82:7; 95:4), yet we humans may lower ourselves to the lowest level by following the teachings of devil (95:5). It is interesting to see the passive voice when degeneration of human nature is mentioned. The Quran does not say "we made humans weak," but it says, "humans were made weak." Thus, whenever our weakness, impatience, or pessimism is mentioned the passive voice is used (4:28; 21:37; 70:19). Through this peculiar language, the Best Designer and the Ultimate Creator who created is in best design with freedom of choice, reminds us the negative impact of wrong choices on our excellent design. See 57:22.
4:28 God wants to alleviate for you; and man was created weak.
4:28 God wants to lighten your burdens:37 for man has been created weak.
I.e., to remove, by means of His guidance, all possibility of conflict between man's spirit and his bodily urges, and to show him a way of life in which these two elements of human nature can be harmonized and brought to full fruition.
4:28 GOD wishes to lighten your burden, for the human being is created weak.,
4:28 God wishes to lighten your burdens (with His guidance). For, the (unguided) human being has been created weak. [7:17, 25:28-29]
4:29 ياايها الذين ءامنوا لا تاكلوا اموالكم بينكم بالباطل الا ان تكون تجارة عن تراض منكم ولا تقتلوا انفسكم ان الله كان بكم رحيما
4:29 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola ta/kuloo amwalakum baynakum bialbatiliilla an takoona tijaratan AAan taradinminkum wala taqtuloo anfusakum inna Allaha kanabikum raheeman
Avoid Major Sins4:29 O you who acknowledge, do not consume your money between you unjustly, except through a trade, which is mutually agreed by you. Do not fight/kill yourselves; God is Compassionate towards you.
4:29 O you who believe, do not consume your money between you unjustly, unless it is through a trade which is mutually agreed by you. And do not kill yourselves; God is Merciful towards you.
4:29 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not devour one another's possessions wrongfully - not even by way of trade based on mutual agreement38 - and do not destroy one another: for, behold, God is indeed a dispenser of grace unto you!
If the particle illa preceding the above clause is given its usual meaning of "except" or "unless it be", the phrase ought to be rendered thus: "unless it be [an act of] trade based on mutual agreement". This formulation, however, has baffled many a commentator: for, if taken literally, it would imply that wrongful profits from trading based on mutual agreement are excepted from the general prohibition, "Devour not one another's possessions wrongfully"- a supposition impossible to maintain in view of the ethics postulated by the Qur'an. To obviate this difficulty, most of the commentators express the opinion that the particle illa has in this context the meaning of "but", and that the clause ought to be understood as follows: "but it is lawful for you to profit from one another's possessions by way of legitimate trade based on mutual agreement". However, quite apart from the fact that this interpretation is highly laboured and artificial, it does not explain why "legitimate trade" should have been singled out here as a sole means of lawfully deriving economic benefits from one another - for, as Razi, rightly points out in his commentary on this verse, "it is no less lawful to benefit economically through a gift, a bequest, a legal inheritance, alms, a dower, or an indemnity for injuries received: for there are, aside from trade, many ways of acquiring possessions [lawfully]". Why, then, should trade alone have been stressed? - and, moreover, stressed in a context not particularly devoted to matters of trade? A really satisfactory answer to this puzzle can, in my opinion, be obtained only through a linguistic consideration of the particle illa. Apart from its usual connotation of "except" or "unless it be", it has sometimes - as has been pointed out in both Qamus and Mughni - the meaning of the simple conjunction "and" (wa); similarly, if it is preceded by a negative clause, it can be synonymous with "nor" or "and neither" (wa-la): as, for instance, in 27:10, "no fear need the message-bearers have in My Presence, and neither (illa) need he who...", etc. Now if we apply this particular use of illa to the passage under consideration, we arrive at the reading, "nor [shall you do it] by means of trade based on mutual agreement", or simply, "not even by way of trade based on mutual agreement" - whereupon the meaning immediately becomes obvious: the believers are prohibited from devouring another person's possessions wrongfully even if that other person - being the weaker party - agrees to such a deprivation or exploitation under the stress of circumstances. The reading adopted by me logically connects, moreover, with verse 32, which admonishes the believers not to covet one another's possessions.
Murder, Suicide, and Illicit Gains Prohibited4:29 O you who believe, do not consume each others' properties illicitly - only mutually acceptable transactions are permitted. You shall not kill yourselves. GOD is Merciful towards you.,
4:29 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not consume one another’s wealth wrongfully, not even by way of trade based on mutual agreement. Do not destroy one another, and thus do not destroy your own ‘self’. Certainly, God has been Merciful to you.”6
4:30 ومن يفعل ذالك عدوانا وظلما فسوف نصليه نارا وكان ذالك على الله يسيرا
4:30 Waman yafAAal thalika AAudwananwathulman fasawfa nusleehi naran wakanathalika AAala Allahi yaseeran
4:30 Whoever does so out of animosity and transgression, We will cast him into a fire; and this for God is very easy.
4:30 And whoever does so out of animosity and transgression, We will cast him to a Fire; and this for God is very easy.
4:30 And as for him who does this with malicious intent and a will to do wrong39 - him shall We, in time, cause to endure [suffering through] fire: for this is indeed easy for God.
Lit., "by way of [deliberate] transgression and wrongdoing" ('udwanan wa-zulman).
4:30 Anyone who commits these transgressions, maliciously and deliberately, we will condemn him to Hell. This is easy for GOD to do.,
4:30 Whoever does that through aggression and injustice, We shall soon cast him into the fire. And that is easy for God.
4:31 ان تجتنبوا كبائر ما تنهون عنه نكفر عنكم سياتكم وندخلكم مدخلا كريما
4:31 In tajtaniboo kaba-ira matunhawna AAanhu nukaffir AAankum sayyi-atikum wanudkhilkummudkhalan kareeman
4:31 If you avoid the major sins that you are forbidden against, then We will cancel your existing sins and admit you to a generous entrance.
4:31 If you avoid the major sins that you are prohibited against, then We will cancel your existing sins and admit you to a generous entrance.
4:31 If you avoid the great sins, which you have been enjoined to shun, We shall efface your [minor] bad deeds, and shall cause you to enter an abode of glory.40
I.e., paradise. However, according to some of the commentators, the expression mudkhal denotes not the place but the manner of "entering" (Razi) - in which case the above phrase may be rendered thus: "We shall cause you to enter [upon your afterlife] in a state of glory".
4:31 If you refrain from committing the gross sins that are prohibited for you, we will remit your sins, and admit you an honorable admittance.,
4:31 If you refrain from the great transgressions that you have been forbidden to do, We shall remit your misdeeds and admit you through a gate of honor (in this world and in the Hereafter).
4:32 ولا تتمنوا ما فضل الله به بعضكم علىا بعض للرجال نصيب مما اكتسبوا وللنساء نصيب مما اكتسبن وسلوا الله من فضله ان الله كان بكل شىء عليما
4:32 Wala tatamannaw ma faddalaAllahu bihi baAAdakum AAala baAAdinlilrrijali naseebun mimma iktasaboowalilnnisa-i naseebun mimma iktasabnawais-aloo Allaha min fadlihi inna Allahakana bikulli shay-in AAaleeman
Each Gender Has Own Qualities4:32 Do not envy what God has favored some of you over others. For the men is a portion of what they gained, and for the women is a portion of what they gained. Ask God from His favor, God is knowledgeable over all things.
4:32 And do not envy that which God has graced some of you over others with. For the men is a portion of what they earned, and for the women is a portion of what they earned. And ask God from His grace; God is knowledgeable in all things.
4:32 Hence, do not covet the bounties which God has bestowed more abundantly on some of you than on others. Men shall have a benefit from what they earn, and women shall have a benefit from what they earn. Ask, therefore, God [to give you] out of His bounty: behold, God has indeed full knowledge of everything.
Men and Women Endowed With Unique Qualities4:32 You shall not covet the qualities bestowed upon each other by GOD; the men enjoy certain qualities, and the women enjoy certain qualities. You may implore GOD to shower you with His grace. GOD is fully aware of all things.,
4:32 Do not covet the bounties (and qualities) that God has bestowed more abundantly on some of you than on others. Men shall have a portion from what they earn, and women shall have a portion from what they earn. Therefore, seek out of God’s bounty (to the best of your abilities). God is Witness to everything. [4:34, 28:77]
4:33 ولكل جعلنا موالى مما ترك الوالدان والاقربون والذين عقدت ايمانكم فاتوهم نصيبهم ان الله كان علىا كل شىء شهيدا
4:33 Walikullin jaAAalna mawaliyamimma taraka alwalidani waal-aqraboonawaallatheena AAaqadat aymanukum faatoohumnaseebahum inna Allaha kana AAalakulli shay-in shaheedan
4:33 For each We have made inheritors for what was left behind by the parents and the relatives. Those whom are dependent on you, you shall give them their portion. God is witness over all things.
4:33 And for each We have made inheritors for what was left behind by the parents and the relatives. And those bound by your oaths, you shall give them their portion. God is witness over all things.
4:33 And unto everyone have We appointed heirs to what he may leave behind: parents, and near kinsfolk, and those to whom you have pledged your troth41 give them, therefore, their share. Behold, God is indeed a witness unto everything.
I.e., wives and husbands (Abu Muslim, as quoted by Razi).
Do Not Object to the Inheritance Laws Proposed by God4:33 For each of you, we have designated shares from the inheritance left by the parents and the relatives. Also those related to you through marriage, you shall give them their due share. GOD witnesses all things.,
4:33 For each of you, We have designated shares in the property left by the parents and the relatives. And be sure to assign a share to those who are yours, or related to you by marriage. God is Witness over all things and events. [4:11-12-176]
4:34 الرجال قوامون على النساء بما فضل الله بعضهم علىا بعض وبما انفقوا من اموالهم فالصالحات قانتات حافظات للغيب بما حفظ الله والاتى تخافون نشوزهن فعظوهن واهجروهن فى المضاجع واضربوهن فان اطعنكم فلا تبغوا عليهن سبيلا ان الله كان عليا كبيرا
4:34 Alrrijalu qawwamoonaAAala alnnisa-i bima faddalaAllahu baAAdahum AAala baAAdin wabimaanfaqoo min amwalihim faalssalihatu qanitatunhafithatun lilghaybi bima hafithaAllahu waallatee takhafoonanushoozahunna faAAithoohunna waohjuroohunnafee almadajiAAi waidriboohunna fa-in ataAAnakumfala tabghoo AAalayhinna sabeelan inna Allaha kanaAAaliyyan kabeeran
In Case of Disloyalty4:34 The men are to support the women by what God has gifted them over one another and for what they spend of their money. The reformed women are devotees and protectors of privacy what God has protected. As for those women from whom you fear disloyalty, then you shall advise them, abandon them in the bedchamber, and separate them; if they obey you, then do not seek a way over them; God is High, Great.14
As I discussed extensively, in Turkçe Kuran Çevirilerindeki Hatalar (Errors in Turkish Translation of the Quran, Istanbul, 1992-1998) and in English article, Beating Women or Beating Around the Bush (Unorthodox Articles, Internet, 1998), four key words or phrases have been mistranslated by traditional translators. To justify the misogynistic and patriarchal practices, deliberately or unknowingly, a majority of translators render the phrase kawamuna ala al-nisa as "in charge of women" rather than "providers for women" or "observant of women." Interestingly, the same translators translate the same verb mentioned in 4:135; 5:8; 4:127; 2:229; 20:14; 55:9 as "observe/maintain." When the same verb is used to depict a relationship between man and woman, it somehow magically transforms into a prescription of hierarchy and authority.
The second key word that is commonly mistranslated is iDRiBuhunna. In almost all translations, you will see it translated as "scourge," or "beat" or "beat (lightly)". The verb DaRaBa is a multiple-meaning verb akin to English ‘strike’ or ‘get.’ The Quran uses the same verb with various meanings, such as, to travel, to get out (3:156; 4:101; 38:44; 73:20; 2:273), to strike (2:60; 7:160; 8:12; 20:77; 24:31; 26:63; 37:93; 47:4), to beat (8:50), to beat or regret (47:27), to set up (43:58; 57:13), to give (examples) (14:24; 16:75; 18:32; 24:35; 30:28; 36:78; 39:27; 43:17; 59:21; 66:10), to take away, to ignore (43:5), to condemn (2:61), to seal, to draw over (18:11), to cover (24:31), and to explain (13:17). It is again interesting that the scholars pick the meaning BEAT, among the many other alternatives, when the relationship between man and woman is involved, a relationship that is defined by the Quran with mutual love and care (30:21).
The third word that has been traditionally mistranslated is the word NuSHuZ as "rebellion" or "disobedience" or "opposition" to men. If we study 4:34 carefully we will find a clue that leads us to translate that word as embracing a range of related ideas, from "flirting" to "engaging in an extramarital affair" – indeed, any word or words that reflects the range of disloyalty in marriage. The clue is the phrase before nushuz, which reads: ". . . they honor them according to God's commandments, even when alone in their privacy." This phrase emphasizes the importance of loyalty in marital life, and helps us to make better sense of what follows. Interestingly, the same word, nushuz, is used later in the same chapter, in 4:128 – but it is used to describe the misbehavior of husbands, not wives, as it was in 4:34. In our view, the traditional translation of nushuz, that is, "opposition," will not fit in both contexts. However, the understanding of nushuz as marital disloyalty, in a variety of forms, is clearly appropriate for both 4:34 and 4:128.
The fourth word is the word QaNiTat, which means "devoted to God," and in some verses it describes both man and woman (2:116; 3:17; 16:120; 30:26; 33:31; 39:9; 66:5). Though this word is mostly translated correctly as "obedient," when read in the context of the above-mentioned distortion it conveys a false message as if to imply that women must be "obedient" to their husbands as their inferior, while the word refers to obedience to God's law. The word is mentioned as a general description of Muslim women (66:12), and more interestingly the description of Mary who, according to the Quran, did not even have a husband! (66:12).
The traditional distortion of this verse was first questioned by Edip Yuksel in his book, "Kuran Çevirilerindeki Hatalar" (Errors in Turkish Translations) (1992, Istanbul). For a detailed discussion on verse 4:34, see the Sample Comparisons section in the Introduction.
After the revelation of the Quran, Muslim scholars turned back to the days of ignorance and they were supported by some Jewish and Christian scholars who apparently converted to Islam yet did not experience a paradigm change. These semi-converts and those Arabs who longed for the old culture of ignorance combined their forces together to take back the rights of women recognized and promoted by the Quran. The rights of women in the West have been recognized through the separation of church and state; however the culture is still basically a male dominant one and thus western women are objectified and exploited tremendously in the business world. The western culture is deeply influenced by the teaching of Christianity originating from the misogynistic authors of Old Testament and St. Paul (not Jesus) who subordinates women to men. For instance, see Ephesians 5:22-33 ; Colossians 3:18-19 ; 1 Peter 3:1-7 .
"Let your women keep silent in the churches, for they are not permitted to speak; but they are to be submissive, as the law also says" (I Corinthians 14: 34). "For a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn. But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her be covered. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man. For man is not from woman, but woman from man. Nor was man created for the woman, but woman for the man" (I Corinthians 11:6-9 ). "Let a women learn in silence with all submission. And do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression. Nevertheless, she will be saved in childbearing if they continue in faith, love and holiness, with self-control" (I Timothy 2:11-15 ).
St. Paul's misogynistic teaching is a reflection and extension of a historical trend. The Old Testament contains many man-made misogynist teachings. For instance, a woman is considered unclean for one week if she gives birth to a son, but unclean for two weeks if she gives birth to a daughter (Leviticus 12:1-5 ).
The Quran prohibits a sexual relationship with a menstruating woman, not because she is dirty, but because menstruation is painful (2:222). The purpose is to protect women's health from being burdened by the sexual desires of their husbands. However, the male authors of the Old Testament, exaggerated and generalized this divine prohibition so much so that they turned menstruation into a reason for a woman’s humiliation, isolation, and punishment (Leviticus 15:19-33 ).
Christianity puts all the blame on the shoulders of women for the troubles in this world. Yet, according to the Quran, we are created from one person (nafs), not one man (4:1). Furthermore, it was not Eve, but it was both Adam and his spouse who were deceived in the Paradise (2:30; 7:19).
The Old Testament contains hyperbolic exaggerations and bizarre practices. For some examples, See the footnote of 4:119.
4:34 The men are to support the women with what God has bestowed upon them over one another and for what they spend of their money. The upright females are dutiful; keeping private the personal matters for what God keeps watch over. As for those females from whom you fear desertion, then you shall advise them, and abandon them in the bedchamber, and separate from them. If they respond to you, then do not seek a way over them; God is Most High, Great.
4:34 MEN SHALL take full care of women with the bounties which God has bestowed more abundantly on the former than on the latter,42 and with what they may spend out of their possessions. And the righteous women are the truly devout ones, who guard the intimacy which God has [ordained to be] guarded.43 And as for those women whose ill-will44 you have reason to fear, admonish them [first]; then leave them alone in bed; then beat them;45 and if thereupon they pay you heed, do not seek to harm them. Behold, God is indeed most high, great!
Lit., "more on some of them than on the others".- The expression qawwam is an intensive form of qa'im ("one who is responsible for" or "takes care of" a thing or a person). Thus, qama ala l-mar'ah signifies "he undertook the maintenance of the woman" or "he maintained her" (see Lane VIII, 2995). The grammatical form qawwam is more comprehensive than qa'im, and combines the concepts of physical maintenance and protection as well as of moral responsibility: and it is because of the last-named factor that I have rendered this phrase as "men shall take full care of women".
Lit., "who guard that which cannot be perceived (al-ghayb) because God has [willed it to be] guarded".
The term nushuz (lit., "rebellion"- here rendered as "ill-will") comprises every kind of deliberate bad behaviour of a wife towards her husband or of a husband towards his wife, including what is nowadays described as "mental cruelty"; with reference to the husband, it also denotes "ill-treatment", in the physical sense, of his wife (cf. verse 128 of this surah). In this context, a wife's "ill-will" implies a deliberate, persistent breach of her marital obligations.
It is evident from many authentic Traditions that the Prophet himself intensely detested the idea of beating one's wife, and said on more than one occasion, "Could any of you beat his wife as he would beat a slave, and then lie with her in the evening?" (Bukhari and Muslim). According to another Tradition, he forbade the beating of any woman with the words, "Never beat God's handmaidens" (Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Hibban and Hakim, on the authority of Iyas ibn 'Abd Allah; Ibn Hibban, on the authority of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas; and Bayhaqi, on the authority of Umm Kulthum). When the above Qur'an-verse authorizing the beating of a refractory wife was revealed, the Prophet is reported to have said: "I wanted one thing, but God has willed another thing - and what God has willed must be best" (see Manar V, 74). With all this, he stipulated in his sermon on the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage, shortly before his death, that beating should be resorted to only if the wife "has become guilty, in an obvious manner, of immoral conduct", and that it should be done "in such a way as not to cause pain (ghayr mubarrih)"; authentic Traditions to this effect are found in Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i and Ibn Majah. On the basis of these Traditions, all the authorities stress that this "beating", if resorted to at all, should be more or less symbolic - "with a toothbrush, or some such thing" (Tabari, quoting the views of scholars of the earliest times), or even "with a folded handkerchief" (Razi); and some of the greatest Muslim scholars (e.g., Ash-Shafi'i) are of the opinion that it is just barely permissible, and should preferably be avoided: and they justify this opinion by the Prophet's personal feelings with regard to this problem.
Do Not Beat Your Wife4:34 The men are made responsible for the women, 8 * and GOD has endowed them with certain qualities, and made them the bread earners. The righteous women will cheerfully accept this arrangement, since it is GOD's commandment, and honor their husbands during their absence. If you experience rebellion from the women, you shall first talk to them, then (you may use negative incentives like) deserting them in bed, then you may (as a last alternative) beat them. If they obey you, you are not permitted to transgress against them. GOD is Most High, Supreme.*,
This expression simply means that God is appointing the husband as "captain of the ship." Marriage is like a ship, and the captain runs it afterdue consultation with his officers. A believing wife readily accepts God'sappointment, without mutiny.
4:34 Men are the protectors and supporters of women. They shall take full care of women with what they spend of their wealth. God has made men to excel in some areas and women to excel in some areas. Men should ensure that women are able to stand at their feet in the society. So, righteous women are obedient to God’s ordinances and guard the moral values even in privacy, the values that God has commanded to be guarded. If you experience ill-treatment from them, apprise them of possible consequences. Next, leave them in their resting places, and refer them for arbitration. If they pay heed to you, do not seek a way against them. God is Most High, Most Great.7
Qawwam= Protector = Maintainer = One who helps others to stand at their feet. Nushooz = Ill-treatment = Rebellion = To stand up against 2:259, 58:11 = To stand up against virtue = Mental abuse = Domestic violence = To rebel against the permanent moral values. Wa’az = Admonishment = To apprise of consequences 2:231, 3:66. ‘Dharb’ = Example 13:17, 16:74, 36:13 = To stop or prevent 8:11, 43:5 = Travel = Referring to arbiters = To give examples 4:34, 13:17, 16:74, 36:13, 43:58 = To withdraw 43:5
4:35 وان خفتم شقاق بينهما فابعثوا حكما من اهله وحكما من اهلها ان يريدا اصلاحا يوفق الله بينهما ان الله كان عليما خبيرا
4:35 Wa-in khiftum shiqaqa baynihimafaibAAathoo hakaman min ahlihi wahakaman minahliha in yureeda islahan yuwaffiqiAllahu baynahuma inna Allaha kanaAAaleeman khabeeran
4:35 If you fear a split between them, then send a judge from his family and a judge from hers. If they want to reconcile, then God will bring them together. God is Knowledgeable, Ever-aware.15
4:35 And if you fear a permanent rift between them, then send a judge from his family and a judge from her family. If they want to reconcile, then God will bring them together. God is Knowledgeable, Expert.
4:35 And if you have reason to fear that a breach might occur between a [married] couple, appoint an arbiter from among his people and an arbiter from among her people; if they both want to set things aright, God may bring about their reconciliation. Behold, God is indeed all-knowing, aware.
Marriage Arbitration4:35 If a couple fears separation, you shall appoint an arbitrator from his family and an arbitrator from her family; if they decide to reconcile, GOD will help them get together. GOD is Omniscient, Cognizant.,
4:35 (Families and communities must adopt a proactive approach regarding a husband and a wife in discord.) If you fear a breach between the two of them (husband and wife), appoint two arbiters, one from his family and one from her family. If they decide to reconcile, God will help them get together. Surely, God is Knower, Aware. [2:228-234, 4:3, 4:19, 4:35, 4:128, 33:49, 58:1 65:1-4]
4:36 واعبدوا الله ولا تشركوا به شيا وبالوالدين احسانا وبذى القربىا واليتامىا والمساكين والجار ذى القربىا والجار الجنب والصاحب بالجنب وابن السبيل وما ملكت ايمانكم ان الله لا يحب من كان مختالا فخورا
4:36 WaoAAbudoo Allaha walatushrikoo bihi shay-an wabialwalidayni ihsananwabithee alqurba waalyatama waalmasakeeniwaaljari thee alqurba waaljarialjunubi waalssahibi bialjanbi waibnialssabeeli wama malakat aymanukum inna Allahala yuhibbu man kana mukhtalan fakhooran
4:36 Serve God and do not set up anything with Him, and be kind to the parents, and the relatives, and the needy, and the neighbor who is of kin, and the neighbor next door, and close friend, and the traveler, and those with whom you have contractual rights. God does not like the arrogant, the boastful.16
4:36 And serve God and do not set up anything with Him, and do good to the parents, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the needy, and the neighbor who is a relative, and the neighbor nearby, and the friend nearby, and the wayfarer, and those maintained by your oaths. God does not love the arrogant, the boastful.
4:36 AND WORSHIP God [alone], and do not ascribe divinity, in any way, to aught beside Him.46 And do good unto your parents, and near of kin, and unto orphans, and the needy, and the neighbour from among your own people, and the neighbour who is a stranger,47 and the friend by your side, and the wayfarer, and those whom you rightfully possess.48 Verily, God does not love any of those who, full of self-conceit, act in a boastful manner;
The expression shay'an (here rendered as "in any way") makes it clear that shirk ("the ascribing of divinity to anything beside God") is not confined to a worship of other "deities", but implies also the attribution of divine or quasi-divine powers to persons or objects not regarded as deities: in other words, it embraces also saint-worship, etc.
I.e., "whether he belongs to your own or to another community". That the expression "your own people" (dhu l-qurba) refers to the community and not to one's actual relatives is obvious from the fact that "the near of kin" have already been mentioned earlier in this sentence. The Prophet often stressed a believer's moral obligation towards his neighbours, whatever their faith; and his attitude has been summed up in his words, "Whoever believes in God and the Last Day, let him do good unto his neighbour" (Bukhari, Muslim, and other compilations).
According to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, 'Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud and other Companions, "the friend by your side" (as-sahib bi'l-janb) is one's wife or husband (Tabari). By "those whom you rightfully possess" (lit., "whom your right hands possess") are meant, in this context, slaves of either sex. Since this verse enjoins the "doing of good" towards all people with whom one is in contact, and since the best that can be done to a slave is to free him, the above passage calls, elliptically, for the freeing of slaves (Manar V, 94). See also surah 2, verse 177, as well as 9:60, where the freeing of human beings from bondage is explicitly mentioned as one of the objectives to which zakah funds are to be dedicated.
Major Commandments4:36 You shall worship GOD alone - do not associate anything with Him. You shall regard the parents, the relatives, the orphans, the poor, the related neighbor, the unrelated neighbor, the close associate, the traveling alien, and your servants. GOD does not like the arrogant show-offs.,
4:36 Obey God and associate no partner with Him. Treat kindly your parents, relatives, the orphans and those who have been left alone in the society. Take care of the needy, the disabled, those whose hard earned income is insufficient to meet their needs, those whose businesses have stalled, and those who have lost their jobs. You shall treat kindly your related neighbors, and unrelated neighbors, companions by your side in public gatherings, or public transportation. Be generous to the needy wayfarer, the homeless son of the street, and the one who reaches you in a destitute condition. Be nice to people who work under your supervision. God does not love those who are proud, the boastful.
4:37 الذين يبخلون ويامرون الناس بالبخل ويكتمون ما ءاتىاهم الله من فضله واعتدنا للكافرين عذابا مهينا
4:37 Allatheena yabkhaloona waya/muroona alnnasabialbukhli wayaktumoona ma atahumuAllahu min fadlihi waaAAtadna lilkafireenaAAathaban muheenan
Philanthropy and God's Justice4:37 Those who are stingy and order the people to stinginess, and they conceal what God has given them from His bounty. We have prepared for these ingrates a painful retribution.
4:37 Those who are stingy and order the people to stinginess, and they conceal what God has given them from His bounty. And We have prepared for the rejecters a humiliating retribution.
4:37 [nor] those who are niggardly, and bid others to be niggardly, and conceal whatever God has bestowed upon them out of His bounty; and so We have readied shameful suffering for all who thus deny the truth.
4:37 The ones who are stingy, exhort the people to be stingy, and conceal what GOD has bestowed upon them from His bounties. We have prepared for the disbelievers a shameful retribution.,
4:37 Those who are stingy and advise others to be stingy, and hide what God has given them of His bounty, for such ungrateful disbelievers We have prepared a humiliating punishment.
4:38 والذين ينفقون اموالهم رئاء الناس ولا يؤمنون بالله ولا باليوم الءاخر ومن يكن الشيطان له قرينا فساء قرينا
4:38 Waallatheena yunfiqoona amwalahumri-aa alnnasi wala yu/minoona biAllahiwala bialyawmi al-akhiri waman yakuni alshshaytanulahu qareenan fasaa qareenan
4:38 Those who spend their money to show-off to the people, and they do not acknowledge God or the Last day. Whoever has the devil as his companion, then what a miserable companion!
4:38 And those who spend their money to show off to the people, and they do not believe in God or the Last Day. And whoever has the devil as his associate, then what a miserable associate!
4:38 And [God does not love] those who spend their possessions on others [only] to be seen and praised by men, the while they believe neither in God nor in the Last Day; and he who has Satan for a soul-mate, how evil a soul-mate has he!49
4:38 They give money to charity only to show off, while disbelieving in GOD and the Last Day. If one's companion is the devil, that is the worst companion.,
4:38 They give wealth to charity only to show off, and do not believe in God and the Last Day. Such people have taken Satan, their selfish desires, as their intimate companion. What a terrible companion it is!
4:39 وماذا عليهم لو ءامنوا بالله واليوم الءاخر وانفقوا مما رزقهم الله وكان الله بهم عليما
4:39 Wamatha AAalayhim law amanoobiAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiriwaanfaqoo mimma razaqahumu Allahu wakana Allahubihim AAaleeman
4:39 What would bother them if they acknowledged God and the Last day and spent from God's provisions? God is aware of them.
4:39 What would bother them if they believed in God and the Last Day and spent from the provisions of God? God is aware of them.
4:39 And what would they have to fear50 if they would but believe in God and the Last Day, and spend [in His way] out of what God has granted them as sustenance - since God has indeed full knowledge of them?
Lit., "what is it that would be upon them". This seems to be a reference to the oft-repeated Qur'anic statement that those who believe in God and live righteously "need have no fear" (la khawf alayhim - lit., "no fear [shall be] upon them").
4:39 Why do they not believe in GOD and the Last Day, and give from GOD's provisions to them? GOD is fully aware of them.,
4:39 What do they have to fear if they believe in God and the Last Day and spend of what God has given them? God is ever Aware of them.
4:40 ان الله لا يظلم مثقال ذرة وان تك حسنة يضاعفها ويؤت من لدنه اجرا عظيما
4:40 Inna Allaha la yathlimumithqala tharratin wa-in taku hasanatan yudaAAifhawayu/ti min ladunhu ajran AAatheeman
4:40 Indeed, God does not wrong an atom's weight; and if it is good He will double it. He grants from Himself a great reward.
4:40 Indeed, God does not wrong the weight of an atom; and if it is good He will double it. And He grants from Himself a great recompense.
4:40 Verily, God does not wrong [anyone] by as much as an atom's weight; and if there be a good deed, He will multiply it, and will bestow out of His grace51 a mighty reward.
Lit., "from himself "- i.e., far in excess of what the doer of good may have merited.
Divine Justice4:40 GOD does not inflict an atom's weight of injustice. On the contrary, He multiplies the reward manifold for the righteous work, and grants from Him a great recompense.,
4:40 God wrongs not anyone even the weight of an atom; and He multiplies a good deed, and from His Own Presence grants a great reward.
4:41 فكيف اذا جئنا من كل امة بشهيد وجئنا بك علىا هاؤلاء شهيدا
4:41 Fakayfa itha ji/na min kulliommatin bishaheedin waji/na bika AAala haola-ishaheedan
4:41 How is it then when We bring forth from every nation a witness, and bring you as a witness over these?17
For Muhammed's testimony, see 25:30.
4:41 How is it then when We bring forth from every nation a witness, and bring you as a witness over these?
4:41 How, then, [will the sinners fare on Judgment Day,] when We shall bring forward witnesses from within every community,52 and bring thee [O Prophet] as witness against them?
I.e., the earlier apostles, of whom every community or civilization has had a share.
4:41 Thus, when the day (of judgment) comes, we will call upon a witness from each community, and you (the messenger) will serve as a witness among these people.,
4:41 How will it be with them when (on the Resurrection Day) We bring from every community a witness (their Prophet 10:47), and We bring you (O Messenger), a witness among these people (your contemporaries)? [2:143]
4:42 يومئذ يود الذين كفروا وعصوا الرسول لو تسوىا بهم الارض ولا يكتمون الله حديثا
4:42 Yawma-ithin yawaddu allatheenakafaroo waAAasawoo alrrasoola law tusawwabihimu al-ardu wala yaktumoona Allaha hadeethan
4:42 On that day those who rejected and disobeyed the messenger will wish that the earth would swallow them; but they cannot hide anything said from God.
4:42 On that Day those who rejected and disobeyed the messenger will wish that the earth would swallow them; but they cannot hide any narrative from God.
4:42 Those who were bent on denying the truth and paid no heed to the Apostle will on that Day wish that the earth would swallow them:53 but they shall not [be able to] conceal from God anything that has happened.
Lit., "become level with them". The term "the apostle" is probably used here in its generic sense, and refers to all the apostles who preached God's message at one time or another.
4:42 On that day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the messenger will wish that they were level with the ground; not a single utterance will they be able to hide from GOD.,
4:42 On that Day, those who denied the truth and paid no heed to the Messenger will wish that they were level with the ground. But not a single utterance or event could they hide from God.
4:43 ياايها الذين ءامنوا لا تقربوا الصلواة وانتم سكارىا حتىا تعلموا ما تقولون ولا جنبا الا عابرى سبيل حتىا تغتسلوا وان كنتم مرضىا او علىا سفر او جاء احد منكم من الغائط او لامستم النساء فلم تجدوا ماء فتيمموا صعيدا طيبا فامسحوا بوجوهكم وايديكم ان الله كان عفوا غفورا
4:43 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola taqraboo alssalata waantum sukarahatta taAAlamoo ma taqooloona walajunuban illa AAabiree sabeelin hattataghtasiloo wa-in kuntum marda aw AAala safarin awjaa ahadun minkum mina algha-iti aw lamastumualnnisaa falam tajidoo maan fatayammamoo saAAeedantayyiban faimsahoo biwujoohikum waaydeekuminna Allaha kana AAafuwwan ghafooran
Ablution for Contact prayer (sala)4:43 O you who acknowledge, do not come near the contact prayer while you are drunk, until you know what you are saying. Nor if you have had intercourse, unless traveling, until you bathe. If you are ill, or traveling, or one of you come from the bathroom, or you had sexual contact with the women, and could not find water: then you shall seek clean soil and wipe your faces and hands. God is Pardoning, Forgiving.18
The followers of hadith and sunna reject this statement by claiming the presence of a contradiction between this verse and other verses prohibiting the intoxicants. Their rejection of God's verse and their allegation of contradiction in God's book are due to their ignorance of the fact that there could be individuals among muslims who consume alcoholic beverages just as there could be those who steal, commit adultery, or commit false accusation. Acknowledgement of the imperfect nature of a Muslim community does not mean that God justifies sins and crimes. Our Lord informs a Muslim who is doing wrong to himself or herself by consuming alcohol not to commit additional disrespect to God by addressing God in a drunken state of mind. Additionally, this verse indirectly gives permission to the community to not to allow their intoxicated brothers and sisters into the places of prostration. Another lesson derived from this commandment is that we should know what we are saying or reciting during our prayers. Reciting Arabic words without knowing their meanings is like praying while intoxicated. See 2:106; 4:82.
Bleeding, passing gas, or shaking hands with women and other reasons mentioned in hadith and sectarian books, do not void the ablution. Despite this clear verse, Sunni and Shiite sects contain many contradictory rules about ablution. The relationship between washing hands or faces with water and mental readiness to speak to God is not scientifically obvious, but, according to a recent study conducted at the University of Toronto, washing hands may clean of a guilty conscience. See 5:6.
4:43 O you who believe, do not come near the contact prayer while you are intoxicated, until you know what you are saying. Nor if you have had intercourse, unless traveling, until you bathe. And if you are ill, or traveling, or one of you has excreted feces, or you had sexual contact with the women, and could not find water, then you shall select from the clean soil; you shall wipe your faces and hands. God is Pardoning, Forgiving.
4:43 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not attempt to pray while you are in a state of drunkenness,54 [but wait] until you know what you are saying; nor yet [while you are] in a state requiring total ablution,55 until you have bathed - except if you are travelling [and are unable to do so]. But if you are ill, or are travelling, or have just satisfied a want of nature,56 or have cohabited with a woman, and can find no water - then take resort to pure dust, passing [therewith] lightly over your face and your hands.57 Behold, God is indeed an absolver of sins, much-forgiving.
The reference to prayer at this place arises from the mention, in the preceding verses, of the Day of Judgment, when man will have to answer before God for what he did during his life in this world: for it is in prayer that man faces God, spiritually, during his earthly life, and reminds himself of his responsibility towards the Creator. As regards the prohibition of attempting to pray "while in a state of drunkenness", some of the commentators assume that this ordinance represented the first stage of the total prohibition of intoxicants, and has been, consequently, "abrogated" by the promulgation of the law of total abstinence from all intoxicants (5:90). However, quite apart from the fact that the doctrine of "abrogation" is entirely untenable (see surah 2, verse 106), there is no warrant whatever for regarding the above verse as a "first step" which has become redundant, as it were, after total prohibition was ordained. It is, of course, true that the Qur'an forbids the use of intoxicants at all times, and not merely at the time of prayer; but since "man has been created weak" (4:28), his lapse from the way of virtue is always a possibility: and it is to prevent him from adding the sin of praying while in a state of drunkenness to the sin of using intoxicants as such that the above verse was promulgated. Moreover, the expression "while you are in a state of drunkenness (sukara)" does not apply exclusively to alcoholic intoxication, since the term sukr, in its wider connotation, signifies any state of mental disequilibrium which prevents man from making full use of his intellectual faculties: that is to say, it can apply also to a temporary clouding of the intellect by drugs or giddiness or passion, as well as to the state metaphorically described as "drunk with sleep"- in brief, to any condition in which normal judgment is confused or suspended. And because the Qur'an insists throughout on consciousness as an indispensable element in every act of worship, prayer is permitted only when man is in full possession of his mental faculties and "knows what he is saying".
I.e., after sexual intercourse. The term junub (rendered by me as "in a state requiring total ablution") is derived from the verb janaba, "he made (a thing) remote", and signifies one's remoteness from prayer because of immersion in sexual passion.
Lit., "if one of you comes from the place in which one satisfies...", etc.
This symbolic ablution, called tayammum, consists in touching the earth, or anything supposed to contain dust, with the palms of one's hands and then passing them lightly over face and hands. Whenever water is not within reach - or cannot be used because of illness - the tayammum takes the place of both the total ablution after sexual intercourse (ghusl) and the partial ablution before prayers (wudu).
What Nullifies Ablution4:43 O you who believe, do not observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) while intoxicated, so that you know what you are saying. Nor after sexual orgasm without bathing, unless you are on the road, traveling; if you are ill or traveling, or you had urinary or fecal-related excretion (such as gas), or contacted the women (sexually), and you cannot find water, you shall observe Tayammum (dry ablution) by touching clean dry soil, then wiping your faces and hands therewith. GOD is Pardoner, Forgiver.,
4:43 (Those who attain belief shall promptly establish the Divine System in the community, and the Masjid would assume the role of the community center. The believers will assemble in theMasjid for prayer, and to address social welfare and community action). O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not approach the Salaat congregation if your mind is beclouded for any reason, until you can understand what you say – Nor in a state of ceremonial impurity (post-coital state) without bathing. If you are ill or traveling, or coming from the privy, or had intimate relations with your wives, and cannot find water, take a little clean sand or earth and lightly rub your faces and hands. (This will help you prepare psychologically for the assembly 5:6). God pardons and absolves your imperfections.
4:44 الم تر الى الذين اوتوا نصيبا من الكتاب يشترون الضلالة ويريدون ان تضلوا السبيل
4:44 Alam tara ila allatheena ootoonaseeban mina alkitabi yashtaroona alddalalatawayureedoona an tadilloo alssabeela
Taking the Words Out of Context4:44 Did you not see those who have been given a portion of the book? They purchased straying, and they want you to stray from the path.
4:44 Did you not see those who have been given a portion of the Book? They purchased straying, and they want you to stray from the path.
4:44 ART THOU NOT aware of those who, having been granted their share of the divine writ,58 now barter it away for error, and want you [too] to lose your way?
The people referred to are the followers of the Bible. Thus, after having touched in the preceding verse upon the question of prayer, the Qur'an resumes its cardinal theme: man's responsibility for his actions and, in particular, for the manner in which he responds to the guidance offered to him through God's revelations.
4:44 Have you noted those who received a portion of the scripture, and how they choose to stray, and wish that you stray from the path?,
4:44 Have you noted those who were given a portion of the scripture but they purchased error for petty gains. (They fell for manmade books). They desire that you do the same and thus stray from the right path.
4:45 والله اعلم باعدائكم وكفىا بالله وليا وكفىا بالله نصيرا
4:45 WaAllahu aAAlamu bi-aAAda-ikumwakafa biAllahi waliyyan wakafa biAllahinaseeran
4:45 God is fully aware of your enemies; and God is enough as a supporter, and God is enough as a victor.
4:45 And God is fully aware of your enemies; and God is enough as a supporter, and God is enough as a victor.
4:45 But God knows best who are your enemies: and none can befriend as God does, and none can give succour as God does.
4:45 GOD knows best who your enemies are. GOD is the only Lord and Master. GOD is the only Supporter.,
4:45 God knows your enemies. (He shows you the way to protect and help yourselves.) As such, God is Sufficient as a Protecting Friend and God is Sufficient as a Helper.
4:46 من الذين هادوا يحرفون الكلم عن مواضعه ويقولون سمعنا وعصينا واسمع غير مسمع وراعنا ليا بالسنتهم وطعنا فى الدين ولو انهم قالوا سمعنا واطعنا واسمع وانظرنا لكان خيرا لهم واقوم ولاكن لعنهم الله بكفرهم فلا يؤمنون الا قليلا
4:46 Mina allatheena hadoo yuharrifoonaalkalima AAan mawadiAAihi wayaqooloona samiAAnawaAAasayna waismaAA ghayra musmaAAin waraAAinalayyan bi-alsinatihim wataAAnan fee alddeeni walawannahum qaloo samiAAna waataAAna waismaAAwaonthurna lakana khayranlahum waaqwama walakin laAAanahumu Allahubikufrihim fala yu/minoona illa qaleelan
4:46 From amongst the Jews there are those who take the words out of context, and they say, "We hear and disobey, and listen but let not any listen, and shepherd us," in a twisting of their tongues and as a mockery of the system! Had they said, "We hear and obey, and listen, and watch over us," it would have been better for them and more upright; but God has cursed them for their rejection, they do not acknowledge except very little.19
4:46 From among those who are Jewish are some who take the words out of context, and they say: "We hear and disobey, and listen but let not any listen, and shepherd us," in a twisting of their tongues and as a mockery of the system! And had they said: "We hear and obey, and listen, and watch over us," it would have been better for them and more upright; but God has cursed them for their disbelief, they do not believe except very little.
4:46 Among those of the Jewish faith there are some who distort the meaning of the [revealed] words, taking them out of their context and saying, [as it were,] "We have heard, but we disobey," and, "Hear without hearkening,"59 and, Hearken thou unto us, (O Muhammad)" - thus making a play with their tongues, and implying that the [true] Faith is false.60 And had they but said, "We have heard, and we pay heed," and "Hear [us], and have patience with us," it would indeed have been for their own good, and more upright: but God has rejected them because of their refusal to acknowledge the truth - for it is in but few things that they believe.61
Cf. 2:93. figure of speech "hear without hearkening" addressed, as it were, by the Jews to themselves, describes their attitude towards both their own scriptures and the message of the Qur'an.
Lit., "making a thrust (ta'n) against the Faith" - i.e., attributing to it a fundamental defect. The saying "Hearken thou unto us" is meant to convey the conviction of the Jews that they had nothing to learn from the teaching propounded by the Prophet Muhammad, and that he should rather defer to their views on religious matters. See, in this connection, their assertion, "Our hearts are already full of knowledge", in 2:88.
See surah 2, verse 88.
4:46 Among those who are Jewish, some distort the words beyond the truth, and they say, "We hear, but we disobey," and "Your words are falling on deaf ears," and "Raa'ena (be our shepherd)," as they twist their tongues to mock the religion. Had they said, "We hear, and we obey," and "We hear you," and "Unzurna (watch over us)," it would have been better for them, and more righteous. Instead, they have incurred condemnation from GOD due to their disbelief. Consequently, the majority of them cannot believe.,9
The word "Raa'ena" was twisted by some Hebrew speaking people to sound like a dirty word. See2:104.
4:46 Some of those who are Jews, distort words to give a different meaning. They say, "We hear and we disobey,” and "Your words are falling on deaf ears,” and "Be our shepherd," and they twist their tongues to mock the Deen. It would have been better and more upright for them to say, “We hear and we obey,” and “We hear you,” and “Please watch over us and guide us.” Instead, they have incurred deprivation from the grace of God due to their denial of the truth. Few of them will embrace belief.
4:47 ياايها الذين اوتوا الكتاب ءامنوا بما نزلنا مصدقا لما معكم من قبل ان نطمس وجوها فنردها علىا ادبارها او نلعنهم كما لعنا اصحاب السبت وكان امر الله مفعولا
4:47 Ya ayyuha allatheenaootoo alkitaba aminoo bima nazzalnamusaddiqan lima maAAakum min qabli an natmisawujoohan fanaruddaha AAala adbarihaaw nalAAanahum kama laAAanna as-habaalssabti wakana amru Allahi mafAAoolan
4:47 O you who have received the book, acknowledge what We have sent down authenticating what is with you, before We cast down faces and turn them on their backs or curse them as the people of the Sabbath were cursed. God's will is always done.
4:47 O you who have received the Book, believe in what We have sent down authenticating what is with you, before We cast down faces and turn them on their backs or curse them as the people of the Sabbath were cursed. And the will of God is always done.
4:47 O you who have been granted revelation [aforetime]! Believe in what We have [now] bestowed from on high in confirmation of whatever [of the truth] you already possess, lest We efface your hopes and bring them to an end62 - just as We rejected those people who broke the Sabbath: for God's will is always done.63
Lit., "lest We obliterate the faces"- i.e., that towards which one turns, or that which one faces, with expectation ('Abduh in Manar V, 144 ff.) - "and bring them back to their ends". It is to be noted that the term dubur (of which adbar is the plural) does not always signify the "back" of a thing - as most of the translators assume - but often stands for its "last part" or "end" (cf. Lane III, 846).
4:47 O you who received the scripture, you shall believe in what we reveal herein, confirming what you have, before we banish certain faces to exile, or condemn them as we condemned those who desecrated the Sabbath. GOD's command is done.,
4:47 O You to whom the scripture was given! Believe in what We have now revealed, that confirms the truth in what you already have, before We efface the whole beings such that they turn back in utter confusion. Thus had We rejected the Sabbath breakers. The commandment of God is always executed.
4:48 ان الله لا يغفر ان يشرك به ويغفر ما دون ذالك لمن يشاء ومن يشرك بالله فقد افترىا اثما عظيما
4:48 Inna Allaha la yaghfiru anyushraka bihi wayaghfiru ma doona thalika limanyashao waman yushrik biAllahi faqadi iftaraithman AAatheeman
The Unforgivable Sin4:48 God does not forgive that partners be set up with Him, and He forgives what is beside that for whom He wills. Whoever sets up partners with God has indeed invented a great sin.20
Before death, one may reform from associating partners to God (4:18; 40:66). A majority of the so-called Muslims, like a majority of Christians, have fallen into the trap of Shirk (associating other partners with God) by following the sectarian teachings concocted by their clergymen and scholars (9:31; 12:40; 42:21; 6:145).
There is no contradiction between 4:48 and 4:153. The Quran contains numerous verses regarding polytheists or mushriks accepting the message of islam (42:25). Most of the supporters and companions of messengers and prophets were associating partners with God before they repented and accepted the message. For instance, the Quran informs us that even Muhammed was an idolater before he received revelation, and obviously, after his acknowledgement of the truth, he repented from his ignorance and God forgave him (40:66; 42:52; 93:7; 48:2).
4:48 God does not forgive that partners be set up with Him, and He forgives other than that for whom He pleases. Whoever sets up partners with God has indeed invented a great sin.
4:48 VERILY, God does not forgive the ascribing of divinity to aught beside Him, although He forgives any lesser sin64 unto whomever He wills: for he who ascribes divinity to aught beside God has indeed contrived an awesome sin.65
Lit., "anything below that".
The continuous stress, in the Qur'an, on God's transcendental oneness and uniqueness aims at freeing man from all sense of dependence on other influences and powers, and thus at elevating him spiritually and bringing about the "purification" alluded to in the next verse. Since this objective is vitiated by the sin of shirk ("the ascribing of divine qualities to aught beside God"), the Qur'an describes it as "unforgivable" so long as it is persisted in, i.e., unless and until the sinner repents (cf. verses 17 and 18 of this surah).
The Unforgivable Sin4:48 GOD does not forgive idolatry, but He forgives lesser offenses for whomever He wills. Anyone who sets up idols beside GOD, has forged a horrendous offense.,10
Idol worship is not forgivable, if maintained until death. One can always repent from any offense, including idolatry,before death comes (see4:18 &40:66).
4:48 God does not forgive that divinity be ascribed to other than Him. But He may forgive anything else, to whom He wills. Whoever associates partners with God, has thus, devised a tremendous drag on his own person.8
Ithm= A dragging violation. Shirk = Ascribing divinity to other than God, associating partners to Him. Included in this category of committing Shirk are those who worship their own desires 45:23, those who indulge in human worship and in sectarianism 30:31, 42:21, those who follow manmade books in lieu of the Book of God 6:122, 6:137, and those who claim or believe in revelation after the Qur’an, in any form, including claims of attaining Divine knowledge through mystical experience 6:62, 7:173, 7:191. And those who uphold Trinity 4:171, 5:72, those who claim that God has a son, and those who follow their religious leaders 9:31. Such people fall from the high station of humanity. Worshiping any entity other than God, sinks the human ‘self’ down to subhuman levels 22:31. But even most of those who claim belief and call themselves Muslims, indulge in Shirk. 12:106
4:49 الم تر الى الذين يزكون انفسهم بل الله يزكى من يشاء ولا يظلمون فتيلا
4:49 Alam tara ila allatheenayuzakkoona anfusahum bali Allahu yuzakkee man yashaowala yuthlamoona fateelan
4:49 Did you not see those who exalt themselves? No, it is God who exalts whom He wills, and they will not be wronged in the least.
4:49 Did you not see those who ascribe purity to themselves? No, it is God who purifies whom He wills, and they will not be wronged in the least.
4:49 Art thou not aware of those who consider themselves pure?66 Nay, but it is God who causes whomever He wills to grow in purity; and none shall be wronged by as much as a hair's breadth.67
I.e., the Jews, who consider, themselves to be "God's chosen people" and, therefore, a priori destined for God's grace, and the Christians, who believe in Jesus' "vicarious atonement" for the sins of mankind. There is also an obvious connection between this observation and the reference to shirk in the preceding verse, inasmuch as the Jews and the Christians, while not actually believing in the existence of any deity apart from God, ascribe divine or semi-divine qualities, in varying degrees, to certain human beings: the Christians by their elevation of Jesus to the status of a manifestation of God in human form and their open worship of a hierarchy of saints, and the Jews by their attribution of law-giving powers to the great Talmudic scholars, whose legal verdicts are supposed to override, if need be, any ordinance of the scriptures (cf. in this respect 9:31). It goes without saying that this condemnation applies also to those Muslims who have fallen into the sin of worshipping saints and according them something of the reverence which is due to God alone. Consequently, the expression "those who consider themselves pure" comprises, in this context, all who think of themselves as believing in the One God (simply because they do not consciously worship a plurality of deities) but are, nevertheless, guilty of the sin of shirk in the deeper sense of this term.
According to most of the philological authorities (e.g., Qamus), a fatil is any "slender thread which one rolls between one's fingers" - a term which is also, but by no means exclusively, applied to the tiny fibre adhering to the cleft of the date-stone (cf. Lane VI, 2334). Idiomatically, it is best rendered as "a hair's breadth". The above passage implies, firstly, that spiritual purity is not the privilege of any particular group or community, and, secondly, that one can become or remain pure only by God's grace, for "man has been created weak" (verse 28 above). See also note on the second paragraph of 53:32.
4:49 Have you noted those who exalt themselves? Instead, GOD is the One who exalts whomever He wills, without the least injustice.,
4:49 Have you not seen those who claim that they have purified their souls? Purification or development of the ‘self’ can only be achieved according to the laws of God, by service of humanity and not through rituals or mysticism. In the Court of God, men and women will find full recompense for their doings without the least injustice. [2:177, 13:17]
4:50 انظر كيف يفترون على الله الكذب وكفىا به اثما مبينا
4:50 Onthur kayfa yaftaroona AAalaAllahi alkathiba wakafa bihi ithman mubeenan
4:50 See how they invent upon God the lies; is that not enough as a clear sin?
4:50 See how they invent lies about God! And that is enough as a clear sin.
4:50 Behold how they attribute their own lying inventions to God - than which there is no sin more obvious.68
Lit., "and this is enough as an obvious sin". This passage refers to various theological statements of an arbitrary nature, such as the Jewish assertion that they are "the chosen people" and, thus, immune from God's condemnation; the Christian doctrine of "vicarious atonement"; the definition of God as a "trinity" with Jesus as its "second person"; and so forth.
4:50 Note how they fabricate lies about GOD; what a gross offense this is!,
4:50 See, how the claimants to spiritual purity deceive people by inventing lies against God. That is sufficient to flagrantly drag them down in humanity.
4:51 الم تر الى الذين اوتوا نصيبا من الكتاب يؤمنون بالجبت والطاغوت ويقولون للذين كفروا هاؤلاء اهدىا من الذين ءامنوا سبيلا
4:51 Alam tara ila allatheena ootoonaseeban mina alkitabi yu/minoona bialjibtiwaalttaghooti wayaqooloona lillatheenakafaroo haola-i ahda mina allatheena amanoosabeelan
4:51 Did you not see those who were given a portion of the book, they trust superstition and aggression, and they say of the ingrates, "Those are better guided than these who acknowledged the path."
4:51 Did you not see those who were given a portion of the Book, they believe in sorcery and evil, and they say to those who rejected: "You are better guided than those who believed the path."
4:51 Art thou not aware of those who, having been granted their share of the divine writ, [now] believe in baseless mysteries and in the powers of evil,69 and maintain that those who are bent on denying the truth are more surely guided than those who have attained to faith?
The word al-jibt - rendered by me as "baseless mysteries" - is probably, as the Lisan al-Arab points out, of non-Arabic origin. It denotes, according to some authorities, "something which is worthless in itself" or "something in which there is no good" (Qamus, Baydawi); according to others, it signifies "enchantment" (Umar ibn al-Khattab, Mujahid and Sha'bi as quoted by Tabari; also Qamus); others, again, interpret it as "anything that is worshipped instead of God" (Zamakhshari), and consequently apply it also to idols and idol-worship (Qamus, Lisan al-Arab) and - according to a Tradition quoted by Abu Da'ud - to all manner of superstitious divination and soothsaying as well. Taking all these interpretations into account, al-jibt may be defined as "a combination of confusing ideas (dijl), fanciful surmises (awham) and fictitious stories (khurafat)" (Manar V, 157) - in other words, abstruse mysteries without any foundation in fact. - As regards the expression "the powers of evil" (at-taghut), it seems to refer here to superstitious beliefs and practices - like soothsaying, foretelling the future, relying on "good" and "bad" omens, and so forth - all of which are condemned by the Qur'an. See also surah 2, verse 256.
4:51 Have you noted those who received a portion of the scripture, and how they believe in idolatry and false doctrine, then say, "The disbelievers are better guided than the believers?!",
4:51 Are you not aware of those who, after receiving their share of the Book, believe in JIBT and Taaghoot? And they say that the 'kafirs' are better guided than the believers (in God's messages).9
JIBT = False doctrines = ‘Occult’ sciences, baseless mysteries, magic, future-telling, astrology, clairvoyance, evil eye, good and bad omens, amulets, dream interpretation, and prophecies, palm-reading, soothsaying, superstitions of all kind, jinn, ghosts or demon-possession of people, exorcism, blowing verses and senseless words on people or in food and drink, counting names on rosaries. TAAGHOOT = Any forces claiming or believed to have Divine powers = Evil humans who try to play god with their tyranny = Satan = Those who exploit people as religious leaders = Priests and Monks = Mullahs and Sufisof any religion
4:52 اولائك الذين لعنهم الله ومن يلعن الله فلن تجد له نصيرا
4:52 Ola-ika allatheena laAAanahumuAllahu waman yalAAani Allahu falan tajida lahu naseeran
4:52 These are the ones whom God has cursed, and whomever God curses, you will not find for him a victor.
4:52 These are the ones whom God has cursed, and whoever God curses, you will not find for him a victor.
4:52 It is they whom God has rejected: and he whom God rejects shall find none to succour him.
4:52 It is they who incurred GOD's condemnation, and whomever GOD condemns, you will not find any helper for him.,
4:52 It is those whom God has rejected, and he whom God rejects, will find none to help him.
4:53 ام لهم نصيب من الملك فاذا لا يؤتون الناس نقيرا
4:53 Am lahum naseebun mina almulki fa-ithanla yu/toona alnnasa naqeeran
4:53 Or would they have a portion of the sovereignty? If so, then they would not give the people a speck.
4:53 Or would they have a portion of the sovereignty? If so, then they would not give the people a speck.
4:53 Have they, perchance, a share in [God's] dominion?70 But [if they had], 1o, they would not give to other people as much as [would fill] the groove of a date-stone!
An allusion to the Jewish belief that they occupy a privileged position in the sight of God.
4:53 Do they own a share of the sovereignty? If they did, they would not give the people as much as a grain.,
4:53 Do the people who make claims of divination and clairvoyance have a share in the Divine Kingdom? But if they did, they would not give humanity as much as a grain. [4:124, 35:13]
4:54 ام يحسدون الناس علىا ما ءاتىاهم الله من فضله فقد ءاتينا ءال ابراهيم الكتاب والحكمة وءاتيناهم ملكا عظيما
4:54 Am yahsudoona alnnasaAAala ma atahumu Allahu min fadlihifaqad atayna ala ibraheema alkitabawaalhikmata waataynahum mulkan AAatheeman
4:54 Or do they envy the people for what God has given them of His bounty? We have given the descendants of Abraham the book and the wisdom; We have given them a great power.
4:54 Or do they envy the people for what God has given them of His bounty? We have given the descendants of Abraham the Book and the wisdom; We have given them a great kingship.
4:54 Do they, perchance, envy other people for what God has granted them out of His bounty?71 But then, We did grant revelation and wisdom unto the House of Abraham, and We did bestow on them a mighty dominion:
I.e., revelation, which - according to the Jews - has been reserved to them alone.
4:54 Are they envious of the people because GOD has showered them with His blessings? We have given Abraham's family the scripture, and wisdom; we granted them a great authority.,
4:54 Or do they envy other people whom God has given of His bounty? (But, God does not favor any nation arbitrarily. He is the Lord of all humanity. 114:1). We gave the Children of Abraham the scripture, the law and wisdom, and We gave them a great kingdom.
4:55 فمنهم من ءامن به ومنهم من صد عنه وكفىا بجهنم سعيرا
4:55 Faminhum man amana bihi waminhum man saddaAAanhu wakafa bijahannama saAAeeran
4:55 Some of them acknowledged it, and some of them turned from it. Hell suffices as a flame.
4:55 Some of them believed in it, and some of them turned away from it. In Hell will be enough flames.
4:55 and among them are such as [truly] believe in him,72 and among them are such as have turned away from him. And nothing could be as burning as [the fire of] hell:
I.e., in Abraham - implying that they are faithful to his message. It is to be borne in mind that the Prophet Muhammad, too, was a direct-line descendant of Abraham, whose message is confirmed and continued in the Qur'an.
4:55 Some of them believed therein, and some of them repelled therefrom; Hell is the only just retribution for these.,
4:55 Some of the Children of Abraham have attained belief in the Prophet while others turn away from him. And enough is Hell for a burning fire.
4:56 ان الذين كفروا باياتنا سوف نصليهم نارا كلما نضجت جلودهم بدلناهم جلودا غيرها ليذوقوا العذاب ان الله كان عزيزا حكيما
4:56 Inna allatheena kafaroo bi-ayatinasawfa nusleehim naran kullama nadijatjulooduhum baddalnahum juloodan ghayraha liyathooqooalAAathaba inna Allaha kana AAazeezan hakeeman
The Allegory of hell and Heaven4:56 Those who have rejected Our signs, We will admit them to a fire. Every time their skins are cooked, We replace them with other skin that they may taste the retribution. God is Noble, Wise.21
4:56 Those who have rejected Our revelations, We will admit them to a Fire. Every time their skins are cooked, We replace them with other skins that they may taste the retribution. God is Noble, Wise.
4:56 for, verily, those who are bent on denying the truth of Our messages We shall, in time, cause to endure fire: [and] every time their skins are burnt off, We shall replace them with new skins, so that they may taste suffering [in full]73 Verily, God is almighty, wise.
This awesome allegory of suffering in the life to come is obviously meant to bring out the long-lasting nature of that suffering (Razi).
Allegorical Description of Hell4:56 Surely, those who disbelieve in our revelations, we will condemn them to the hellfire. Whenever their skins are burnt, we will give them new skins. Thus, they will suffer continuously. GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.,
4:56 Those who are rejecting Our revelations and opposing the establishment of the Divine System, will soon burn in the agony of defeat. If they come with renewed preparation they will taste further chastisement. God is Almighty Wise.
4:57 والذين ءامنوا وعملوا الصالحات سندخلهم جنات تجرى من تحتها الانهار خالدين فيها ابدا لهم فيها ازواج مطهرة وندخلهم ظلا ظليلا
4:57 Waallatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati sanudkhiluhum jannatintajree min tahtiha al-anharu khalideenafeeha abadan lahum feeha azwajun mutahharatunwanudkhiluhum thillan thaleelan
4:57 Those who acknowledge and promote reforms, We will admit them to gardens with rivers flowing beneath, eternally they abide therein. In it they will have pure spouses, and We will admit them to a vast shade.
4:57 And those who believe and do good, We will admit them to estates with rivers flowing beneath them; abiding therein eternally, in it they will have pure mates, and We will admit them to a vast shade.
4:57 But those who attain to faith and do righteous deeds We shall bring into gardens through which running waters flow, therein to abide beyond the count of time; there shall they have spouses pure: and [thus] We shall bring them unto happiness abounding.74
The primary meaning of zill is "shade", and so the expression zill zalil could be rendered as "most shading shade"- i.e., "dense shade". However, in ancient Arabic usage, the word zill denotes also "a covering" or "a shelter" and, figuratively, "protection" (Raghib); and, finally, "a state of ease, pleasure and plenty" (cf. Lane V, 1915 f.), or simply "happiness" - and in the combination of zill zalil, "abundant happiness" (Razi) - which seems to agree best with the allegorical implications of the term "paradise".
4:57 As for those who believe and lead a righteous life, we will admit them into gardens with flowing streams; they abide therein forever. They will have pure spouses therein. We will admit them into a blissful shade.,
4:57 Those who attain belief and translate their belief into action by helping people, thus creating balance in the society, We shall soon admit them into the Gardens underneath which rivers flow. They will dwell therein forever. For them are virtuous companions, and We shall make them enter the pleasing shadows of Our grace.
4:58 ان الله يامركم ان تؤدوا الامانات الىا اهلها واذا حكمتم بين الناس ان تحكموا بالعدل ان الله نعما يعظكم به ان الله كان سميعا بصيرا
4:58 Inna Allaha ya/murukum an tu-addooal-amanati ila ahliha wa-itha hakamtumbayna alnnasi an tahkumoo bialAAadliinna Allaha niAAimma yaAAithukum bihiinna Allaha kana sameeAAan baseeran
Elect/Appoint Qualified People and Observe Justice4:58 God orders you to delegate the responsibilities to those who are qualified. If you judge between the people, then you shall judge with justice. It is always the best that God prescribes for you. God is Hearer, Seer.22
It is our responsibility to inform ourselves about politics and current affairs so that we can elect trustworthy and qualified people to the public offices.
4:58 God orders you to deliver anything you have been entrusted with to its owners. And if you judge between the people, then you shall judge with justice. It is always the best that God prescribes for you. God is Hearer, Seer.
4:58 BEHOLD, God bids you to deliver all that you have been entrusted with unto those who are entitled thereto, and whenever you judge between people, to judge with justice.75 Verily, most excellent is what God exhorts you to do: verily, God is all-hearing, all-seeing!
I.e., in the judicial sense, as well as in the sense of judging other people's motives, attitudes and behaviour. - The term amanah denotes anything one has been entrusted with, be it in the physical or moral sense (Razi). If one reads this ordinance in the context of the verses that precede and follow it, it becomes obvious that it relates to the message or - in view of the plural form amanat - to the truths which have been conveyed to the believers by means of the divine writ, and which they must regard as a sacred trust, to be passed on to "those who are entitled thereto"- i.e., to all mankind, for whom the message of the Qur'an has been intended. This, of course, does not preclude the ordinance from having a wider scope as well - that is, from its being applied to any material object or moral responsibility which may have been entrusted to a believer - and, in particular, to the exercise of worldly power and political sovereignty by the Muslim community or a Muslim state, to which the next verse refers.
Honesty & Justice Advocated4:58 GOD commands you to give back anything the people have entrusted to you. If you judge among the people, you shall judge equitably. The best enlightenment indeed is what GOD recommends for you. GOD is Hearer, Seer.,
4:58 God commands you to entrust your offices to those who are capable, competent and sincere. They shall rule and judge equitably. Give your trusts to whom they really belong, the capable ones. The Enlightenment from God is a blessing for you. He is Hearer, Seer of all that transpires in the Universe and in your society.
4:59 ياايها الذين ءامنوا اطيعوا الله واطيعوا الرسول واولى الامر منكم فان تنازعتم فى شىء فردوه الى الله والرسول ان كنتم تؤمنون بالله واليوم الءاخر ذالك خير واحسن تاويلا
4:59 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooateeAAoo Allaha waateeAAoo alrrasoolawaolee al-amri minkum fa-in tanazaAAtum fee shay-infaruddoohu ila Allahi waalrrasooli in kuntumtu/minoona biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhirithalika khayrun waahsanu ta/weelan
4:59 O you who acknowledge, obey God and obey the messenger and those entrusted amongst you. But if you dispute in any matter, then you shall refer it to God and His messenger, if you acknowledge God and the Last day. That is better and a more suitable solution.23
Obeying a messenger while he is a leader or obeying elected or appointed officers does not mean taking their words or commands as "God's commandment" or absolute, infallible, unchangeable and universal law.
One of the most frequently cited Quranic instructions by the followers of hadith and sunna is "obey God and His Messenger" (4:59). Let us briefly discuss this example to see better the nature of abuse, and how thousands of hadith rabbits are produced from empty hats. Obeying Bukhari, a narrator of hearsay, is not obeying the messenger. Obeying the messenger is obeying the complete, perfect and fully detailed Quran. Verse 25:73 describes the attitude of believers towards God's revelations. But the followers of hadith and sunna are very good in ignoring them. They do not see 6:19, 7:3, and 50:45, which say that the only teaching delivered by God's messenger was the Quran. They do not think that Muhammed practiced the Quran, and the Quran alone (5:48, 49). They do not hear Muhammed's only complaint about his people (25:30). They do not understand that Muhammed disowns those who do not understand that the Quran is enough and fully detailed (6:114). The first verse of Chapter 9 states that an ultimatum is issued from God and His messenger. Muslims acknowledge that verses about the ultimatum are entirely from God. God did not consult Muhammed about the ultimatum. Muhammed's only mission was to deliver God's message (16:35; 24:54). Thus, the reason that God included the messenger in 9:1 is not because he was another authority in issuing it, but because he participated as the deliverer of the ultimatum. Similarly, because people receive God's message through messengers, we are ordered to obey the messengers. We also know that the Quran is a permanent messenger (65:11), and the Quran is a reminder and deliverer of good news (41:4; 11:2).
4:59 O you who believe, obey God and obey the messenger and those in authority among you. But if you dispute in any matter, then you shall refer it to God and His messenger if you believe in God and the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for knowing.
4:59 O you who have attained to faith! Pay heed unto God, and pay heed unto the Apostle and unto those from among you76 who have been entrusted with authority; and if you are at variance over any matter, refer it unto God and the Apostle,77 if you [truly] believe in God and the Last Day. This is the best [for you], and best in the end.78
I.e., from among the believers.
I.e., to the Qur'an and to the sunnah (the sayings and the practice) of the Prophet. See also verse 65 of this surah.
Read in conjunction with 3:26, which speaks of God as "the Lord of all dominion" - and therefore the ultimate source of all moral and political authority - the above passage lays down a fundamental rule of conduct for the individual believer as well as the conceptual basis for the conduct of the Islamic state. Political power is held in trust (amanah) from God; and His will, as manifested in the ordinances comprising the Law of Islam, is the real source of all sovereignty. The stress, in this context, on "those from among you who have been entrusted with authority" makes it clear that the holders of authority (ulu l-amr) in an Islamic state must be Muslims.
4:59 O you who believe, you shall obey GOD, and you shall obey the messenger, and those in charge among you. If you dispute in any matter, you shall refer it to GOD and the messenger, if you do believe in GOD and the Last Day. This is better for you, and provides you with the best solution.,
4:59 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Obey God and obey the Messenger, the Central Authority of the Divine System, and those in charge among you (whom the System has appointed as office-bearers). If you have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to the Central Authority. If you truly believe in God and the Last Day, this is the best approach for you, and more seemly in the end.
4:60 الم تر الى الذين يزعمون انهم ءامنوا بما انزل اليك وما انزل من قبلك يريدون ان يتحاكموا الى الطاغوت وقد امروا ان يكفروا به ويريد الشيطان ان يضلهم ضلالا بعيدا
4:60 Alam tara ila allatheenayazAAumoona annahum amanoo bima onzila ilayka wamaonzila min qablika yureedoona an yatahakamoo ila alttaghootiwaqad omiroo an yakfuroo bihi wayureedu alshshaytanuan yudillahum dalalan baAAeedan
4:60 Did you not see those who claimed they acknowledged what was sent down to you and what was sent before you? They wanted to seek judgment through aggression, while they were ordered to reject it. It is the devil who wants to lead them astray.
4:60 Did you not see those who claimed they believed in what was sent down to you and what was sent before you? They wanted to seek judgment using evil, while they were ordered to reject it. It is the devil who wants to lead them far astray.
4:60 ART THOU NOT aware of those who claim that they believe in what has been bestowed from on high upon thee, [O Prophet,] as well as in what was bestowed from on high before thee, [and yet] are willing to defer to the rule of the powers of evil79 - although they were bidden to deny it, seeing that Satan but wants to lead them far astray?
Lit., "who summon one another to the judgment [or "rule"] of the powers of evil (at-taghut): an allusion to people like those mentioned in verse 51 above, who, by their deference to what the Qur'an describes as at-tagut (see surah 2, verse 256), nullify all the good that they could derive from guidance through revelation.
Believers Or Hypocrites?4:60 Have you noted those who claim that they believe in what was revealed to you, and in what was revealed before you, then uphold the unjust laws of their idols? They were commanded to reject such laws. Indeed, it is the devil's wish to lead them far astray.,
4:60 Have you thought of those who claim that they believe in what has been revealed to you (O Prophet), as well as in what was revealed before you? Yet, they resort to Taaghoot (priests and monks of any religion) for judgment in their differences. They had been commanded to reject them but their rebellious desires mislead them far astray.
4:61 واذا قيل لهم تعالوا الىا ما انزل الله والى الرسول رايت المنافقين يصدون عنك صدودا
4:61 Wa-itha qeela lahum taAAalawila ma anzala Allahu wa-ila alrrasooliraayta almunafiqeena yasuddoona AAanka sudoodan
4:61 If they are told, "Come to what God has sent down and to the messenger," you see the hypocrites turning away from you strongly.
4:61 And if they are told: "Come to what God has sent down and to the messenger," you see the hypocrites turning away from you strongly.
4:61 And so, whenever they are told, "Come unto that which God has bestowed from on high, and unto the Apostle," thou canst see these hypocrites turn away from thee with aversion.80
The classical commentators see in verses 60-64 a reference to the hypocrites of Medina who, at the time of the Prophet, outwardly professed to be his followers but did not really believe in his teachings. It seems to me, however, that this passage goes far beyond the possible historical occasion of its revelation, inasmuch as it touches upon an often-encountered psychological problem of faith. People who are not fully convinced that there exists a reality beyond the reach of human perception (al-ghayb, in the sense explained in surah 2, verse 3) find it, as a rule, difficult to dissociate their ethical views from their personal predilections and morally questionable desires - with the result that they are only too often "willing to defer to what the powers of evil tell them". Although they may half-heartedly concede that some of the moral teachings based on revelation (in this case, the Qur'an) contain "certain verities", they instinctively recoil from those teachings whenever they conflict with what their own idiosyncrasies represent to them as desirable: and so they become guilty of hypocrisy in the deepest, religious connotation of this word.
4:61 When they are told, "Come to what GOD has revealed, and to the messenger," you see the hypocrites shunning you completely.,
4:61 When they are told, “Come to what God has revealed and come to the Messenger”, you see the hypocrites shunning you completely.
4:62 فكيف اذا اصابتهم مصيبة بما قدمت ايديهم ثم جاءوك يحلفون بالله ان اردنا الا احسانا وتوفيقا
4:62 Fakayfa itha asabat-hum museebatunbima qaddamat aydeehim thumma jaooka yahlifoonabiAllahi in aradna illa ihsananwatawfeeqan
4:62 Why then, when a tragedy befalls them for what their hands have brought forth do they come to you swearing by God that they only wanted to do good and reconcile?
4:62 Why then, when disaster befalls them for what their hands have delivered, do they come to you swearing by God that they only wanted to do good and reconcile?
4:62 But how [will they fare] when calamity befalls them [on the Day of Judgment] because of what they have wrought in this world81 - whereupon they will come to thee, swearing by God, "Our aim was but to do good, and to bring about harmony"?82
Lit., "what their hands have sent ahead": an allusion to their ambivalent attitude and the confusion which it may have created in others.
I.e., they will plead that their aim was no more than a harmonization of the Qur'anic ethics with a "humanistic" (that is, man-centred) world-view: a plea which the Qur'an implicitly rejects as being hypocritical and self-deceptive (cf. 2:11). As regards the phrase "whereupon they will come to thee", see verse 41 of this surah.
4:62 How will it be when a disaster hits them, as a consequence of their own works? They will come to you then and swear by GOD: "Our intentions were good and righteous!",
4:62 They feel ashamed when wrong decisions and judgments hurt them for their own doings. Then they come to you (O Messenger), swearing that they went to others with good and noble intentions.
4:63 اولائك الذين يعلم الله ما فى قلوبهم فاعرض عنهم وعظهم وقل لهم فى انفسهم قولا بليغا
4:63 Ola-ika allatheena yaAAlamuAllahu ma fee quloobihim faaAArid AAanhumwaAAithhum waqul lahum fee anfusihim qawlan baleeghan
4:63 These are a people whom God knows what is in their hearts, so do not mind them; advise them, and speak to their persons with a clear saying.
4:63 These are a people whom God knows what is in their hearts, so turn away from them and advise them, and say to them in their souls a clear saying.
4:63 As for them - God knows all that is in their hearts; so leave them alone, and admonish them, and speak unto them about themselves in a gravely searching manner:
4:63 GOD is fully aware of their innermost intentions. You shall ignore them, enlighten them, and give them good advice that may save their souls.,
4:63 God knows what is in their hearts. Ignore their attitude, enlighten them and speak to them in plain terms with full understanding of their viewpoints.
4:64 وما ارسلنا من رسول الا ليطاع باذن الله ولو انهم اذ ظلموا انفسهم جاءوك فاستغفروا الله واستغفر لهم الرسول لوجدوا الله توابا رحيما
4:64 Wama arsalna min rasoolin illaliyutaAAa bi-ithni Allahi walaw annahum iththalamoo anfusahum jaooka faistaghfarooAllaha waistaghfara lahumu alrrasoolulawajadoo Allaha tawwaban raheeman
Obey the Messenger; Accept the Rule of Law4:64 We do not send a messenger except to be obeyed by God's leave. Had they come to you when they had wronged themselves and sought God's forgiveness, and the messenger sought forgiveness for them, they would have then found God to be Pardoning, Compassionate.24
The divine message delivered by the messenger should be acknowledged and obeyed. Additionally, when the messenger is alive as an elected leader, his instructions and judgment should be obeyed, as long as his instructions are in conformity with known facts (60:12). The live messenger, as a fallible human, must consult people around him (3:159). The messenger of God cannot issue rules in the name of God, and like everyone else he is also responsible for following God's judgment (5:48). We may pray for the forgiveness of our friends and subordinates if their mistake involves us. Also, see 12:98.
4:64 We do not send a messenger except to be obeyed with the permission of God. And had they come to you when they had wronged themselves and sought the forgiveness of God, and the messenger sought forgiveness for them, they would have then found God to be Pardoning, Merciful.
4:64 for We have never sent any apostle save that he should be heeded by God's leave.83 If, then, after having sinned against themselves, they would but come round to thee and ask God to forgive them - with the Apostle, too, praying that they be forgiven - they would assuredly find that God is an acceptor of repentance, a dispenser of grace.
The expression "by God's leave" is to be understood, in this context, as "with God's help" or "by God's grace" (Zamakhshari, Razi). As so often in the Qur'an, the sudden change, within one and the same sentence, from the pronoun "We" or "I" to "He", or from "We" to "God", is meant to impress upon the listener or reader of the Qur'an the fact that God is not a "person" but an all-embracing Power that cannot be defined or even adequately referred to within the limited range of any human language.
Unquestioning Submission: Quality of the True Believers4:64 We did not send any messenger except to be obeyed in accordance with GOD's will. Had they, when they wronged their souls, come to you and prayed to GOD for forgiveness, and the messenger prayed for their forgiveness, they would have found GOD Redeemer, Most Merciful.,
4:64 We have sent no Messenger but that he should be obeyed in accordance with God’s will. If they come to you (O Messenger) when they have wronged themselves, and ask God for the protection of forgiveness and the Messenger prays for their forgiveness, they will find God Acceptor of repentance, Merciful.10
The Messengers were not sent with empty hypotheses, but to show people how to establish an equitable society in which people flourish individually and collectively. They attain personal development and become worthy of immortal life in the Paradise 89:29. If anyone transgresses His laws, he or she must come to the Central Authority of the Divine System to make amends by restoring human rights. Sitting back at home and praying in hiding would not help 9:102, 20:82, 5:10. The Messenger had inculcated such moral order in the hearts and in the society where one became the watcher over one's own ‘self’ 8:74, 9:100, 48:29, 58:4, 59:8. There is plenty of room for making amends, and for mercy in the Divine System
4:65 فلا وربك لا يؤمنون حتىا يحكموك فيما شجر بينهم ثم لا يجدوا فى انفسهم حرجا مما قضيت ويسلموا تسليما
4:65 Fala warabbika la yu/minoona hattayuhakkimooka feema shajara baynahum thumma layajidoo fee anfusihim harajan mimma qadaytawayusallimoo tasleeman
4:65 No, by your Lord, they will not acknowledge until they make you judge in what they dispute with each other, then they will not find in their persons any animosity for what you have decided, and they will yield completely.25
4:65 No, by your Lord, they will not believe until they make you judge in what they dispute with each other, then they will not find in their souls any animosity for what you have decided, and they will comply completely.
4:65 But nay, by thy Sustainer! They do not [really] believe unless they make thee [O Prophet] a judge of all on which they disagree among themselves, and then find in their hearts no bar to an acceptance of thy decision and give themselves up [to it] in utter self-surrender.84
This verse lays down in an unequivocal manner the obligation of every Muslim to submit to the ordinances, which the Prophet, under divine inspiration, promulgated with a view to exemplifying the message of the Qur'an and enabling the believers to apply it to actual situations. These ordinances constitute what is described as the sunnah (lit., "way") of the Prophet Muhammad, and have (whenever they are authenticated beyond any possibility of doubt) full legal force side by side with the Qur'an: see verse 80 of this surah.
4:65 Never indeed, by your Lord; they are not believers unless they come to you to judge in their disputes, then find no hesitation in their hearts whatsoever in accepting your judgment. They must submit a total submission.,
4:65 By your Lord, they do not really believe unless they make you (O Messenger) a judge in all their disagreements, then find no hesitation in their hearts in accepting your judgment, and submit with full submission.
4:66 ولو انا كتبنا عليهم ان اقتلوا انفسكم او اخرجوا من دياركم ما فعلوه الا قليل منهم ولو انهم فعلوا ما يوعظون به لكان خيرا لهم واشد تثبيتا
4:66 Walaw anna katabna AAalayhimani oqtuloo anfusakum awi okhrujoo min diyarikum mafaAAaloohu illa qaleelun minhum walaw annahum faAAaloo mayooAAathoona bihi lakana khayran lahumwaashadda tathbeetan
4:66 Had We decreed for them, "Face yourselves," or "Leave your land," they would not have done so except for a few of them. If they had done what they were advised with, it would have been better for them and helped to strengthen them.26
The phrase traditionally being translated as "kill yourselves" can be read as "faqbilu anfusakum", that is "face yourselves" or "accept yourselves." Here, it is an alternative to leaving the land. It means, either look at the mirror and change yourselves or leave the land. See 2:54.
4:66 And had We decreed for them: "Kill yourselves," or "Leave your land," they would not have done so except for a few of them. And if they had done what they were advised with, it would have been better for them and helped to strengthen them.
4:66 Yet if We were to ordain for them,85 "Lay down your lives," or, "Forsake your homelands," only a very few of them would do it86 - although, if they did what they are admonished to do, it would indeed be for their own good and apt to strengthen them greatly [in faith],
I.e., by means of the God-inspired commands issued by the Prophet (see preceding note).
Lit., "they would not do it, save for a few of them": the pronoun obviously relates to the half-hearted, who are not prepared to undergo the sacrifices which their faith demands of them. The reference to laying down one's life in the defence of faith and freedom and, if necessary, abandoning one's homeland, introduces, as it were, the long passage beginning with verse 71, which deals with fighting in God's cause.
God's Tests Are Never Unreasonable4:66 Had we decreed for them: "You must offer your lives," or "Give up your homes," they would not have done it, except for a few of them. (Even if such a command was issued,) had they done what they were commanded to do, it would have been better for them, and would prove the strength of their faith.,
4:66 And if We had ordered them, “Offer your lives or leave your homelands”, a few of them would have done it - although, if they did as they were told, it would have been for their own good and further strengthened them in faith.
4:67 واذا لءاتيناهم من لدنا اجرا عظيما
4:67 Wa-ithan laataynahummin ladunna ajran AAatheeman
4:67 Then We would have given them from Us a great reward.
4:67 Then We would have given them from Us a great recompense.
4:67 whereupon We should indeed grant them, out of Our grace, a mighty reward,
4:67 And we would have granted them a great recompense.,
4:67 And then, We would give them from Our Presence an immense reward.
4:68 Walahadaynahum siratanmustaqeeman
4:68 We would have guided them to a Straight Path.
4:68 And We would have guided them to a straight path.
4:68 and indeed guide them onto a straight way.
4:68 And we would have guided them in the right path.,
4:68 And would direct them straight to the path of Paradise.
4:69 ومن يطع الله والرسول فاولائك مع الذين انعم الله عليهم من النبين والصديقين والشهداء والصالحين وحسن اولائك رفيقا
4:69 Waman yutiAAi Allaha waalrrasoolafaola-ika maAAa allatheena anAAama AllahuAAalayhim mina alnnabiyyeena waalssiddeeqeenawaalshshuhada-i waalssaliheenawahasuna ola-ika rafeeqan
Together in Eternity4:69 Whoever obeys God and the messenger will be among those whom God has blessed from the prophets and the truthful and the martyrs and the reformed. What an excellent companionship!27
It is not necessarily that prophets or messengers have the highest rank above those who accept their message and support them. Thus, monotheists who live a righteous life will spend eternity together with prophets and messengers.
4:69 And whoever obeys God and the messenger will be among those whom God has blessed from the prophets and the truthful and the martyrs and the upright. What an excellent companionship!
4:69 For, all who pay heed unto God and the Apostle shall be among those upon whom God has bestowed His blessings: the prophets, and those who never deviated from the truth, and those who [with their lives] bore witness to the truth, and the righteous ones: and how goodly a company are these!
Equality of Believers4:69 Those who obey GOD and the messenger belong with those blessed by GOD - the prophets, the saints, the martyrs, and the righteous. These are the best company.,
4:69 Whoever obeys God and the Messenger, belongs with those blessed by God: the Prophets, the first supporters of the truth, the martyrs, and those who helped humanity. Ah! How beautiful is their company!
4:70 ذالك الفضل من الله وكفىا بالله عليما
4:70 Thalika alfadlu mina Allahiwakafa biAllahi AAaleeman
4:70 That is the bounty from God; and God suffices as a Knower.
4:70 That is the bounty from God; and God knows what is best.
4:70 Such is the bounty of God - and none has the knowledge which God has.
4:70 Such is the blessing from GOD; GOD is the best Knower.,
4:70 Such is the bounty from God. And sufficient it is that God knows all.
4:71 ياايها الذين ءامنوا خذوا حذركم فانفروا ثبات او انفروا جميعا
4:71 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookhuthoo hithrakum fainfiroo thubatinawi infiroo jameeAAan
4:71 O you who acknowledge, take your precaution by going out in clusters, or going out all together.
4:71 O you who believe, take your precaution by going out in clusters, or going out all together.
4:71 O YOU who have attained to faith! Be fully prepared against danger, whether you go to war in small groups or all together.87
Lit., "and then go forth, [be it] in small detachments or all together"- the latter expression applying to what nowadays is called "total war". The term hidhr connotes not merely an effort to guard oneself against imminent danger but also the making of all necessary preparations with regard to (in this context) military organization, equipment, etc. The problem of war as such arises from the principles of ideological statehood postulated in verse 59 of this surah. Since the Muslims are expected to organize their communal life within the framework of a state based on the ideological premises laid down in the Qur'an, they must be prepared for hostility on the part of groups or nations opposed to the world-view and the social system of Islam and, conceivably, bent on its destruction: consequently, the concept of a defensive war in God's cause (jihad) plays a very prominent role in the socio-political scheme of Islam and is frequently alluded to throughout the Qur'an.
4:71 O you who believe, you shall remain alert, and mobilize as individuals, or mobilize all together.,
4:71 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Be fully prepared against danger. You shall remain alert to meet aggression. Take your precautions then mobilize in groups or all together as determined by your commander.
4:72 وان منكم لمن ليبطئن فان اصابتكم مصيبة قال قد انعم الله على اذ لم اكن معهم شهيدا
4:72 Wa-inna minkum laman layubatti-annafa-in asabatkum museebatun qala qad anAAamaAllahu AAalayya ith lam akun maAAahum shaheedan
4:72 From among you will be those that would lag behind, so that if disaster afflicts you he would say, "God has blessed me that I did not witness the event with them!"
4:72 And from among you are those who would slow behind, so that if disaster befalls you he would say: "God has blessed me that I was not a martyr with them!"
4:72 And, behold, there are indeed among you such as would lag behind, and then, if calamity befalls you, say, "God has bestowed His favour upon me in that I did not accompany them."
4:72 Surely, there are those among you who would drag their feet, then, if a setback afflicts you, they would say, "GOD has blessed me that I was not martyred with them.",
4:72 Among you there is he who would rather lag behind. If a setback occurs he would say, "Thank God! I was not present among them.”
4:73 ولئن اصابكم فضل من الله ليقولن كان لم تكن بينكم وبينه مودة ياليتنى كنت معهم فافوز فوزا عظيما
4:73 Wala-in asabakum fadlun minaAllahi layaqoolanna kaan lam takun baynakum wabaynahumawaddatun ya laytanee kuntu maAAahum faafooza fawzan AAatheeman
4:73 If favor from God benefits you, he will speak as if there had been affection between you and him, "Oh, I wish I had been with them so I would win a great prize."
4:73 And if grace from God benefits you, he will speak as if there had not been affection between you and him: "Oh, I wish I had been with them so I would have triumphed a great triumph."
4:73 But if good fortune comes to you from God, such a person88 is sure to say - just as if there had never been any question of love between you and him - : "Oh, would that I had been with them, and thus had a [share in their] mighty triumph !"
4:73 But if you attain a blessing from GOD, they would say, as if no friendship ever existed between you and them, "I wish I was with them, so I could share in such a great victory.",
4:73 But if you attain the blessing of victory from God, he says, as if the love between you and him was beyond question, "Oh! I wish I had been with them and could be a part of such a great victory.”
4:74 فليقاتل فى سبيل الله الذين يشرون الحيواة الدنيا بالءاخرة ومن يقاتل فى سبيل الله فيقتل او يغلب فسوف نؤتيه اجرا عظيما
4:74 Falyuqatil fee sabeeli Allahiallatheena yashroona alhayata alddunyabial-akhirati waman yuqatil fee sabeeli Allahifayuqtal aw yaghlib fasawfa nu/teehi ajran AAatheeman
4:74 Let those who seek to purchase the Hereafter rather than this world fight in the cause of God. Whoever fights in the cause of God and is killed or attains victory, then We will grant him a great reward.28
Attacking atheists, agnostics or the members of other religions and sects by chanting God's name is not "fighting in the cause of God." The fight that is permitted by the Quran is the one done for the purpose of defending self and community against aggressive parties. See 9:3.
4:74 Let those who seek to purchase the Hereafter rather than this world fight in the cause of God. And whoever fights in the cause of God and is killed or attains victory, then We will grant him a great recompense.
4:74 Hence, let them fight in God's cause - all who are willing to barter the life of this world for the life to come: for unto him who fights in God's cause, whether he be slain or be victorious, We shall in time grant a mighty reward.
4:74 Those who readily fight in the cause of GOD are those who forsake this world in favor of the Hereafter. Whoever fights in the cause of GOD, then gets killed, or attains victory, we will surely grant him a great recompense.,
4:74 Let them fight in God’s cause, all those who sell the life of this world for the other. Whoever fights in God’s cause, be he slain or be he victorious, We shall soon give him an immense reward.
4:75 وما لكم لا تقاتلون فى سبيل الله والمستضعفين من الرجال والنساء والولدان الذين يقولون ربنا اخرجنا من هاذه القرية الظالم اهلها واجعل لنا من لدنك وليا واجعل لنا من لدنك نصيرا
4:75 Wama lakum la tuqatiloonafee sabeeli Allahi waalmustadAAafeena mina alrrijaliwaalnnisa-i waalwildani allatheenayaqooloona rabbana akhrijna min hathihialqaryati alththalimi ahluhawaijAAal lana min ladunka waliyyan waijAAallana min ladunka naseeran
Monotheists Side With the Oppressed4:75 Why do you not fight in the cause of God, when the oppressed amongst the men and women and children say, "Our Lord, bring us out of this town whose people are wicked, and grant us from Yourself a Supporter, and grant us from Yourself a Victor!"
4:75 And why do you not fight in the cause of God, when the weak among the men and women and children say: "Our Lord, bring us out of this town whose people are wicked, and grant us from Yourself a supporter, and grant us from Yourself a victor!"
4:75 And how could you refuse to fight89 in the cause of God and of the utterly helpless men and women and children who are crying, "O our Sustainer! Lead us forth [to freedom] out of this land whose people are oppressors, and raise for us, out of Thy grace, a protector, and raise for us, out of Thy grace, one who will bring us succour!"
Lit., "what is amiss with you that you do not fight" - implying that they have no moral excuse for such a refusal.
The Believers are Fearless4:75 Why should you not fight in the cause of GOD when weak men, women, and children are imploring: "Our Lord, deliver us from this community whose people are oppressive, and be You our Lord and Master.",
4:75 What has happened to you that you do not fight in the cause of God? Defenseless men, women, and children are being oppressed and crying, "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors, and raise for us protectors and helpers."11
God does not fight in person, nor does He send His armies or angels in physical form. 22:39
4:76 الذين ءامنوا يقاتلون فى سبيل الله والذين كفروا يقاتلون فى سبيل الطاغوت فقاتلوا اولياء الشيطان ان كيد الشيطان كان ضعيفا
4:76 Allatheena amanoo yuqatiloonafee sabeeli Allahi waallatheena kafaroo yuqatiloonafee sabeeli alttaghooti faqatiloo awliyaaalshshaytani inna kayda alshshaytanikana daAAeefan
4:76 Those who acknowledge, fight in the cause of God, while those who reject, fight in the cause of aggression; so fight the supporters of the devil, for the planning of the devil is weak.
4:76 Those who believe fight in the cause of God, while those who reject fight in the cause of evil; so fight the supporters of the devil, for the planning of the devil is weak.
4:76 Those who have attained to faith fight in the cause of God, whereas those who are bent on denying the truth fight in the cause of the powers of evil. Fight, then, against those friends of Satan: verily, Satan's guile is weak indeed!90
Thus the Qur'an implies that "evil" is not an independent, esoteric factor of life, but rather a result of man's succumbing to the temptations arising from his own moral weakness and thereby "denying the truth". In other words, the "power" of the negative principle symbolized by Satan has no intrinsic reality ("Satan's guile is weak indeed"): it becomes real only through man's wilfully choosing a wrong course of action.
4:76 Those who believe are fighting for the cause of GOD, while those who disbelieve are fighting for the cause of tyranny. Therefore, you shall fight the devil's allies; the devil's power is nil.,
4:76 Those who believe fight in the cause of God (against persecution or in self-defense … benign aggression). But the unbelievers fight in the cause of Taaghoot(tyrannical, aggressive forces … malignant aggression). So fight against those friends of the devil. The devil’s strategy is ever weak.12
Taaghoot = False gods = Tyrants = Oppressors = Deceptive clergy = Oppressive systems = Those who play god
4:77 الم تر الى الذين قيل لهم كفوا ايديكم واقيموا الصلواة وءاتوا الزكواة فلما كتب عليهم القتال اذا فريق منهم يخشون الناس كخشية الله او اشد خشية وقالوا ربنا لم كتبت علينا القتال لولا اخرتنا الىا اجل قريب قل متاع الدنيا قليل والءاخرة خير لمن اتقىا ولا تظلمون فتيلا
4:77 Alam tara ila allatheena qeelalahum kuffoo aydiyakum waaqeemoo alssalatawaatoo alzzakata falamma kutibaAAalayhimu alqitalu itha fareequn minhum yakhshawnaalnnasa kakhashyati Allahi aw ashaddakhashyatan waqaloo rabbana lima katabta AAalaynaalqitala lawla akhkhartana ila ajalinqareebin qul mataAAu alddunya qaleelun waal-akhiratukhayrun limani ittaqa wala tuthlamoonafateelan
4:77 Did you not see those who were told, "Restrain yourselves, and observe the contact prayer, and contribute towards betterment." But when fighting was decreed for them, a group of them feared the people as much as they feared God or even more so. They said, "Our Lord, why did You decree fighting for us? If only You would delay for us till another time." Say, "The enjoyment of this world is little, and the Hereafter is far better for those who are aware; you will not be wronged in the least."
4:77 Did you not see those who were told: "Cease your aggression, and hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards purification." But when fighting was decreed for them, a group of them were concerned towards the people as they would have been concerned towards God or even more so. And they said: "Our Lord, why did You decree fighting for us? If only You would delay for us until another time." Say: "The enjoyment of this world is little, and the Hereafter is far better for those who are aware; you will not be wronged in the least."
4:77 ART THOU NOT aware of those who have been told, "Curb your hands,91 and be constant in prayer, and render the purifying dues"? But as soon as fighting [in God's cause] is ordained for them, lo, some of them stand in awe of men as one should stand in awe of God - or in even greater awe - and say, "O our Sustainer! Why hast Thou ordained fighting for us? If only Thou hadst granted us a delay for a little while!" Say: "Brief is the enjoyment of this world, whereas the life to come is the best for all who are conscious of God - since none of you shall be wronged by as much as a hair's breadth.
I.e., from unrighteous violence, to which man so often inclines. The fact that most people have to be told to refrain from violence is contrasted, in the next sentence, with the unwillingness on the part of many of them to expose themselves to physical danger in a righteous cause.
4:77 Have you noted those who were told, "You do not have to fight; all you need to do is observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat)," then, when fighting was decreed for them, they feared the people as much as they feared GOD, or even more? They said, "Our Lord, why did You force this fighting on us? If only You respite us for awhile!" Say, "The materials of this world are nil, while the Hereafter is far better for the righteous, and you never suffer the slightest injustice.",
4:77 Have you seen those who had been told, “Hold back your hands from warfare, establish the Divine System and set up the Just Economic Order?” But as soon as the command came to fight, some of them feared men as they should have feared God, or even more. They say, "Our Lord! Why have You ordained fighting for us? If only You had granted us a delay for a little while!" Say, “Brief is the enjoyment of this world, whereas the life to come is the best for the righteous. None of you shall be wronged even by as much as a date-thread.”
4:78 اينما تكونوا يدرككم الموت ولو كنتم فى بروج مشيدة وان تصبهم حسنة يقولوا هاذه من عند الله وان تصبهم سيئة يقولوا هاذه من عندك قل كل من عند الله فمال هاؤلاء القوم لا يكادون يفقهون حديثا
4:78 Aynama takoonoo yudrikkumu almawtuwalaw kuntum fee buroojin mushayyadatin wa-in tusibhum hasanatunyaqooloo hathihi min AAindi Allahi wa-in tusibhumsayyi-atun yaqooloo hathihi min AAindika qul kullun minAAindi Allahi famali haola-i alqawmila yakadoona yafqahoona hadeethan
4:78 Wherever you may be, death will find you, even if you are in fortified towers. If any good befalls them, they say, "This is from God," and if any bad befalls them, they say, "This is from you!" Say, "All is from God;" what is wrong with these people, they barely understand anything said!
4:78 Wherever you may be, death will find you, even if you are in fortified towers. If any good befalls them, they say: "This is from God," and if any evil befalls them, they say: "This is from you!" Say: "All is from God;" what is wrong with these people, they barely understand any narrative!
4:78 Wherever you may be, death will overtake you - even though you be in towers raised high. "Yet, when a good thing happens to them, some [people] say, "This is from God," whereas when evil befalls them, they say, "This is from thee [O fellowman]!"92 Say: "All is from God." What, then, is amiss with these people that they are in no wise near to grasping the truth of what they are told?93
I.e., they do not realize that the evil happening may possibly be a consequence of their own actions or their own wrong choice between several courses open to them, but are prone to attribute it to the failings of others.
Lit., "something [which they are] told" - i.e., a truth which their own reason as well as the teachings of all the prophets should have made obvious to them.
God is the Doer of Everything4:78 Wherever you are, death will catch up with you, even if you live in formidable castles. When something good happens to them, they say, "This is from GOD," and when something bad afflicts them, they blame you. Say, "Everything comes from GOD." Why do these people misunderstand almost everything?11 ,
4:78 Wherever you may be, death will find you, even if you live in fortified castles. When something good happens to them, they say, “It is from God.” And when affliction befalls them they say to each other, “This is from you O fellow-man!” Tell them, “All things happen according to God’s laws.” What is amiss with these people, they do not understand a thing?
4:79 ما اصابك من حسنة فمن الله وما اصابك من سيئة فمن نفسك وارسلناك للناس رسولا وكفىا بالله شهيدا
4:79 Ma asabaka min hasanatinfamina Allahi wama asabaka min sayyi-atinfamin nafsika waarsalnaka lilnnasi rasoolanwakafa biAllahi shaheedan
4:79 Any good that befalls you is from God, and any bad that befalls you is from yourself. We have sent you as a messenger to the people and God is enough as a witness.29
Everything is under God's control (4:78; 8:17) and bad things happen to us because of our wrong choices (42:30; 64:11). For instance, one may harm himself by putting his hand in the fire, and the harm is invited by his action. However, since the fire operates and burns according to God's law, it is from God. It is noteworthy that the word indi (side) in verse 4:78, which indicates intervening causes, does not exist in verse 4:79. In the former the indirectness of the relationship and, in the latter, the directness of the relationship is implied. Also, see 57:22.
4:79 Any good that befalls you is from God, and any evil that befalls you is from yourself. We have sent you as a messenger to the people and God is enough as a witness.
4:79 Whatever good happens to thee is from God; and whatever evil befalls thee is from thyself.94 AND WE have sent thee [O Muhammad] as an apostle unto all mankind: and none can bear witness [thereto] as God does.
There is no contradiction between this statement and the preceding one that "all is from God". In the world-view of the Qur'an, God is the ultimate source of all happening: consequently, all good that comes to man and all evil that befalls him flows, in the last resort, from God's will. However, not everything that man regards as "evil fortune" is really, in its final effect, evil - for, "it may well be that you hate a thing the while it is good for you, and it may well be that you love a thing the while it is bad for you: and God knows, whereas you do not know" (2:216). Thus, many an apparent "evil" may sometimes be no more than a trial and a God-willed means of spiritual growth through suffering, and need not necessarily be the result of a wrong choice or a wrong deed on the part of the person thus afflicted. It is, therefore, obvious that the "evil" or "evil fortune" of which this verse speaks has a restricted connotation, inasmuch as it refers to evil in the moral sense of the word: that is to say, to suffering resulting from the actions or the behaviour of the person concerned, and this in accordance with the natural law of cause and effect which God has decreed for all His creation, and which the Qur'an describes as "the way of God" (sunnat Allah). For all such suffering man has only himself to blame, since "God does not wrong anyone by as much as at atom's weight" (4:40).
Nothing Bad Comes From God4:79 Anything good that happens to you is from GOD, and anything bad that happens to you is from you. We have sent you as a messenger to the people, and GOD suffices as witness.,12
Muhammad was not given any proof of prophethood. Hence the expression "God suffices as a witness" (29:51). The gematrical value of "Muhammad"is 92, and 92+79=171=19x9.
4:79 God never creates evil. Things and events have good and evil aspects. When you act according to the law of God the results are pleasant, and when you act against the law the results are unpleasant (42:30). So whatever good happens to you is from God, and whatever evil happens to you is from yourself. We have sent you as a Messenger to mankind and God is Sufficient as Witness.
4:80 من يطع الرسول فقد اطاع الله ومن تولىا فما ارسلناك عليهم حفيظا
4:80 Man yutiAAi alrrasoola faqad ataAAaAllaha waman tawalla fama arsalnakaAAalayhim hafeethan
4:80 Whoever obeys the messenger has obeyed God; and whoever turns away, We have not sent you as a guardian over them.
4:80 Whoever obeys the messenger has obeyed God; and whoever turns away, We have not sent you as a guardian over them.
4:80 Whoever pays heed unto the Apostle pays heed unto God thereby; and as for those who turn away - We have not sent thee to be their keeper.
4:80 Whoever obeys the messenger is obeying GOD. As for those who turn away, we did not send you as their guardian.,
4:80 Whoever obeys the Messenger, obeys God. But if any turn away, We have not sent you as a watcher over them. [5:44]
4:81 ويقولون طاعة فاذا برزوا من عندك بيت طائفة منهم غير الذى تقول والله يكتب ما يبيتون فاعرض عنهم وتوكل على الله وكفىا بالله وكيلا
4:81 Wayaqooloona taAAatun fa-ithabarazoo min AAindika bayyata ta-ifatun minhum ghayra allatheetaqoolu waAllahu yaktubu ma yubayyitoonafaaAArid AAanhum watawakkal AAala Allahiwakafa biAllahi wakeelan
4:81 They say, "Obedience," but when they emerge from you a group of them prepares for other that what you have said, and God records what they planned. So turn away from them and put your trust in God. God is enough for your trust.
4:81 And they say: "Obedience" but when they come out from being with you a group of them prepares for other that what you have said, and God records what they planned. So turn away from them and put your trust in God. God is enough for your trust.
4:81 And they say, "We do pay heed unto thee''95 - but when they leave thy presence, some of them devise, in the dark of night, [beliefs] other than thou art voicing;96 and all the while God records what they thus devise in the dark of night. Leave them, then, alone, and place thy trust in God: for none is as worthy of trust as God.
Lit., "And they say, 'Obedience'" - a reference to the hypocrites of Medina, in the time of the Prophet, and - by implication - the hypocritical "admirers" and half-hearted followers of Islam at all times.
I.e., they surreptitiously try to corrupt the message of God's Apostle. The verb bata denotes "he spent the night"; in the form bayyata it signifies "he meditated by night [upon something, or upon doing something]", or "he devised (something) by night" (Lisan al-Arab), i.e., in secrecy, which is symbolized by "the dark of night".
4:81 They pledge obedience, but as soon as they leave you, some of them harbor intentions contrary to what they say. GOD records their innermost intentions. You shall disregard them, and put your trust in GOD. GOD suffices as an advocate.,
4:81 They express verbal allegiance, “Obedience!” But when they go away from you a party of them spends the night in planning other than what you tell them. God records what they plan by night. But, ignore them and put your trust in God. For God is enough as Trustee. [6:106]
4:82 افلا يتدبرون القرءان ولو كان من عند غير الله لوجدوا فيه اختلافا كثيرا
4:82 Afala yatadabbaroona alqur-anawalaw kana min AAindi ghayri Allahi lawajadoo feehiikhtilafan katheeran
Neither Internal Nor External Contradictions in the Quran4:82 Do they not reflect on the Quran? If it were from any other than God they would have found many contradictions in it.30
The followers of hadith and sunna deny the truth-value of this verse by claiming numerous contradictions (nasikh-mansukh) in the Quran (see 2:106). It is a proof of divine authorship that, though the Quran was written in a time when superstitions and mythologies were popular, it does not contain even a trace of them. Comparing the verses of the Quran to the commentaries written centuries after it, such as Qurtubi, Ibn Kasir, Tabari, Nasafi, or to the hadith books, will highlight the uniqueness of the Quran. The Quran will stand out as a book that does not contain any falsehood.
The Quranic description of the earth, the solar system, the cosmos and the origin of the universe is centuries ahead of the time of its first revelation. For instance, the Quran, delivered in the seventh century C.E., states or implies that: Time is relative (32:5; 70:4; 22:47). God created the universe from nothing (2:117). The earth and heavenly bodies were once a single point and they were separated from each other (21:30). The universe is continuously expanding (51:47). The universe was created in six days (stages) and the conditions that made life possible on earth took place in the last four stages (50:38; 41:10). The stage before the creation of the earth is described as a gas nebula (41:11). Planet earth is floating in an orbit (27:88; 21:33; 36:40). The earth is round (10:24; 39:5; 55:33) and resembles an egg (10:24; 39:5; 79:30). The universe is also round (55:33). Oceans have subsurface wave patterns (24:40). Earth's atmosphere acts like a protective shield (21:32). Wind also pollinates plants (15:22). The bee has multiple stomachs (16:69). The workers in honeybee communities are females (16:68). After years of disappearance, Periodical Cicadas emerge all together with a cacophony of songs, testifying a similitude of resurrection for those who appreciate God's signs in the nature (54:7). The creation of living creatures follows an evolutionary system (7:69; 15:28; 24:45; 32:7; 71:14). The earliest biological creatures were incubated inside flexible layers of clay (15:26). The stages of human development in the womb are detailed (23:14). Our biological life span is coded in our genes (35:11). Photosynthesis is a recreation of energy stored through chlorophyll (36:77). Everything is created in pairs (13:3; 51:49; 36:36). The atomic number, atomic weight and isotopes of Iron are specified (57:25). Atoms of elements found on earth contain a maximum of seven energy layers (65:12). There will be new and better transportation vehicles beyond what we know (16:8). The edges of land, that is shores, will be reduced in size because of human's reckless behavior (13:41). The sound and vision of water and the action of eating dates (which contain oxytocin) reduce labor pains (19:24). There is life (not necessarily intelligent) beyond earth (42:29). The Quran correctly refers to Egypt's ruler who made Joseph his chief adviser as king (malik), not as Pharaoh (12:43). Many of the miracles mentioned in the Quran, for instance, represent the ultimate goals of science and technology. The Quran relates that matter (but not humans) can be transported at the speed of light (27:30); that smell can be transported to remote places (12:94); that extensive communication with animals is possible (27:16); that sleep, in certain conditions, can slow down metabolism and increase life spans (18:25); and that the vision of blind people can be restored (3:49). The number of months in a year is stated as 12 and the word Month (shahr) is used exactly twelve times. The number of days in a year is not stated, but the word Day (yawm) is used exactly 365 times. The frequency of the word year (sana) in its singular form occurs 7 times and plural form 12 times and together 19 times; each number relating to an astronomic event. A prophetic mathematical structure based on the number 19 implied in chapter 74 of the Quran was discovered in 1974 by the aid of computers shows that the Quran is embedded with an interlocking extraordinary mathematical system, which was also discovered in the original parts of the Old Testament in the 11th century. And there's more – much more. See 68:1; 79:30; 74:1. Also see Appendix titled: There is No Contradiction in the Quran.
4:82 Do they not reflect on the Qur'an? If it was from any other than God they would have found in it many a discrepancy.
4:82 Will they not, then, try to understand this Qur'an? Had it issued from any but God, they would surely have found in it many an inner contradiction!97
I.e., the fact that it is free of all inner contradictions - in spite of its having been revealed gradually, over a period of twenty-three years - should convince them that it has not been "composed by Muhammad" (an accusation frequently levelled against him not only by his contemporaries but also by non-believers of later times), but could only have originated from a supra-human source. See also 25:32 and 39:23.
Proof of Divine Authorship4:82 Why do they not study the Quran carefully? If it were from other than GOD, they would have found in it numerous contradictions.,13
Although the Quran was revealed during the dark ages, you cannot find any nonsense in it; another proof of divine authorship (see the Introduction and App. 1).
4:82 Will they not then, try to understand this Qur’an? If it were from other than God they would have found in it much contradiction and inconsistencies.
4:83 واذا جاءهم امر من الامن او الخوف اذاعوا به ولو ردوه الى الرسول والىا اولى الامر منهم لعلمه الذين يستنبطونه منهم ولولا فضل الله عليكم ورحمته لاتبعتم الشيطان الا قليلا
4:83 Wa-itha jaahum amrun minaal-amni awi alkhawfi athaAAoo bihi walaw raddoohu ilaalrrasooli wa-ila olee al-amri minhum laAAalimahuallatheena yastanbitoonahu minhum walawla fadluAllahi AAalaykum warahmatuhu laittabaAAtumualshshaytana illa qaleelan
When You are Attacked, Do not Panic and Do Not Spread Rumor4:83 If any matter regarding security, or fear, comes to them they make it publicly known, but if they had referred it to the messenger and to those entrusted from them then it would have been known by those who studied it from them. Had it not been for God's grace upon you and His mercy, you would have followed the devil, except for a few.
4:83 And if any matter regarding security, or fear, comes to them they make it publicly known, but if they had referred it to the messenger and to those entrusted from them then it would have been known by those who studied it from them. And had it not been for the grace of God upon you and His mercy, you would have followed the devil, except for a few.
4:83 AND IF any [secret] matter pertaining to peace or war comes within their ken, they98 spread it abroad - whereas, if they would but refer it unto the Apostle and unto those from among the believers99 who have been entrusted with authority, such of them as are engaged in obtaining intelligence100 would indeed know [what to do with] it And but for God's bounty towards you, and His grace, all but a few of you would certainly have followed Satan.
I.e., the half-hearted followers of Islam spoken of in the preceding verses (Zamakhshari). The above reference to peace or war - lit., "security or danger (khawf)"- is connected, firstly, with the basic principles of statecraft mentioned in verse 59 of this surah and, secondly, with the discourse on fighting in God's cause beginning with verse 71.
Lit., "from among them".
Lit., "those from among them who elicit [the truth]", i.e., the special organs of the state entrusted with gathering and evaluating political and military intelligence.
Beware of the Devil's Rumors4:83 When a rumor that affects security comes their way, they spread it. Had they referred it to the messenger, and those in charge among them, those who understand these matters would have informed them. If it were not for GOD's grace towards you, and His mercy, you would have followed the devil, except a few.,
4:83 The Book of God provides easy and practical social guidance. There are people who spread rumors pertaining to safety or fear. Those who hear rumors shall refer the matter concerning public safety and threat, to the Messenger and the government officials. Those who endeavor to gain intelligence will know what to do with it. Had it not been for the bounty of God and His mercy, most of you would still be following the satanic elements.
4:84 فقاتل فى سبيل الله لا تكلف الا نفسك وحرض المؤمنين عسى الله ان يكف باس الذين كفروا والله اشد باسا واشد تنكيلا
4:84 Faqatil fee sabeeli Allahi latukallafu illa nafsaka waharridialmu/mineena AAasa Allahu an yakuffa ba/sa allatheenakafaroo waAllahu ashaddu ba/san waashaddu tankeelan
4:84 So fight in the cause of God. You are not responsible except for yourself. Enjoin those who acknowledge, "Perhaps God will put a stop to the might of those who are ingrates." God is far Mightier and far more Punishing.
4:84 So fight in the cause of God; you are not responsible except for yourself. And enjoin the believers: "Perhaps God will put a stop to the might of those who disbelieved." And God is far Mightier and far more Punishing.
4:84 Fight thou,101 then, in God's cause - since thou art but responsible for thine own self - and inspire the believers to overcome all fear of death.102 God may well curb the might of those who are bent on denying the truth: for God is stronger in might, and stronger in ability to deter.
Although primarily addressed to the Prophet, the "thou" in this sentence relates to every believer. The above exhortation is to be understood in the context of a war already in progress, and not as an incitement to war.
The term harad signifies "corruption of body or mind" or "corruption in one's conduct", as well as "constant disquietude of mind" (Qamus). According to Raghib, the verbal form harradahu means "he rid him of all harad" -analogous to the expression marradahu, "he rid him of illness (marad)". In the two instances where this verb occurs in the Qur'an (in this verse as well as in 8:65), it has the imperative form: "Render the believers free of all disquietude of mind" or, tropically, "of all fear of death" - and may, thus, be suitably expressed as "inspire the believers to overcome all fear of death". The usual rendering of the phrase harrid al-mu minin as "urge (or "rouse" or "stir up") the believers" does not convey the full meaning of the verb harrada, notwithstanding the fact that it has been suggested by some of the classical philologists (cf. Lane II, 548).
4:84 You shall fight for the cause of GOD; you are responsible only for your own soul, and exhort the believers to do the same. GOD will neutralize the power of those who disbelieve. GOD is much more powerful, and much more effective.,
4:84 (O Messenger) fight in the way of God. You are responsible only for yourself. Inspire the believers (to conquer all fear). God may well curb the might of the unbelievers (who are bent upon destroying the System). For God is the Strongest in Might, and Strongest in the ability to deter. [2:151]
4:85 من يشفع شفاعة حسنة يكن له نصيب منها ومن يشفع شفاعة سيئة يكن له كفل منها وكان الله علىا كل شىء مقيتا
4:85 Man yashfaAA shafaAAatan hasanatanyakun lahu naseebun minha waman yashfaAA shafaAAatansayyi-atan yakun lahu kiflun minha wakana AllahuAAala kulli shay-in muqeetan
4:85 Whoever intercedes with a good intercession, he will have a reward of it; and whoever intercedes with an evil intercession, he will receive a share of it. God has control over all things.
4:85 Whoever intercedes with a good intercession, he will have a reward of it; and whoever intercedes with an evil intercession, he will receive a share of it. And God has control over all things.
4:85 Whoever rallies to a good cause shall have a share in its blessings;103 and whoever rallies to an evil cause shall be answerable for his part in it: for, indeed, God watches over everything.104
Lit., "shall have a share (nasib) therefrom". Since the term nasib has here a positive meaning, it can be suitably rendered as "a share in its blessings".
The noun kifl is derived from the root-verb kafala, "he made himself responsible (for a thing)". Tabari explains it in this context as denoting "a share in the responsibility and the sin". The expression minha ("out of it") indicates the part played by the transgressor in the evil enterprise, to which the pronoun ha ("it") refers.
Responsibility4:85 Whoever mediates a good deed receives a share of the credit thereof, and whoever mediates an evil work, incurs a share thereof. GOD controls all things.,
4:85 Whoever rallies to a cause that benefits people shall have a share in its blessings, and whoever rallies to a cause that creates injustice, shall be answerable for his part in it. God is Watcher over everything.
4:86 واذا حييتم بتحية فحيوا باحسن منها او ردوها ان الله كان علىا كل شىء حسيبا
4:86 Wa-itha huyyeetum bitahiyyatinfahayyoo bi-ahsana minha aw ruddoohainna Allaha kana AAala kulli shay-in haseeban
Promote Friendship and Peace4:86 If you are greeted with a greeting, then return an even better greeting or return the same. God is Reckoning over all things.
4:86 And if you are greeted with a greeting, then return an even better greeting or return the same. God is Reckoning over all things.
4:86 But when you are greeted with a greeting [of peace], answer with an even better greeting, or [at least] with the like thereof.105 Verily, God keeps count indeed of all things.
Lit., "greet with better than it, or return it". In the above context, this obviously refers to an offer of peace by people with whom the believers are at war as well as to individual persons who, while possibly belonging to the enemy, have, to all outward appearances, peaceful intentions. In accordance with the injunctions, "if they incline to peace, incline thou to it as well" (8:61), and "if they desist (from fighting), then all hostility shall cease" (2:193), the believers are obliged to make peace with an enemy who makes it clear that he wants to come to an equitable understanding; similarly, they must show every consideration to individual persons from among the enemies who do not actively participate in the hostilities (see also verse 94 of this surah).
You Shall Be Courteous4:86 When greeted with a greeting, you shall respond with a better greeting or at least an equal one. GOD reckons all things.,
4:86 When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in a better manner or return with similar regards. God reckons all things.13
Anyone who does good, do better for him. 2:177
4:87 الله لا الاه الا هو ليجمعنكم الىا يوم القيامة لا ريب فيه ومن اصدق من الله حديثا
4:87 Allahu la ilaha illahuwa layajmaAAannakum ila yawmi alqiyamati larayba feehi waman asdaqu mina Allahi hadeethan
4:87 God, there is no god but He. He will gather you for the day of Resurrection in which there is no doubt. Who is more truthful in saying than God?
4:87 God, there is no god except He. He will gather you for the Day of Resurrection in which there is no doubt. Who is more truthful a narrative than God?
4:87 God - save whom there is no deity - will surely gather you all together on the Day of Resurrection, [the coming of] which is beyond all doubt: and whose word could be truer than God's?
4:87 GOD: there is no god except He. He will surely summon you on the Day of Resurrection - the inevitable day. Whose narration is more truthful than GOD's?,
4:87 God! There is no god but He. He will summon all of you on the Day of Resurrection about the advent of which there is no doubt. Who can tell you a more reliable Hadith (saying) than God?
4:88 فما لكم فى المنافقين فئتين والله اركسهم بما كسبوا اتريدون ان تهدوا من اضل الله ومن يضلل الله فلن تجد له سبيلا
4:88 Fama lakum fee almunafiqeenafi-atayni waAllahu arkasahum bima kasabooatureedoona an tahdoo man adalla Allahu waman yudliliAllahu falan tajida lahu sabeelan
4:88 What is the matter with you that you are divided into two groups over the hypocrites, while God has allowed them to regress for what they have earned? Do you want to guide those whom God misguides? Whoever God causes to be misguided, you will never find for him a way.
4:88 What is the matter with you that you are divided into two groups over the hypocrites, while God has regressed them for what they have earned? Do you want to guide those whom God misguides? Whoever God causes to be misguided, you will never find for him a path.
4:88 How, then, could you be of two minds106 about the hypocrites, seeing that God [Himself] has disowned them because of their guilt?107 Do you, perchance, seek to guide those whom God has let go astray - when for him whom God lets go astray thou canst never find any way?
Lit., "two parties".
Lit., "seeing that God has thrown them back in result of what they have earned". There are various conjectures, almost all of them of a historical nature, as to the identity of these hypocrites. Some of the commentators think that the verse refers to the hypocrites at Medina in the early years after the hijrah; others (e.g., Tabari) prefer the view expressed by Ibn 'Abbas, according to whom this refers to certain people of Mecca who, before the hijrah, outwardly accepted Islam but secretly continued to support the pagan Quraysh. It seems to me, however, that there is no need to search after "historical" interpretations of the above verse, since it can easily be understood in general terms. The preceding verse speaks of God, and stresses His oneness and the obvious truth inherent in His revealed message, as well as the certainty of judgment on Resurrection Day. "How, then," continues the argument, "could you be of two minds regarding the moral stature of people who go so far as to pay lip-service to the truth of God's message and are, nevertheless, not willing to make a sincere choice between right and wrong?"
How to Deal With the Hypocrites4:88 Why should you divide yourselves into two groups regarding hypocrites (among you)? GOD is the one who condemned them because of their own behavior. Do you want to guide those who are sent astray by GOD? Whomever GOD sends astray, you can never find a way to guide them.,
4:88 Then, how could you be of two minds about the hypocrites, seeing that God has disowned them because of their own guilt? Can you guide anyone against God’s law? Do you seek to find a way of enlightenment for those who violate God’s laws of guidance?14
The law: Using the faculties of perception and reasoning, keeping an open mind - and freedom from prejudice, arrogance, and blind following will help people to recognize the truth. Freedom of religion: 2:148, 2:193, 2:256, 4:88, 5:48, 6:104, 6:107, 7:177, 10:99, 12:108, 18:29, 22:39, 27:80, 39:41, 56:79, 73:19
4:89 ودوا لو تكفرون كما كفروا فتكونون سواء فلا تتخذوا منهم اولياء حتىا يهاجروا فى سبيل الله فان تولوا فخذوهم واقتلوهم حيث وجدتموهم ولا تتخذوا منهم وليا ولا نصيرا
4:89 Waddoo law takfuroona kama kafaroofatakoonoona sawaan fala tattakhithoo minhumawliyaa hatta yuhajiroo fee sabeeliAllahi fa-in tawallaw fakhuthoohum waoqtuloohumhaythu wajadtumoohum wala tattakhithoominhum waliyyan wala naseeran
4:89 They hope that you would reject as they rejected, then you would be the same. Do not take any of them as allies until they emigrate in the cause of God. If they turn, then take them and fight/kill them where you find them; and do not take from them any ally or supporter;31
4:89 They hope that you will reject as they have rejected, then you will be the same. Do not take any of them as allies until they emigrate in the cause of God. If they turn away, then take them and kill them wherever you find them; and do not take from them any ally or supporter.
4:89 They would love to see you deny the truth even as they have denied it, so that you should be like them. Do not, therefore, take them for your allies until they forsake the domain of evil108 for the sake of God; and if they revert to [open] enmity, seize them and slay them wherever you may find them. And do not take any of them109 for your ally or giver of succour,
See surah 2, verse 218, as well as note on verse 97 of this surah.
I.e., any of those who have not "forsaken the domain of evil" and are wavering between belief and disbelief.
4:89 They wish that you disbelieve as they have disbelieved, then you become equal. Do not consider them friends, unless they mobilize along with you in the cause of GOD. If they turn against you, you shall fight them, and you may kill them when you encounter them in war. You shall not accept them as friends, or allies.,14
The basic rule controlling all fighting is stated in60:8-9.
4:89 They (these hypocrites) wish that you reject faith as they have rejected it, and thus become same as them. So, do not consider them friends unless they practically demonstrate that they have changed, and move along with you in the way of God. But if they turn back, resuming their behavior of being with you in word, and against you in action, (they are more dangerous than your open enemies). Then subdue them regardless of which group they belong to, and choose no friend or helper from among them.
4:90 الا الذين يصلون الىا قوم بينكم وبينهم ميثاق او جاءوكم حصرت صدورهم ان يقاتلوكم او يقاتلوا قومهم ولو شاء الله لسلطهم عليكم فلقاتلوكم فان اعتزلوكم فلم يقاتلوكم والقوا اليكم السلم فما جعل الله لكم عليهم سبيلا
4:90 Illa allatheena yasiloonaila qawmin baynakum wabaynahum meethaqun aw jaookumhasirat sudooruhum an yuqatilookum awyuqatiloo qawmahum walaw shaa Allahu lasallatahumAAalaykum falaqatalookum fa-ini iAAtazalookum falam yuqatilookumwaalqaw ilaykumu alssalama fama jaAAala Allahulakum AAalayhim sabeelan
4:90 Except for those who join a people between whom you have a covenant, or those who come to you with reluctance in their chests to fight you or to fight their own people. Had God willed He would have given them strength and they would have fought you. But if they retire from you, and did not fight you, and they offer you peace; then God does not make for you a way against them.
4:90 Except for those who reach a people with whom you have a covenant, or if they come to you with a reluctance in their chests to fight you or to fight their own people. Had God willed He would have given them strength and they would have fought you. But if they retire from you, and do not fight you, and they offer you peace; then God does not make for you a path against them.
4:90 unless it be such [of them] as have ties with people to whom you yourselves are bound by a covenant, or such as come unto you because their hearts shrink from [the thought of] making war either on you or on their own folk - although, if God had willed to make them stronger than you, they would certainly have made war on you.110 Thus, if they let you be, and do not make war on you, and offer you peace, God does not allow you to harm them.111
Lit., "if God had so willed, He would indeed have given them power over you, whereupon...", etc.- implying that only the lack of requisite power, and not true good will, causes them to refrain from making war on the believers.
Lit., "God has given you no way against them": a reference to the ordinance laid down in verse 86 above.
4:90 Exempted are those who join people with whom you have signed a peace treaty, and those who come to you wishing not to fight you, nor fight their relatives. Had GOD willed, He could have permitted them to fight against you. Therefore, if they leave you alone, refrain from fighting you, and offer you peace, then GOD gives you no excuse to fight them.,
4:90 Do not fight the hypocrites who join a people with whom you have signed a peace treaty. And do not fight those who come to you wishing not to fight you or their believing relatives. Had God willed they could have fought you. Therefore, if they leave you alone, and offer you peace, God has opened no way for you but the way of peace.15
Your prime duty remains the establishment and defense of the Divine Order in which there is no room for revenge. 24:22
4:91 ستجدون ءاخرين يريدون ان يامنوكم ويامنوا قومهم كل ما ردوا الى الفتنة اركسوا فيها فان لم يعتزلوكم ويلقوا اليكم السلم ويكفوا ايديهم فخذوهم واقتلوهم حيث ثقفتموهم واولائكم جعلنا لكم عليهم سلطانا مبينا
4:91 Satajidoona akhareena yureedoona anya/manookum waya/manoo qawmahum kulla ma ruddoo ilaalfitnati orkisoo feeha fa-in lam yaAAtazilookum wayulqooilaykumu alssalama wayakuffoo aydiyahum fakhuthoohumwaoqtuloohum haythu thaqiftumoohum waola-ikumjaAAalna lakum AAalayhim sultanan mubeenan
4:91 You will find others who want to be safe amongst you and safe amongst their own people. Every time they are returned to the test, they fall back in it. If they do not withdraw from you, offer you peace, and restrain their hands, then you shall take them and kill them where you encounter them. For these We have given you a clear authority.
4:91 You will find others who want to be safe among you and safe among their own people. Every time they are returned to the test, they fall back in it. If they do not withdraw from you, and offer you peace, and restrain their hands, then you shall take them and kill them wherever you encounter them. For these We have given you a clear authority.
4:91 You will find [that there are] others who would like to be safe from you as well as safe from their own folk, [but who,] whenever they are faced anew with temptation to evil, plunge into it headlong.112 Hence, if they do not let you be, and do not offer you peace, and do not stay their hands, seize them and slay them whenever you come upon them: for it is against these that We have clearly empowered you [to make war].113
Lit., "whenever they are returned to temptation (fitnah), they are thrown back into it" or thrown headlong into it".
Lit., "that We have given you clear authority (sultan)" - a solemn reiteration of the ordinance which permits war only in self-defence (cf. 2:190 ff. as well as the corresponding notes).
4:91 You will find others who wish to make peace with you, and also with their people. However, as soon as war erupts, they fight against you. Unless these people leave you alone, offer you peace, and stop fighting you, you may fight them when you encounter them. Against these, we give you a clear authorization.,
4:91 You will find others who desire peace for their people and make peace with you. But at the slightest opportune moment they come to fight against you. If they neither leave you alone, nor offer peace, nor hold their hands, subdue them regardless of which group they belong to. In their case, God has given you a clear authority to fight.
4:92 وما كان لمؤمن ان يقتل مؤمنا الا خطا ومن قتل مؤمنا خطا فتحرير رقبة مؤمنة ودية مسلمة الىا اهله الا ان يصدقوا فان كان من قوم عدو لكم وهو مؤمن فتحرير رقبة مؤمنة وان كان من قوم بينكم وبينهم ميثاق فدية مسلمة الىا اهله وتحرير رقبة مؤمنة فمن لم يجد فصيام شهرين متتابعين توبة من الله وكان الله عليما حكيما
4:92 Wama kana limu/minin anyaqtula mu/minan illa khataan waman qatala mu/minankhataan fatahreeru raqabatin mu/minatin wadiyatunmusallamatun ila ahlihi illa an yassaddaqoofa-in kana min qawmin AAaduwwin lakum wahuwa mu/minun fatahreeruraqabatin mu/minatin wa-in kana min qawmin baynakumwabaynahum meethaqun fadiyatun musallamatun ilaahlihi watahreeru raqabatin mu/minatin faman lam yajid fasiyamushahrayni mutatabiAAayni tawbatan mina Allahi wakanaAllahu AAaleeman hakeeman
Do Not Kill! Monetary Compensation in Cases of Manslaughter4:92 Those who acknowledge cannot kill another who has also acknowledged except by accident. Whoever kills one who acknowledged by accident, then he shall set free an acknowledging slave, and give compensation to the family; except if they remit it. If he was from a people who are enemies to you, and he had acknowledged, then you shall set free an acknowledging slave. If he was from a people between whom you had a covenant, then compensation to his family, and set free an acknowledging slave. Whoever does not find, then the fasting of two months sequentially as repentance from God; God is Knowledgeable, Wise.32
4:92 And it is not for a believer to kill another believer except by accident. And whoever kills a believer by accident, then he shall free a believing slave, and give compensation to the family; except if they remit it. If he was from a people who are enemies to you, and he was a believer, then you shall free a believing slave. And if he was from a people with whom you have a covenant, then a compensation to his family, and free a believing slave. Whoever does not find, then the fasting of two months sequentially as a repentance from God; for God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
4:92 AND IT IS not conceivable that a believer should slay another believer, unless it be by mistake.114 And upon him who has slain a believer by mistake there is the duty of freeing a believing soul from bondage and paying an indemnity to the victim's relations,115 unless they forgo it by way of charity. Now if the slain, while himself a believer, belonged to a people who are at war with you,116 [the penance shall be confined to] the freeing of a believing soul from bondage; whereas, if he belonged to a people to whom you are bound by a covenant, [it shall consist of] an indemnity to be paid to his relations in addition to the freeing of a believing soul from bondage.117 And he who does not have the wherewithal shall fast [instead] for two consecutive months.118 (This is) the atonement ordained by God: and God is indeed all-knowing, wise.
On the strength of this verse, read in conjunction with verse 93, some of the Mu'tazilite scholars are of the opinion that a believer who deliberately kills another believer must be considered an unbeliever (Razi). This does not, of course, apply to the execution of a death sentence passed in due process of law.
Lit., "his people" - i.e., the heirs or dependants of the victim. The "freeing of a believing soul from bondage", mentioned three times in this verse, refers in the first instance to persons who have been taken captive in war (cf surah 8, note 72) But see also note 5 on 58:3.
Lit., "who are hostile to you" - implying that they are in an actual state of war.
This relates to cases where the victim is a non-Muslim belonging to a people with whom the Muslims have normal, peaceful relations; in such cases the penalty is the same as that imposed for the killing, under similar circumstances, of a fellow-believer.
I.e., in the way prescribed for fasting during the month of Ramadan (see 2:183). This alleviation applies to a person who cannot afford to pay the indemnity and/or purchase the freedom of a slave (Razi), or cannot find a slave to be freed, as may be the case in our times (Manar V, 337).
You Shall Not Kill4:92 No believer shall kill another believer, unless it is an accident. If one kills a believer by accident, he shall atone by freeing a believing slave, and paying a compensation to the victim's family, unless they forfeit such a compensation as a charity. If the victim belonged to people who are at war with you, though he was a believer, you shall atone by freeing a believing slave. If he belonged to people with whom you have signed a peace treaty, you shall pay the compensation in addition to freeing a believing slave. If you cannot find a slave to free, you shall atone by fasting two consecutive months, in order to be redeemed by GOD. GOD is Knower, Most Wise.,15
Since slavery does not exist, the offender must atone by fasting two consecutive months.
4:92 It is not conceivable that a believer will slay another believer unless it be by mistake. If one kills a believer by mistake, there is the duty of freeing a believing person from bondage; may it be slavery, extreme poverty, crushing debt or oppression. And pay compensation to the victim's family unless they forgo it by way of charity. In case the victim was a believer, and belonged to a tribe who are at war with you, free a believing person from bondage. If the victim was a believer, and belonged to a tribe with whom you have a peace treaty, you should pay the compensation to his family in addition to freeing a believing person from bondage. For those who find this settlement beyond their means, two consecutive months of ‘Saum’ are ordained by way of repentance from God. God is the Knower, the Wise.16
4:93 ومن يقتل مؤمنا متعمدا فجزاؤه جهنم خالدا فيها وغضب الله عليه ولعنه واعد له عذابا عظيما
4:93 Waman yaqtul mu/minan mutaAAammidan fajazaohujahannamu khalidan feeha waghadiba AllahuAAalayhi walaAAanahu waaAAadda lahu AAathaban AAatheeman
4:93 Whoever kills one who acknowledged intentionally, then his reward shall be hell, eternally abiding therein; God will be angry with him, curse him, and for him is prepared a great retribution.
4:93 And whoever kills a believer intentionally, then his recompense shall be Hell, abiding therein, and God will be angry with him, and curse him, and for him is prepared a great retribution.
4:93 But whoever deliberately slays another believer, his requital shall be hell, therein to abide; and God will condemn him, and will reject him, and will prepare for him awesome suffering.
An Unforgivable Offense4:93 Anyone who kills a believer on purpose, his retribution is Hell, wherein he abides forever, GOD is angry with him, and condemns him, and has prepared for him a terrible retribution.,
4:93 Whoever slays a believer intentionally, his or her maximum punishment, considering the circumstances, is up to capital punishment (2:178, 5:32-33). His requital shall be Hell, therein to abide, and God will condemn him/her, and reject him and prepare for him awful suffering.17
Unjust killing of any human being, regardless of color, creed, religion or sex is a grievous offense that is tantamount to slaying the entire humankind 5:32. So, the offender shall be punished accordingly. Intentional murder of any human being is also a crime against the State, therefore, the State would be responsible for tracing, and bringing the offender to justice. Qisaas = The duty of tracing an offender for just recompense
4:94 ياايها الذين ءامنوا اذا ضربتم فى سبيل الله فتبينوا ولا تقولوا لمن القىا اليكم السلام لست مؤمنا تبتغون عرض الحيواة الدنيا فعند الله مغانم كثيرة كذالك كنتم من قبل فمن الله عليكم فتبينوا ان الله كان بما تعملون خبيرا
4:94 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooitha darabtum fee sabeeli Allahifatabayyanoo wala taqooloo liman alqa ilaykumu alssalamalasta mu/minan tabtaghoona AAarada alhayatialddunya faAAinda Allahi maghanimukatheeratun kathalika kuntum min qablu famanna AllahuAAalaykum fatabayyanoo inna Allaha kana bimataAAmaloona khabeeran
Do Not Reject the Offer of Peace4:94 O you who acknowledge, if you mobilize in the cause of God then make a clear declaration, and do not say to those who greet you with peace, "You are not a acknowledger!" You are seeking the vanity of this world; but with God are many riches. That is how you were before, but God favored you, so make a clear declaration. God is Ever-aware of what you do.
4:94 O you who believe, if you strike in the cause of God, you shall investigate carefully. And do not say to he who greets you with peace: "You are not a believer!" You are seeking the vanity of this world; but with God are many riches. That is how you were before, but God graced you, so investigate carefully. God is expert over what you do.
4:94 [Hence,] O you who have attained to faith, when you go forth [to war] in God's cause, use your discernment, and do not - out of a desire for the fleeting gains of this worldly life - say unto anyone who offers you the greeting of peace, "Thou art not a believer"119 for with God there are gains abundant. You, too, were once in the same condition120 - but God has been gracious unto you. Use, therefore, your discernment: verily, God is always aware of what you do.
Sc., "and therefore one of the enemies". This verse prohibits the treating of noncombatants as enemies and using their supposed unbelief as a pretext for plundering them. The injunction "use your discernment" (tabayyanu) imposes on the believers the duty of making sure, in every case, whether the persons concerned are actively engaged in hostilities or not.
Lit., "thus have you [too] been aforetime". Since the preceding injunction refers to the whole community, it would seem that the above clause, too, bears the same implication: namely, a reference to the time when the Muslim community was, because of its weakness and numerical insignificance, at the mercy of enemies endowed with greater power. Thus, the believers are told, as it were: "Remember your erstwhile weakness, and treat the peacefully-minded among your enemies with the same consideration with which you yourselves were once hoping to be treated."
4:94 O you who believe, if you strike in the cause of GOD, you shall be absolutely sure. Do not say to one who offers you peace, "You are not a believer," seeking the spoils of this world. For GOD possesses infinite spoils. Remember that you used to be like them, and GOD blessed you. Therefore, you shall be absolutely sure (before you strike). GOD is fully Cognizant of everything you do.,
4:94 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! When you go forth in the cause of God (to meet the armed challenge), use your discernment. And do not say, out of a desire for the fleeting gains of this worldly life, to anyone who offers you the greeting of peace, “You are not a believer.” For with God are abundant gains. Remember, once you were ignorant, and you were weak like the disbelievers are now. God has been Gracious to you, so be gracious to His servants (9:128, 90:17). Use your discernment. God is always Aware of what you do.
4:95 لا يستوى القاعدون من المؤمنين غير اولى الضرر والمجاهدون فى سبيل الله باموالهم وانفسهم فضل الله المجاهدين باموالهم وانفسهم على القاعدين درجة وكلا وعد الله الحسنىا وفضل الله المجاهدين على القاعدين اجرا عظيما
4:95 La yastawee alqaAAidoona minaalmu/mineena ghayru olee alddarari waalmujahidoonafee sabeeli Allahi bi-amwalihim waanfusihim faddalaAllahu almujahideena bi-amwalihimwaanfusihim AAala alqaAAideena darajatan wakullanwaAAada Allahu alhusna wafaddala Allahualmujahideena AAala alqaAAideena ajran AAatheeman
4:95 Except the disabled, not equal are those who stayed behind from those who acknowledge with those who strived in the cause of God with their money and lives. God has preferred those who strive with their money and lives over those who stayed behind by a grade; and to both God has promised goodness; and God has preferred the strivers to those who stay by a great reward.33
War is permitted only for self-defense. See 60:7.
4:95 Not equal are those who stayed behind from the believers; except those disabled; with those who strived in the cause of God with their money and lives. God has preferred those who strive with their money and lives over those who stayed behind by a grade; and to both God has promised goodness; and God has preferred those who strived over those who stayed behind by a great reward.
4:95 SUCH of the believers as remain passive121 - other than the disabled - cannot be deemed equal to those who strive hard in God's cause with their possessions and their lives:122 God has exalted those who strive hard with their possessions and their lives far above those who remain passive. Although God has promised the ultimate good unto all [believers], yet has God exalted those who strive hard above those who remain passive by [promising them] a mighty reward -
Lit., "who sit [at home]"- i.e., who do not participate in the struggle in God's cause, be it physical or moral.
The term mujahid is derived from the verb jahada, which means "he struggled" or "strove hard" or "exerted himself", namely, in a good cause and against evil. Consequently, jihad denotes "striving in the cause of God" in the widest sense of this expression: that is to say, it applies not merely to physical warfare (qital) but to any righteous struggle in the moral sense as well; thus, for instance, the Prophet described man's struggle against his own passions and weaknesses (jihad an-nafs) as the "greatest jihad" (Bayhaqi, on the authority of Jabir ibn 'Abd Allah).
Higher Ranks for the Strivers4:95 Not equal are the sedentary among the believers who are not handicapped, and those who strive in the cause of GOD with their money and their lives. GOD exalts the strivers with their money and their lives above the sedentary. For both, GOD promises salvation, but GOD exalts the strivers over the sedentary with a great recompense.,
4:95 Those believers who sit back, except for a disability, are not equal in ranks to those who strive with their wealth and persons in the cause of God. God has granted a grade higher to those who strive with their wealth and persons than that granted those who remain passive. Although God has promised the ultimate good to all believers, yet God has exalted with immense reward those who strive, above the ones who sit back at home.
4:96 درجات منه ومغفرة ورحمة وكان الله غفورا رحيما
4:96 Darajatin minhu wamaghfiratan warahmatanwakana Allahu ghafooran raheeman
4:96 Grades from Him, forgiveness, and a mercy. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
4:96 Grades from Him and forgiveness and a mercy. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
4:96 [many] degrees thereof - and forgiveness of sins, and His grace; for God is indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
4:96 The higher ranks come from Him, as well as forgiveness and mercy. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
4:96 The higher ranks come from Him, as well as forgiveness and grace. God is ever Forgiving, Merciful.
4:97 ان الذين توفىاهم الملائكة ظالمى انفسهم قالوا فيم كنتم قالوا كنا مستضعفين فى الارض قالوا الم تكن ارض الله واسعة فتهاجروا فيها فاولائك ماوىاهم جهنم وساءت مصيرا
4:97 Inna allatheena tawaffahumualmala-ikatu thalimee anfusihim qaloofeema kuntum qaloo kunna mustadAAafeena feeal-ardi qaloo alam takun ardu AllahiwasiAAatan fatuhajiroo feeha faola-ikama/wahum jahannamu wasaat maseeran
Either Fight Against Oppression or Seek Asylum Elsewhere4:97 Those whom the controllers take, while they had wronged themselves; were asked, "What situation were you in?" They responded, "We were oppressed on earth." They asked, "Was God's earth not wide enough that you could emigrate in it?" To these their abode will be hell; what a miserable destiny;
4:97 Those whose lives are terminated by the angels, while they had wronged themselves; they said: "What situation were you in?" They said: "We were oppressed on the earth." They said: "Was the earth of God not wide enough that you could emigrate in it?" To these their abode will be Hell; what a miserable destiny!
4:97 Behold, those whom the angels gather in death while they are still sinning against themselves, [the angels] will ask, "What was wrong with you?''123 They will answer: "We were too weak on earth." [The angels] will say: "Was, then, God's earth not wide enough for you to forsake the domain of evil?"124 For such, then, the goal is hell - and how evil a journey's end!
Lit., "in what [condition] were you?"- i.e., while alive. This refers to people who evade, without valid excuse, all struggle in God's cause.
Lit., "was not God's earth wide, so that you could migrate therein?" The term hijrah (lit., "exodus"), derived from the verb hajara ("he migrated"), is used in the Qur'an in two senses: one of them is historical, denoting the exodus of the Prophet and his Companions from Mecca to Medina, while the other has a moral connotation - namely, man's "exodus" from evil towards God - and does not necessarily imply the leaving of one's homeland in the physical sense. It is this wider, moral and ethical meaning of the term hijrah to which the above passage refers - just as the preceding passage (verses 95-96) referred to "striving hard in God's cause" (jihad) in the widest sense of the term, embracing both physical and moral efforts and the sacrifice, if need be, of one's possessions and even one's life. While the physical exodus from Mecca to Medina ceased to be obligatory for the believers after the conquest of Mecca in the year 8 H., the spiritual exodus from the domain of evil to that of righteousness continues to be a fundamental demand of Islam; in other words, a person who does not "migrate from evil unto God" cannot be considered a believer - which explains the condemnation, in the next sentence, of all who are remiss in this respect.
Apathy Condemned4:97 Those whose lives are terminated by the angels, while in a state of wronging their souls, the angels will ask them, "What was the matter with you?" They will say, "We were oppressed on earth." They will say, "Was GOD's earth not spacious enough for you to emigrate therein?" For these, the final abode is Hell, and a miserable destiny.,
4:97 As for those who wrong their own ‘self’ by not striving until the angels (the laws of death) approach them, they are asked, “What kept you occupied?” They say, “We were weak and oppressed in the land.” The angels say, “Was not the earth of God spacious enough for you to migrate?” As for such, their habitation will be Hell, a miserable destination.
4:98 الا المستضعفين من الرجال والنساء والولدان لا يستطيعون حيلة ولا يهتدون سبيلا
4:98 Illa almustadAAafeena mina alrrijaliwaalnnisa-i waalwildani layastateeAAoona heelatan wala yahtadoonasabeelan
4:98 Except for those men, women, and children who were oppressed and could not devise a plan nor could be guided to a way.
4:98 Except for those who were oppressed from the men, women, and children who could not devise a plan nor could be guided to a way.
4:98 But excepted shall be the truly helpless - be they men or women or children - who cannot bring forth any strength and have not been shown the right way:125
Or: "cannot find the [right] way" - implying that they are helplessly confused and cannot, therefore, grasp this basic demand of Islam; or, alternatively, that the message relating to this demand has not been adequately conveyed and explained to them.
4:98 Exempted are the weak men, women, and children who do not possess the strength, nor the means to find a way out.,
4:98 Exempted are the feeble, whether men or women, and children who are unable to devise a plan and to find a way out.
4:99 فاولائك عسى الله ان يعفو عنهم وكان الله عفوا غفورا
4:99 Faola-ika AAasa Allahuan yaAAfuwa AAanhum wakana Allahu AAafuwwan ghafooran
4:99 For these, perhaps God will pardon them. God is Pardoner, Forgiving.
4:99 For these, perhaps God will pardon them. God is Pardoner, Forgiving.
4:99 as for them, God may well efface their sin - for God is indeed an absolver of sins, much-forgiving.
4:99 These may be pardoned by GOD. GOD is Pardoner, Forgiver.,
4:99 God may forgive them (for their limitations). For, God pardons and forgives again and again.
4:100 ومن يهاجر فى سبيل الله يجد فى الارض مراغما كثيرا وسعة ومن يخرج من بيته مهاجرا الى الله ورسوله ثم يدركه الموت فقد وقع اجره على الله وكان الله غفورا رحيما
4:100 Waman yuhajir fee sabeeli Allahiyajid fee al-ardi muraghaman katheeran wasaAAatanwaman yakhruj min baytihi muhajiran ila Allahiwarasoolihi thumma yudrik-hu almawtu faqad waqaAAa ajruhu AAalaAllahi wakana Allahu ghafooran raheeman
4:100 Whoever emigrates in the cause of God will find in the land many spoils and a bounty. Whoever leaves his home emigrating to God and His messenger, then is overcome by death; his reward has fallen to God, and God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
4:100 Whoever emigrates in the cause of God will find in the earth many spoils and a bounty. And whoever leaves his home emigrating to God and His messenger, then is overcome by death; his recompense has fallen to God, and God is Forgiving, Merciful.
4:100 And he who forsakes the domain of evil for the sake of God shall find on earth many a lonely road,126 as well as life abundant. And if anyone leaves his home, fleeing from evil unto God and His Apostle, and then death overtakes him - his reward is ready with God: for God iss indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
The word muragham is derived from the noun ragham ("dust") and is connected with the idiomatic expression raghima anfuhu, "his nose was made to cleave to dust", i.e., he became humbled and forced to do something against his will. Thus, muragham denotes "a road by the taking of which one leaves one's people against their will" (Zamakhshari), it being understood that this separation from one's familiar environment involves what is described as muraghamah, the "breaking off (from another)" or the "cutting off from friendly or living communion" (see Lane III, 1113). All this can best be rendered, in the above context, as "a lonely road" - a metaphor of that heartbreaking loneliness which almost always accompanies the first steps of one who sets forth on his "exodus from evil unto God". (Regarding this latter expression, see note on verse 97 above as well as surah 2, verse 218.)
4:100 Anyone who emigrates in the cause of GOD will find on earth great bounties and richness. Anyone who gives up his home, emigrating to GOD and His messenger, then death catches up with him, his recompense is reserved with GOD. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
4:100 Anyone who emigrates in the cause of God, will find that God has placed refuge and abundance on earth. Whoever forsakes his home, as an immigrant to God and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then incumbent upon God. God is ever Forgiving, Merciful (the Protector and Provider of guidance).
4:101 واذا ضربتم فى الارض فليس عليكم جناح ان تقصروا من الصلواة ان خفتم ان يفتنكم الذين كفروا ان الكافرين كانوا لكم عدوا مبينا
4:101 Wa-itha darabtum fee al-ardifalaysa AAalaykum junahun an taqsuroo mina alssalatiin khiftum an yaftinakumu allatheena kafaroo inna alkafireenakanoo lakum AAaduwwan mubeenan
Keep Contact With God Even During War4:101 If you are mobilized in the land, then there is no harm that you shorten the contact prayer, if you fear that the ingrates will try you. The ingrates are to you a clear enemy.34
4:101 And if you go forth in the land, then there is no harm that you shorten from the contact prayer, if you fear that the rejecters will try you. The rejecters are to you a clear enemy.
4:101 AND WHEN you go forth [to war] on earth, you will incur no sin by shortening your prayers127 if you have reason to fear that those who are bent on denying the truth might suddenly fall upon you:128 for, verily, those who deny the truth are your open foes.
Lit., "the prayer": a reference to the five obligatory daily prayers - at dawn, noon, afternoon, after sunset and late in the evening - which may be shortened and combined (the noon prayer with that of the afternoon, and the sunset prayer with that of the late evening) if one is travelling or in actual danger. While the extension of this permission to peaceful travel has been authorized by the Prophet's sunnah, the Qur'an mentions it only in connection with war situations; and this justifies the interpolation, in the opening sentence, of the words "to war". The prayer described in the next verse - with the congregation praying in shifts - is called salat al-khawf ("prayer in danger").
Lit., "might cause you an affliction" - implying, according to almost all the commentators, a sudden attack.
4:101 When you travel, during war, you commit no error by shortening your Contact Prayers (Salat), if you fear that the disbelievers may attack you. Surely, the disbelievers are your ardent enemies.,
4:101 When you go forth on an expedition or travel, there is no blame on you in shortening your Salaat congregations if you fear that the disbelievers may attack you. The disbelievers are your ardent enemies. [2:3]
4:102 واذا كنت فيهم فاقمت لهم الصلواة فلتقم طائفة منهم معك ولياخذوا اسلحتهم فاذا سجدوا فليكونوا من ورائكم ولتات طائفة اخرىا لم يصلوا فليصلوا معك ولياخذوا حذرهم واسلحتهم ود الذين كفروا لو تغفلون عن اسلحتكم وامتعتكم فيميلون عليكم ميلة واحدة ولا جناح عليكم ان كان بكم اذى من مطر او كنتم مرضىا ان تضعوا اسلحتكم وخذوا حذركم ان الله اعد للكافرين عذابا مهينا
4:102 Wa-itha kunta feehim faaqamta lahumualssalata faltaqum ta-ifatun minhummaAAaka walya/khuthoo aslihatahum fa-ithasajadoo falyakoonoo min wara-ikum walta/ti ta-ifatunokhra lam yusalloo falyusalloo maAAakawalya/khuthoo hithrahum waaslihatahumwadda allatheena kafaroo law taghfuloona AAan aslihatikumwaamtiAAatikum fayameeloona AAalaykum maylatan wahidatanwala junaha AAalaykum in kana bikum athanmin matarin aw kuntum marda an tadaAAoo aslihatakumwakhuthoo hithrakum inna AllahaaAAadda lilkafireena AAathaban muheenan
4:102 If you are with them and hold the contact prayer for them, then let a group from amongst them stand with you and let them bring their weapons; when they have prostrated then let them stand guard from behind; let a group who has not yet contacted come and contact with you, and let them be wary and let them bring their weapons with them. The ingrates hope that you would neglect your weapons and goods so they can come upon you in one blow. There is no sin upon you if you are impeded by rainfall, or if you are ill, that you keep from placing down your weapons. Be wary. God has prepared for the ingrates a humiliating retribution.
4:102 And if you are with them and you hold the contact prayer for them, then let a group from among them stand with you and let them bring their weapons; and when they have prostrated then let them be behind you; and let a group who has not yet made the contact prayer come and make the contact prayer with you, and let them be wary and let them bring their weapons with them. The rejecters hope that you would neglect your weapons and goods so they can come upon you in one blow. There is no sin upon you if you are impeded by rainfall, or if you are ill, that you place down your weapons. And be wary. God has prepared for the rejecters a humiliating retribution.
4:102 Thus, when thou art among the believers129 and about to lead them in prayer, let [only] part of them stand up with thee, retaining their arms. Then, after they have finished their prayer, let them provide you cover130 while another group, who have not yet prayed, shall come forward and pray with thee, being fully prepared against danger and retaining their arms: (for) those who are bent on denying the truth would love to see you oblivious of your arms and your equipment, so that they might fall upon you in a surprise attack.131 But it shall not be wrong for you to lay down your arms [while you pray] if you are troubled by rain132 or if you are ill; but [always] be fully prepared against danger. Verily, God has readied shameful suffering for all who deny the truth!
Lit., "among them". The "thou" in this sentence refers, primarily, to the Prophet and, by implication, to the leader of every group of believers at war with "those who deny the truth".
Lit., "when they have prostrated themselves, let them [i.e., the other group] be behind you". This idiomatic expression is not to be taken literally: in classical Arabic usage, the phrase kana min wara'ika (lit., "he was behind thee") signifies "he protected thee" or (in military parlance) "he covered thee", and is not meant to describe the physical relative position of the two persons or groups.
Lit., "turn upon you in one turning".
I.e., if there is a risk of their weapons being damaged by exposure to unfavourable weather conditions, the warriors are exempted from the obligation of keeping their arms with them while praying. This exemption applies, of course, only to such of the soldiers as are in charge of particularly sensitive weapons; and the same applies to the individual cases of illness mentioned in the sequence. It must, however, be remembered that the term matar (lit., "rain") is often used in the Qur'an to denote "an affliction": and if we adopt this meaning, the above phrase could be rendered as "if you suffer from an affliction"- thus allowing for a wide range of possible emergencies.
War Precautions4:102 When you are with them, and lead the Contact Prayer (Salat) for them, let some of you stand guard; let them hold their weapons, and let them stand behind you as you prostrate. Then, let the other group that has not prayed take their turn praying with you, while the others stand guard and hold their weapons. Those who disbelieved wish to see you neglect your weapons and your equipment, in order to attack you once and for all. You commit no error, if you are hampered by rain or injury, by putting down your weapons, so long as you remain alert. GOD has prepared for the disbelievers a shameful retribution.,
4:102 When you (O Messenger) are with them (on an expedition or travel), and stand to lead them in Salaat congregation, let some of them stand up with you taking their arms with them. After they have concluded their Salaat, let them fall to the rear and let another party come forth and keep their arms in all precaution while taking instructions. The disbelievers want you to neglect your arms and belongings so that they may attack you once and for all. There is no blame on you in laying aside your arms if rain impedes you or if you are ill. But take all possible precaution for yourselves. God has readied a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers.
4:103 فاذا قضيتم الصلواة فاذكروا الله قياما وقعودا وعلىا جنوبكم فاذا اطماننتم فاقيموا الصلواة ان الصلواة كانت على المؤمنين كتابا موقوتا
4:103 Fa-itha qadaytumu alssalatafaothkuroo Allaha qiyaman waquAAoodanwaAAala junoobikum fa-itha itma/nantumfaaqeemoo alssalata inna alssalatakanat AAala almu/mineena kitaban mawqootan
4:103 So when you are done with the contact prayer, then remember God while standing, or sitting, or on your sides. When you are relieved, you shall hold the contact prayer; the contact prayer for those who acknowledge is a scheduled event.35
To remain under God's domain and receive his blessings and support, the Quran teaches us to commemorate God constantly (2:152; 3:191, 33:41). However, a great majority of the human population does not use their innate critical thinking and reasoning skills, and thus they believe in superstitions and false teachings that lead them to associate partners with God (12:106; 23:84; 29:61; 31:25; 39:38; 43:87). Also, see 3:191.
4:103 Then, if you have completed the contact prayer, remember God while standing, or sitting, or on your sides. Then, if you are secure, hold the contact prayer. Indeed, the contact prayer for the believers is a Book that is scheduled.
4:103 And when you have finished your prayer, remember God - standing and sitting and lying down; and when you are once again secure, observe your prayers [fully]. Verily, for all believers prayer is indeed a sacred duty linked to particular times [of day].
The Contact Prayers4:103 Once you complete your Contact Prayer (Salat), you shall remember GOD while standing, sitting, or lying down. Once the war is over, you shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat); the Contact Prayers (Salat) are decreed for the believers at specific times.,16
Your god is whoever or whatever occupies your mind most of the day. In order to belong in God's kingdom, and enjoyHis grace and protection, the Quran exhorts us to remember God "always"(2:152 & 200,3:191,33:41-42). This profoundfact explains the numerous verses asserting that "most" of those who believe inGod are going to Hell (12:106:84-89,29:61-63,31:25,39:38,43:87). SeeFootnote 3:191and Appendix 27.
4:103 After you are done with the congregation, remain mindful of God - standing, sitting or lying down. When you feel secure once again, establish Salaat as usual. Salaat at the times appointed by the Central Authority is mandatory unto believers.18
3:191, ‘Mauqoota’ = Times appointed by the Central Authority
4:104 ولا تهنوا فى ابتغاء القوم ان تكونوا تالمون فانهم يالمون كما تالمون وترجون من الله ما لا يرجون وكان الله عليما حكيما
4:104 Wala tahinoo fee ibtigha-ialqawmi in takoonoo ta/lamoona fa-innahum ya/lamoona kamata/lamoona watarjoona mina Allahi ma layarjoona wakana Allahu AAaleeman hakeeman
4:104 Do not falter in the pursuit of the remaining group. If you are feeling pain, then they are also feeling pain as you are; and you seek from God what they do not seek. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
4:104 And do not falter in the pursuit of the remaining group. If you are feeling pain, then they are also feeling pain as you are; and you seek from God what they do not seek. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
4:104 And be not faint of heart when you seek out the [enemy] host. If you happen to suffer pain, behold, they suffer pain even as you suffer it: but you are hoping [to receive] from God what they cannot hope for. And God is indeed all-knowing, wise.
4:104 Do not waver in pursuing the enemy. If you suffer, they also suffer. However, you expect from GOD what they never expect. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
4:104 Do not show weakness in pursuing the enemy. If you suffer hardship they too suffer hardship. But you have hope to receive God’s reward that they cannot rightfully hope. God is the Knower, the Wise.
4:105 انا انزلنا اليك الكتاب بالحق لتحكم بين الناس بما ارىاك الله ولا تكن للخائنين خصيما
4:105 Inna anzalna ilayka alkitababialhaqqi litahkuma bayna alnnasibima araka Allahu wala takun lilkha-ineenakhaseeman
4:105 We have revealed to you the book with truth that you may judge between the people according to what God has shown you, and do not be an advocate for the treacherous.
4:105 We have revealed to you the Book with the truth that you may judge between the people by that which God has shown you, and do not be an advocate for the treacherous.
4:105 BEHOLD, We have bestowed upon thee from on high this divine writ, setting forth the truth, so that thou may judge between people in accordance with what God has taught thee.133 Hence, do not contend with those who are false to their trust,
The "thou" in this and the following two verses - as well as in verse 113 - refers, on the face of it, to the Prophet; by implication, however, it is addressed to everyone who has accepted the guidance of the Qur'an: this is evident from the use of the plural "you" in verse 109. Consequently, the attempt on the part of most of the commentators to explain this passage in purely historical terms is not very convincing, the more so as it imposes an unnecessary limitation on an otherwise self-explanatory ethical teaching of general purport.
4:105 We have sent down to you the scripture, truthfully, in order to judge among the people in accordance with what GOD has shown you. You shall not side with the betrayers.,
4:105 We have revealed the Book to you in absolute truth that you might judge between people according to what God has shown you (in this revelation). So, do not be an advocate for the treacherous.
4:106 واستغفر الله ان الله كان غفورا رحيما
4:106 Waistaghfiri Allaha inna Allahakana ghafooran raheeman
4:106 Seek forgiveness from God; God is Forgiver, Compassionate.
4:106 And seek forgiveness from God; for God is Forgiver, Merciful.
4:106 but pray God to forgive [them]:134 behold, God is indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
This obviously refers to the hypocrites as well as to the half-hearted followers of the Qur'an spoken of earlier in this surah: both are accused of having betrayed the trust reposed in them, inasmuch as they pretend to have accepted the Qur'anic message but, in reality, are trying to corrupt it (see verse 81). Since they are already aware of what the Qur'an demands of them and are, nevertheless, bent on evading all real self-surrender to its guidance, there is no use in arguing with them.
4:106 You shall implore GOD for forgiveness. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
4:106 And seek forgiveness of God. (Pray to God that the betraying traitors mend their ways and thus become worthy of forgiveness.) For God is Forgiving, Merciful. [4:81]
4:107 ولا تجادل عن الذين يختانون انفسهم ان الله لا يحب من كان خوانا اثيما
4:107 Wala tujadil AAani allatheenayakhtanoona anfusahum inna Allaha la yuhibbuman kana khawwanan atheeman
The Betrayers4:107 Do not argue on behalf of those who betray themselves. God does not like those who are betrayers, sinners.
4:107 And do not argue on behalf of those who betray themselves. God does not love those who are betrayers, sinners.
4:107 Yet do not argue in behalf of those who are false to their own selves:135 verily, God does not love those who betray their trust and persist in sinful ways.
I.e., "you may ask God to forgive them, but do not try to find excuses for their behaviour". It is significant that the Qur'an characterizes a betrayal of trust, whether spiritual or social, as "being false to oneself" - just as it frequently describes a person who deliberately commits a sin or a wrong (zulm) as "one who sins against himself" or "wrongs himself" (zalim nafsahu) - since every deliberate act of sinning damages its author spiritually.
Do Not Defend the Transgressors4:107 Do not argue on behalf of those who have wronged their own souls; GOD does not love any betrayer, guilty.,
4:107 (You may pray for their guidance but) do not plead on behalf of the people who have betrayed their own ‘self’. God loves not one who drags down his own humanity by betraying his pledges, duties and trusts.
4:108 يستخفون من الناس ولا يستخفون من الله وهو معهم اذ يبيتون ما لا يرضىا من القول وكان الله بما يعملون محيطا
4:108 Yastakhfoona mina alnnasi walayastakhfoona mina Allahi wahuwa maAAahum ithyubayyitoona ma la yarda mina alqawli wakanaAllahu bima yaAAmaloona muheetan
4:108 They may conceal this from the people, but they do not conceal it from God, and He was with them when they schemed what He does not approve of to be said. God is Encompassing over what they do.
4:108 They may conceal this from the people, but they do not conceal it from God, and He was with them when they schemed what He does not approve of to be said. God is Encompassing what they do.
4:108 They would conceal their doings from men; but from God they cannot conceal them - for He is with them whenever they devise, in the dark of night, all manner of beliefs136 which He does not approve. And God indeed encompasses [with His knowledge] whatever they do.
Lit., "that of belief" (min al-qawl). It is to be remembered that the noun qawl does not denote merely "a saying" or "an utterance" (which is its primary significance): it is also employed tropically to denote anything that can be described as a "conceptual statement" - like an opinion, a doctrine, or a belief - and is often used in this sense in the Qur'an.
4:108 They hide from the people, and do not care to hide from GOD, though He is with them as they harbor ideas He dislikes. GOD is fully aware of everything they do.,
4:108 They seek to hide from people and do not seek to hide from God! He is with them when they discuss and plot by night what He dislikes. And God encompasses with His knowledge all they do.
4:109 هاانتم هاؤلاء جادلتم عنهم فى الحيواة الدنيا فمن يجادل الله عنهم يوم القيامة ام من يكون عليهم وكيلا
4:109 Haantum haola-i jadaltumAAanhum fee alhayati alddunya famanyujadilu Allaha AAanhum yawma alqiyamati amman yakoonu AAalayhim wakeelan
4:109 Here you are arguing on their behalf in this world, but who will argue on their behalf with God on the day of Resurrection? Or who will be their sponsor?
4:109 Here you are arguing on their behalf in this world, but who will argue on their behalf with God on the Day of Resurrection? Or, who will be their sponsor?
4:109 Oh, you might well argue in their behalf in the life of this world: but who will argue in their behalf with God on the Day of Resurrection, or who will be their defender?
You Do Not Help Them by Being "Nice"4:109 Here you are arguing on their behalf in this world; who is going to argue with GOD on their behalf on the Day of Resurrection? Who is going to be their advocate?,
4:109 You contend on their behalf in this world. But who will contend with God for them on the Resurrection Day? Or who will be their defender?
4:110 ومن يعمل سوءا او يظلم نفسه ثم يستغفر الله يجد الله غفورا رحيما
4:110 Waman yaAAmal soo-an aw yathlimnafsahu thumma yastaghfiri Allaha yajidi Allahaghafooran raheeman
4:110 Whoever does any evil, or wrongs himself, then seeks God's forgiveness; he will find God Forgiving, Compassionate.
4:110 And whoever does any evil, or wrongs himself, then seeks the forgiveness of God; he will find God is Forgiver, Merciful.
4:110 Yet he who does evil or [otherwise] sins against himself, and thereafter prays God to forgive him, shall find God much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace:
4:110 Anyone who commits evil, or wrongs his soul, then implores GOD for forgiveness, will find GOD Forgiving, Most Merciful.,
4:110 Anyone who transgresses against his or her own ‘self’, then seeks God’s forgiveness, will find God Forgiving, Merciful.19
4:111 ومن يكسب اثما فانما يكسبه علىا نفسه وكان الله عليما حكيما
4:111 Waman yaksib ithman fa-innamayaksibuhu AAala nafsihi wakana AllahuAAaleeman hakeeman
4:111 Whoever earns any sin, it is he who has brought it on himself. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
4:111 And whoever earns any sin, then he has brought it on himself. And God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
4:111 for he who commits a sin, commits it only to his own hurt;137 and God is indeed all-knowing, wise.
Lit., "he who earns a sin, earns it only against himself".
4:111 Anyone who earns a sin, earns it to the detriment of his own soul. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
4:111 Whoever earns a violation against the Permanent Values, earns it against his own ‘self’. God is the Knower, Wise.20
He grants you knowledge and wisdom
4:112 ومن يكسب خطية او اثما ثم يرم به بريا فقد احتمل بهتانا واثما مبينا
4:112 Waman yaksib khatee-atan aw ithmanthumma yarmi bihi baree-an faqadi ihtamala buhtananwa-ithman mubeenan
4:112 Whoever does a mistake or wrongdoing, then blames it on an innocent person; he has incurred falsehood and a clear sin.
4:112 And whoever does a mistake or sin, then blames it on an innocent person; he has incurred falsehood and a clear sin.
4:112 But he who commits a fault or a sin and then throws the blame therefore on an innocent person, burdens himself with the guilt of calumny and [yet another] flagrant sin.
4:112 Anyone who earns a sin, then accuses an innocent person thereof, has committed a blasphemy and a gross offense.,
4:112 And whoever commits a fault or such violation, but throws the blame on the innocent, burdens himself with slander and a clear violation that drags down the ‘self’.
4:113 ولولا فضل الله عليك ورحمته لهمت طائفة منهم ان يضلوك وما يضلون الا انفسهم وما يضرونك من شىء وانزل الله عليك الكتاب والحكمة وعلمك ما لم تكن تعلم وكان فضل الله عليك عظيما
4:113 Walawla fadlu AllahiAAalayka warahmatuhu lahammat ta-ifatun minhum anyudillooka wama yudilloona illaanfusahum wama yadurroonaka min shay-in waanzalaAllahu AAalayka alkitaba waalhikmatawaAAallamaka ma lam takun taAAlamu wakana fadluAllahi AAalayka AAatheeman
Do not Divert from the Law an