بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
59:1 سبح لله ما فى السماوات وما فى الارض وهو العزيز الحكيم
59:1 Sabbaha lillahi ma fee alssamawatiwama fee al-ardi wahuwa alAAazeezu alhakeemu
59:1 Glorifying God is everything in the heavens and the earth, and He is the Noble, the Wise.
59:1 Glorifying God is everything in the heavens and the earth; and He is the Noble, the Wise.
59:1 ALL THAT IS in the heavens and all that is on earth extols God's limitless glory: for He alone is almighty, truly wise.
59:1 Glorifying GOD is everything in the heavens and the earth, and He is the Almighty, Most Wise.,
59:1 All that is in the heavens and all that is on earth strives to manifest the glory of God. For, He is Almighty, the Wise.1
This is the 59th Surah of the Qur’an and it has 24 verses. The title refers to the gathering of forces and peaceful exile in 5 Hijrah (627 CE) of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadhir near Madinah. They were banished from there after they had repeatedly violated the peace treaties they had signed with the exalted Prophet. They kept joining hands with the Makkan idolaters, the hypocrites and some clans committed to annihilate the believers. For their treachery, Banu Nadhir lost their citizenship and got exiled according to the treaty. They were allowed to take with them all movable property except weapons of war. With 600 camels laden with their belongings, the tribe was allowed to migrate peacefully to any place of their choosing and thereupon they relocated themselves in Syria.
Whenever we reflect upon the Book of God in all sincerity, we cannot fail to perceive the truth of this Divine allegory: “Had We sent down this Qur’an upon a mountain, you would have seen it humble itself and rent asunder from the awe of God.” [59:21]
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
59:2 هو الذى اخرج الذين كفروا من اهل الكتاب من ديارهم لاول الحشر ما ظننتم ان يخرجوا وظنوا انهم مانعتهم حصونهم من الله فاتىاهم الله من حيث لم يحتسبوا وقذف فى قلوبهم الرعب يخربون بيوتهم بايديهم وايدى المؤمنين فاعتبروا يااولى الابصار
59:2 Huwa allathee akhraja allatheenakafaroo min ahli alkitabi min diyarihim li-awwalialhashri ma thanantum an yakhrujoo wathannooannahum maniAAatuhum husoonuhum mina Allahifaatahumu Allahu min haythu lam yahtasiboowaqathafa fee quloobihimu alrruAAba yukhriboonabuyootahum bi-aydeehim waaydee almu/mineena faiAAtabiroo yaolee al-absari
The Mass Exile59:2 He is the One who drove out those who rejected among the people of the book from their homes at the very first mass exile. You never thought that they would leave, and they thought that their fortresses would protect them from God. But then God came to them from where they did not expect, and He cast fear into their hearts. They destroyed their homes with their own hands and the hands of those who acknowledge. So take a lesson, O you who possess vision.1
According to hadith books, there were three Jewish tribes in Yathrib: Banu Qaynuqa, Banu al-Nadir and Banu Qurayza. They provoked muslims and the first two tribes were forced to leave the city with their transportable possessions. However, prophet Muhammed allegedly did not forgive Banu Qurayza; their necks were struck and their children were made slaves. Estimates of those killed vary from 400 to 900. The Quran refers to the event and contrary to the claims of hearsay collections, never mentions killing or enslaving them, which is in direct contradiction to many verses of the Quran. The Quran, in these verses, informs us that a group from "The People of the Book" was forced to leave the territory because of their violation of the constitution and secretly organizing war together with their enemies against muslims (59:1). Verse 59:3 clearly states that they were not penalized further in this world.
The credibility of the story of Muhammed massacring Bani Qurayza Jews has been a controversial subject since the time it was published by Ibn Ishaq. Ibn Ishaq, who died in 151 A.H., that is 145 years after the event in question, was severely criticized by his peers for relying on highly exaggerated Jewish stories. He was also harshly criticized for presenting forged poetry attributed to famous poets. Some of his contemporary scholars, such as Malik, called him "a liar." However, his work was later copied by others without critical examination. This is an example of hearsay used by dubious Jewish reporters for propaganda purposes.
Modern scholars found astonishing similarities between Ibn Ishaq and the account of historian Josephus regarding King Alexander, who ruled in Jerusalem before Herod the Great, hung upon crosses 800 Jewish captives, and slaughtered their wives and children before their eyes. Many other similarities in the details of the story of Banu Qurayza and the event reported by Josephus are compelling.
Besides, the lack of reference or justification in the Quran for such a massacre of great magnitude, and the verses instructing principles for muslims to abide by removes all credibility from this story (35:18: 61:4). The Quran gives utmost importance to human life (5:32) and considers racism and anti-Semitism evil (49:11).
59:2 He is the One who drove out those who disbelieved among the people of the Book from their homes at the very first mobilization. You never thought that they would leave, and they thought that their fortresses would protect them from God. But then God came to them from where they did not expect, and He cast terror into their hearts. They destroyed their homes with their own hands and the hands of the believers. So learn from this, O you who possess vision.
59:2 He it is who turned out of their homes, at the time of [their] first gathering [for war], such of the followers of earlier revelation as were bent on denying the truth.1 You did not think [O believers] that they would depart [without resistance] - just as they thought that their strongholds would protect them against God: but God came upon them in a manner which they had not expected,2 and cast terror into their hearts; [and thus] they destroyed their homes by their own hands as well as the hands of the believers.3 Learn a lesson, then, O you who are endowed with insight!
For this and the subsequent historical references, see the introductory note to this surah. The tribe of Banu n-Nadir - who, as Jews, are naturally termed ahl al-kitab ("followers of earlier revelation") - are characterized as "such as were bent on denying the truth" (alladhina kafaru, see note 6 on 2:6) because they treacherously turned against the Prophet despite their earlier admission that he was truly the bearer of God's message announced in their own holy scriptures (Deuteronomy xviii, 15 and 18).
Lit., "from whence they had not thought (it possible)": an allusion to the last-minute, unexpected failure of Abd Allah ibn Ubayy to come to their aid.
As mentioned in the introductory note, the Banu n-Nadir had originally concluded a treaty of mutual non-interference with the Muslim community, and were to live at Medina as its friendly neighbours; and even later, when their hostility to the Muslims had become apparent and they were ordered to emigrate, they were to be allowed to retain ownership of their plantations. Subsequently, however, they forfeited by their treachery both their citizenship and the rights to their landed property, and thus "destroyed their homes by their own hands".
God Defends the Believers59:2 He is the One who evicted those who disbelieved among the people of the scripture from their homes in a mass exodus. You never thought that they would leave, and they thought that their preparations would protect them from GOD. But then GOD came to them whence they never expected, and threw terror into their hearts. Thus, they abandoned their homes on their own volition, in addition to pressure from the believers. You should learn from this, O you who possess vision.,
59:2 He is the One Who evicted the disbelievers among the People of the Book from their homes at the first gathering (of the forces). You never thought that they would leave and they thought that their strongholds would defend them against God. But God’s requital came to them from directions they little expected, and caused fear in their hearts. So, they dismantled their dwellings with their own hands and (got them dismantled) at the hands of the believers. Learn a lesson, then, O You who are endowed with insight!2
‘God came’ = His requital came. They dismantled their immovable property to prevent the believers from benefiting from it
59:3 ولولا ان كتب الله عليهم الجلاء لعذبهم فى الدنيا ولهم فى الءاخرة عذاب النار
59:3 Walawla an kataba AllahuAAalayhimu aljalaa laAAaththabahum fee alddunyawalahum fee al-akhirati AAathabu alnnari
59:3 Had God not decreed to banish them, He would have punished them in this life. In the Hereafter they will face the retribution of the fire.
59:3 And had God not decreed to banish them He would have punished them in this world; and in the Hereafter they will face the retribution of the Fire.
59:3 And had it not been for God's having ordained banishment for them, He would indeed have imposed [yet greater] suffering on them in this world: still, in the life to come there awaits them suffering through fire:
59:3 If GOD did not force them to leave, He would have requited them in this life (even worse than forcing them to leave). In the Hereafter He will commit them to the retribution of Hell.,
59:3 And if God had not decreed banishment for them, He would have punished them harder in this world, yet for them is suffering of the fire in the life to come.
59:4 ذالك بانهم شاقوا الله ورسوله ومن يشاق الله فان الله شديد العقاب
59:4 Thalika bi-annahum shaqqoo Allahawarasoolahu waman yushaqqi Allaha fa-inna Allahashadeedu alAAiqabi
59:4 This is because they challenged God and His messenger. Whosoever challenges God, then God is severe in punishment.
59:4 This is because they challenged God and His messenger. And whoever challenges God, then God is severe in punishment.
59:4 this, because they cut themselves off from God and His Apostle:4 and as for him who cuts himself off from God and His Apostle - verily, God is severe in retribution!
For this condemnation of the Banu n-Nadir, see note 1 above. As regards my rendering of the verb shaqqu as "they cut themselves off", see note 16 on 8:13 .
59:4 This is because they opposed GOD and His messenger. For those who oppose GOD and His messenger, GOD is most strict in enforcing retribution.,
59:4 This is because they opposed God and His Messenger. If anyone opposes God, certainly, God is Stern in grasping.
59:5 ما قطعتم من لينة او تركتموها قائمة علىا اصولها فباذن الله وليخزى الفاسقين
59:5 Ma qataAAtum min leenatin awtaraktumooha qa-imatan AAala osoolihafabi-ithni Allahi waliyukhziya alfasiqeena
59:5 Whether you cut down a tree or left it standing on its root, it was by God's leave. He will surely humiliate the wicked.
59:5 Whether you cut down a tree or left it standing on its root, it was with the permission of God. He will surely humiliate the wicked.
59:5 Whatever [of their] palm trees you may have cut down, [O believers,] or left standing on their roots, was [done] by God's leave,5 and in order that He might confound the iniquitous.
I.e., to facilitate the military operations against the strongholds of the Banu n-Nadir (Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud, as quoted by Zamakhshari et al.). It should, however, be noted that apart from such stringent military exigencies, all destruction of enemy property - and, in particular, of trees and crops - had been and continued to be prohibited by the Prophet (Tabari, Baghawi, Zamakhshari , Razi, Ibn Kathir), and has thus become an integral part of Islamic Law.
59:5 Whether you chop a tree or leave it standing on its trunk is in accordance with GOD's will. He will surely humiliate the wicked.,
59:5 Whatever softness you disregarded, or kept up by way of principle, was in accord with Allah's Command, in order that He might bring shame to those who drifted away from their treaties.3
3:159. 'Lina' = Softness, gentleness = Soft young palm tree. 'Faasiq' = One who drifts away.
59:6 وما افاء الله علىا رسوله منهم فما اوجفتم عليه من خيل ولا ركاب ولاكن الله يسلط رسله علىا من يشاء والله علىا كل شىء قدير
59:6 Wama afaa Allahu AAalarasoolihi minhum fama awjaftum AAalayhi min khaylin walarikabin walakinna Allaha yusalliturusulahu AAala man yashao waAllahuAAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
Distribute the Wealth; Avoid Creating Monopolies59:6 What God provided to His messenger, without you having to battle for it on horses or on foot, was because God sends His messengers against whomever He wills. God is capable of all things.
59:6 And what God provided to His messenger, without you having to battle for it on horses or on foot, was because God sends His emissaries against whoever He wills. And God is capable of all things.
59:6 Yet [remember:] whatever [spoils taken] from the enemy6 God has turned over to His Apostle, you did not have to spur horse or riding-camel for its sake:7 but God gives His apostles mastery over whomever He wills - for God has the power to will anything.
Lit., "from them": i.e., from the Banu n-Nadir.
I.e., "you did not have to fight for it, since the enemy surrendered without giving battle". The term fay (a noun derived from the verb fa'a, "he returned (something)" or "turned [it] over") is applied in the Qur'an and the Traditions exclusively to war-gains - whether consisting of lands, or tribute, or indemnities - which are obtained, as a condition of peace, from an enemy who has laid down arms before actual fighting has taken place (Taj al-'Arus).
59:6 Whatever GOD restored for His messenger was not the result of your war efforts, whether you fought on horses or on foot. GOD is the One who sends His messengers against whomever He wills. GOD is Omnipotent.,
59:6 And whatever God has turned over to His Messenger, you did not toil on any horse or camel for it. But God gives His Messengers authority over any according to His laws. God has appointed due measure for all things and events.
59:7 ما افاء الله علىا رسوله من اهل القرىا فلله وللرسول ولذى القربىا واليتامىا والمساكين وابن السبيل كى لا يكون دولة بين الاغنياء منكم وما ءاتىاكم الرسول فخذوه وما نهىاكم عنه فانتهوا واتقوا الله ان الله شديد العقاب
59:7 Ma afaa Allahu AAalarasoolihi min ahli alqura falillahi walilrrasooliwalithee alqurba waalyatama waalmasakeeniwaibni alssabeeli kay la yakoona doolatanbayna al-aghniya-i minkum wama atakumualrrasoolu fakhuthoohu wama nahakumAAanhu faintahoo waittaqoo Allaha inna Allahashadeedu alAAiqabi
59:7 Whatever God provided to His messenger from the people of the townships, then it shall be to God and His messenger; for the relatives, the orphans, the poor, and the wayfarer. Thus, it will not remain monopolized by the rich among you. You may take what the messenger gives you, but do not take what he withholds you from taking. Be aware of God, for God is mighty in retribution.2
The Quran clearly warns us against the power of a few wealthy people, and asks us to distribute the wealth of a nation among its population in a more egalitarian way. See 58:12.
Contrary to the political alliance of many clergymen with the wealthy and the privileged throughout history, the Bible too contains many verses protective of the weak and poor. "He upholds the cause of the oppressed and gives food to the hungry. The Lord sets prisoners free, the Lord gives sight to the blind, the Lord lifts up those who are bowed down, the Lord loves the righteous" (Psalm 146:7-8 ). "Is not this the sort of fast that pleases me: to break unjust fetters, to undo the thongs of the yoke, to let the oppressed go free, and to break all yokes? Is it not sharing your food with the hungry, and sheltering the homeless poor…?" (Isaiah 58:6-7 ). "The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound" (Isaiah 61:1 ).
The following verses from the Bible are very instructive today since it rejects unequivocally the deity of Jesus and the baptizing of Capitalism. "As Jesus started on his way, a man ran up to him and fell on his knees before him. 'Good teacher,' he asked, 'what must I do to inherit eternal life?' 'Why do you call me good?' Jesus answered. 'No one is good—except God alone. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal, do not give false testimony, do not defraud, honor your father and mother.'' 'Teacher,' he declared, 'all these I have kept since I was a boy.' Jesus looked at him and loved him. 'One thing you lack,' he said. 'Go, sell everything you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven. Then come, follow me.' At this the man's face fell. He went away sad, because he had great wealth. Jesus looked around and said to his disciples, 'How hard it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God!' The disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus said again, 'Children, how hard it is to enter the kingdom of God! It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.' " (Mark 10:17-25 ).
Muhammed was both the messenger of God and elected leader of a diverse group in the city-state of Yathrib. As a leader and commander, he had the right to allocate the spoils of war. The verse does not mean that Muhammed gave us another book, or a television set, or silly stories, or numerous prohibitions; it is about a specific case, that is, the distribution of spoils of war. The followers of hadith and sunna, abuse this verse and take it out of context hoping to justify volumes of books containing numerous contradictory and silly hearsay reports. They want us to believe that to "take whatever Muhammed has given" means to take whatever story Bukhari and his ilk told several centuries after Muhammed's departure! See 49:1.
59:7 Whatever God bestowed upon His messenger from the people of the towns, then it shall be to God and His messenger, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the poor, and the wayfarer. Thus, it will not remain monopolized by the rich among you. And you may take what the messenger gives you, but do not take what he prohibits you from taking. And be aware of God, for God is mighty in retribution.
59:7 Whatever [spoils taken] from the people of those villages God has turned over to His Apostle - [all of it] belongs to God and the Apostle,8 and the near of kin [of deceased believers], and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer,9 so that it may not be [a benefit] going round and round among such of you as may [already] be rich. Hence, accept [willingly] whatever the Apostle10 gives you [thereof], and refrain from [demanding] anything that he withholds from you; and remain conscious of God: for, verily, God is severe in retribution.*
Sc., and not to individual Muslim warriors. As so often in the Qur'an, the expression "God and the Apostle" is here a metonym for the Islamic cause, and for a government that rules in accordance with the laws of the Qur'an and the teachings of the Prophet.
Cf. 8:41, which relates to booty acquired in actual warfare, out of which only one-fifth is to be reserved for the above five categories (see note 41 on 8:41). In distinction from all such booty, the gains obtained through fay are to be utilized in their entirety under these five headings. As regards the term ibn as-sabil ("wayfarer"), see surah 2 note 145
Respectively, in later times, the head of an Islamic state, who has to decide - in the light of the exigencies - how the share of "God and His Apostle" is to be utilized for the common weal.
The Spoils of War59:7 Whatever GOD restored to His messenger from the (defeated) communities shall go to GOD and His messenger (in the form of a charity). You shall give it to the relatives, the orphans, the poor, and the traveling alien. Thus, it will not remain monopolized by the strong among you. You may keep the spoils given to you by the messenger, but do not take what he enjoins you from taking. You shall reverence GOD. GOD is strict in enforcing retribution.,
59:7 Whatever God has turned over to His Messenger from those communities belongs to God and His Messenger (the Central Authority. The Messenger will spend it on)
59:8 للفقراء المهاجرين الذين اخرجوا من ديارهم واموالهم يبتغون فضلا من الله ورضوانا وينصرون الله ورسوله اولائك هم الصادقون
59:8 Lilfuqara-i almuhajireena allatheenaokhrijoo min diyarihim waamwalihim yabtaghoona fadlanmina Allahi waridwanan wayansuroonaAllaha warasoolahu ola-ika humu alssadiqoona
59:8 For the immigrants who are poor and were driven out of their homes and deprived of their properties, they sought God's grace and pleasure, and they supported God and His messenger. They are the truthful ones.
59:8 For the immigrants who are poor and were driven out of their homes and deprived of their properties; they were seeking a grace from God and acceptance, and they supported God and His messenger; these are the truthful ones.
59:8 [Thus, part of such war-gains shall be given] to the poor among those who have forsaken the domain of evil:11 those who have been driven from their homelands and their possessions, seeking favour with God and [His] goodly acceptance, and who aid [the cause of] God and His Apostle: it is they, they who are true to their word!
For this rendering of the term muhajirun ("emigrants"), see surah 2 note 203.
59:8 (You shall give) to the needy who immigrated. They were evicted from their homes and deprived of their properties, because they sought GOD's grace and pleasure, and because they supported GOD and His messenger. They are the truthful.,
59:8 And it is for the poor refugees who have been expelled from their homelands and their property. They seek God’s bounty and approval, and support God and His Messenger. They are the ones true to their faith.
59:9 والذين تبوءو الدار والايمان من قبلهم يحبون من هاجر اليهم ولا يجدون فى صدورهم حاجة مما اوتوا ويؤثرون علىا انفسهم ولو كان بهم خصاصة ومن يوق شح نفسه فاولائك هم المفلحون
59:9 Waallatheena tabawwaoo alddarawaal-eemana min qablihim yuhibboona man hajarailayhim wala yajidoona fee sudoorihim hajatanmimma ootoo wayu/thiroona AAala anfusihim walaw kanabihim khasasatun waman yooqa shuhha nafsihi faola-ikahumu almuflihoona
59:9 Those who provided them with shelter, and were those who acknowledge before them; they love those who immigrated to them, and they find no hesitation in their hearts in helping them, and they readily give them priority over themselves, even when they themselves need what they give away. Indeed, those who overcome their hedonism are the successful ones.
59:9 And those who provided them with shelter, and were believers before them; they love those who immigrated to them, and they find no hesitation in their hearts in helping them, and they readily give them priority over themselves, even when they themselves need what they give away. Indeed, those who overcome their desires are the successful ones.
59:9 And [it shall be offered, too, unto the poor from among] those who, before them,12 had their abode in this realm and in faith - [those] who love all that come to them in search of refuge, and who harbour in their hearts no grudge for whatever the others may have been given, but rather give them preference over themselves, even though poverty be their own lot:13 for, such as from their own covetousness are saved - it is they, they that shall attain to a happy state!14
I.e., before the coming to them of "those who have forsaken the domain of evil" (see next note).
This relates, in the first instance, to the historical ansar ("helpers") of Medina, who had embraced Islam before the Prophet's and his Meccan followers' coming to them, and who received the refugees with utmost generosity, sharing with them like brethren their own dwellings and all their possessions. In a wider sense, the above refers also to all true believers, at all times, who live in freedom and security within the realm of Islam, and are prepared to receive with open arms anyone who is compelled to leave his homeland in order to be able to live in accordance with the dictates of his faith.
Thus, greed, niggardliness and covetousness are pointed out here as the main obstacles to man's attaining to a happy state in this world and in the hereafter (cf. surah 102).
59:9 As for those who provided them with a home and a refuge, and were believers before them, they love those who immigrated to them, and find no hesitation in their hearts in helping them. In fact, they readily give them priority over themselves, even when they themselves need what they give away. Indeed, those who overcome their natural stinginess are the successful ones.,
59:9 Also, (true are) those who resided in the city (Madinah) before them and attained faith. They love those who immigrated to them, and find no hesitation in their hearts in helping them. They give them preference over themselves, even though poverty be their own lot. And whoever is saved from greediness of the heart, such are the ones who truly prosper.
59:10 والذين جاءو من بعدهم يقولون ربنا اغفر لنا ولاخواننا الذين سبقونا بالايمان ولا تجعل فى قلوبنا غلا للذين ءامنوا ربنا انك رءوف رحيم
59:10 Waallatheena jaoo minbaAAdihim yaqooloona rabbana ighfir lana wali-ikhwaninaallatheena sabaqoona bial-eemani walatajAAal fee quloobina ghillan lillatheena amanoorabbana innaka raoofun raheemun
59:10 Those who came after them saying: "Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us to the acknowledgement, and do not place in our hearts any animosity towards those who acknowledged. Our Lord, You are Kind, Compassionate."
59:10 And those who came after them saying: "Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us to the faith, and do not place in our hearts any animosity towards those who believed. Our Lord, You are Compassionate, Merciful."
59:10 And so, they who come after them pray:15 O our Sustainer! Forgive us our sins, as well as those of our brethren who preceded us in faith, and let not our hearts entertain any unworthy thoughts or feelings against [any of] those who have attained to faith. O our Sustainer! Verily, Thou art compassionate, a dispenser of grace!"
I.e., all who attain to a belief in the Qur'an and its Prophet (Razi).
59:10 Those who became believers after them say, "Our Lord, forgive us and our brethren who preceded us to the faith, and keep our hearts from harboring any hatred towards those who believed. Our Lord, You are Compassionate, Most Merciful.",
59:10 And those who came after them, say, “Our Lord! Forgive us and our brothers and sisters who preceded us in faith. And let not be any malice in our hearts toward those who have chosen to believe. Our Lord! You are truly Compassionate, Merciful.”
59:11 الم تر الى الذين نافقوا يقولون لاخوانهم الذين كفروا من اهل الكتاب لئن اخرجتم لنخرجن معكم ولا نطيع فيكم احدا ابدا وان قوتلتم لننصرنكم والله يشهد انهم لكاذبون
59:11 Alam tara ila allatheena nafaqooyaqooloona li-ikhwanihimu allatheena kafaroo minahli alkitabi la-in okhrijtum lanakhrujanna maAAakum walanuteeAAu feekum ahadan abadan wa-in qootiltum lanansurannakumwaAllahu yashhadu innahum lakathiboona
The Conspiracy of Hypocrite Warmongers59:11 Have you noted those who are hypocrites, they say to their companions in denial among the people of the book: "If you are driven out we will go out with you, and we will never obey anyone who opposes you. If anyone fights you, we will support you." God bears witness that they are liars.
59:11 Have you noted those who are hypocrites, they say to their brothers who have rejected among the people of the Book: "If you are driven out we will go out with you, and we will never obey anyone who opposes you. And if anyone fights you, we will support you." God bears witness that they are liars.
59:11 ART THOU NOT aware of how those who would always dissemble [their real feelings]16 speak to their truth-denying brethren from among the followers of earlier revelation:17 If you are driven away, we shall most certainly go forth with you, and shall never pay heed to anyone against you; and if war is waged against you, we shall most certainly come to your succour." But God bears witness that they are most flagrantly lying:
I.e., the hypocrites of Medina (see introductory note as well as next note).
The Banu n-Nadir. From the construction of the next verse it appears that the whole of this passage (verses 11-14) was revealed before the actual advance of the Muslims against the Nadir strong holds: verses 12 -14 might be of a prophetic nature, predicting what was yet to happen (Zamakhshari). Alternatively, the passage may be understood in a wider, timeless sense, applying to the falsity and futility inherent in all "alliances" between, on the one hand, people who openly deny the truth and, on the other, half-hearted waverers who have neither the will to commit themselves to a spiritual proposition nor the moral courage to declare openly their lack of belief.
59:11 Have you noted those who are plagued with hypocrisy, and how they said to their companions in disbelief among the people of the scripture, "If you are evicted we will go out with you, and will never obey anyone who opposes you. If anyone fights you, we will fight on your side." GOD bears witness that they are liars.,
59:11 Have you not noted the hypocrites how they told their disbelieving brethren among the People of the Scripture, “If you are driven out, we certainly will go forth with you, and shall never heed anyone against you. And if you are attacked, certainly we shall help you.” But God bears witness that they are liars.
59:12 لئن اخرجوا لا يخرجون معهم ولئن قوتلوا لا ينصرونهم ولئن نصروهم ليولن الادبار ثم لا ينصرون
59:12 La-in okhrijoo la yakhrujoonamaAAahum wala-in qootiloo la yansuroonahum wala-innasaroohum layuwallunna al-adbara thumma layunsaroona
59:12 If they were driven out, they would not have gone out with them, and if anyone fought them, they would not have supported them. Even if they supported them, they would have turned around and fled. They could never win.
59:12 If they were driven out, they would not have gone out with them, and if anyone fought them, they would not have supported them. And even if they supported them, they would have turned around and fled. They could never win.
59:12 [for] if those [to whom they have pledged themselves] are indeed driven away, they will not go forth with them; and if war is waged against them, they will not come to their succour; and even if they [try to] succour them, they will most certainly turn their backs [in flight], and in the end will [themselves] find no succour.
59:12 In fact, if they were evicted, they would not have gone out with them, and if anyone fought them, they would not have supported them. Even if they supported them, they would have turned around and fled. They could never win.,
59:12 If they (Banu Nadhir) are driven away, they (the hypocrites) will not go forth with them, and if they are attacked they will not help. And even if they try to help them, they will turn their backs in flight, and themselves find no help.
59:13 لانتم اشد رهبة فى صدورهم من الله ذالك بانهم قوم لا يفقهون
59:13 Laantum ashaddu rahbatan fee sudoorihimmina Allahi thalika bi-annahum qawmun layafqahoona
59:13 Indeed, you strike more trepidation in their hearts than God. This is because they are people who do not reason.
59:13 Indeed, you strike more terror in their hearts than their fear of God. This is because they are people who do not understand.
59:13 Nay, [O believers,] you arouse in their bosoms a fear more intense than [even their fear of] God: this, because they are people who fail to grasp the truth.18
Inasmuch as they do not - or, at best, only half-heartedly -believe in God, the tangible, material dangers facing them in this world arousein them a far greater fear than the thought of His ultimate judgment.
59:13 Indeed, you strike more terror in their hearts than their fear of GOD. This is because they are people who do not comprehend.,
59:13 Nay, you believers arouse a fear in their hearts more intense than even the fear of God. This is because they are a people who do not understand (that all strength derives from following Divine laws).
59:14 لا يقاتلونكم جميعا الا فى قرى محصنة او من وراء جدر باسهم بينهم شديد تحسبهم جميعا وقلوبهم شتىا ذالك بانهم قوم لا يعقلون
59:14 La yuqatiloonakum jameeAAanilla fee quran muhassanatin aw min wara-ijudurin ba/suhum baynahum shadeedun tahsabuhum jameeAAanwaquloobuhum shatta thalika bi-annahum qawmun layaAAqiloona
59:14 They will not fight you all unless they are in fortified towns, or from behind walls. Their might appears formidable among themselves. You would think that they are united, but their hearts are divided. This is because they are people who do not understand.
59:14 They will not fight you all together unless they are in fortified towns, or from behind walls. Their might appears formidable among themselves. You would think that they are united, but their hearts are divided. This is because they are people who do not comprehend.
59:14 Never will they fight you, [even] in unison, otherwise than from within fortified strongholds or from behind walls.19 Severe is their warlike discord among themselves: thou wouldst think that they are united, whereas [in fact] their hearts are at odds [with one another]: this, because they are people who will not use their reason.20
The meaning is: "Even if they were able - which they are not - to put forth against you a truly unified front, they will always fight you only from what they regard as well-established 'positions of strength'."
Sc., "with a view to achieving what is good for them": implying that people who have no real faith and no definite moral convictions can never attain to true unity among themselves, but are always impelled to commit acts of aggression against one another.
59:14 They do not get together to fight you unless they are in well-shielded buildings, or behind walls. Their might appears formidable among themselves. You would think that they are united, when in fact their hearts are divided. This is because they are people who do not understand.,
59:14 They will never fight you, even if they form a coalition, other than from within the fortified strongholds or from behind walls. They have great adversity in their own ranks. You may think they are united but their hearts are far apart. This is so, because they are a people who do not use their intellect.4
Their alliances are based on selfishness rather on a noble ideology
59:15 كمثل الذين من قبلهم قريبا ذاقوا وبال امرهم ولهم عذاب اليم
59:15 Kamathali allatheena min qablihimqareeban thaqoo wabala amrihim walahum AAathabunaleemun
59:15 Like the example of those who preceded them. They suffered the consequences of their decisions. They have incurred a painful retribution.
59:15 Like the example of those who preceded them. They suffered the consequences of their decisions. They have incurred a painful retribution.
59:15 [To both kinds of your enemies, O believers, is bound to happen]21 the like of [what happened to] those who, a short while before them, had to taste the evil that came from their own doings,22 with [yet more] grievous suffering awaiting them [in the life to come]:
This interpolation - relating as it does to both the out right deniers of the truth and the hypocrites - is justified by the occurrence of the dual form in verse 17.
In the first instance, this is apparently an allusion to the fate of the pagan Quraysh at the battle of Badr (Zamakhshari) or, according to some authorities (quoted by Tabari), to the treachery and subsequent expulsion from Medina, in the month of Shawwal, 2H.,of the Jewish tribe of Banu Qaynuqa. But in a wider perspective - strongly suggested by the next two verses - the meaning is general and not restricted to any particular time or historical occurrence.
59:15 Their fate is the same as their counterparts who preceded them. They suffered the consequences of their decisions. They have incurred a painful retribution.,
59:15 Their example is the same as of those who lately preceded them. They tasted the calamity for their (wrong) decisions, and theirs is the awful doom.
59:16 كمثل الشيطان اذ قال للانسان اكفر فلما كفر قال انى برىء منك انى اخاف الله رب العالمين
59:16 Kamathali alshshaytani ithqala lil-insani okfur falamma kafara qalainnee baree-on minka innee akhafu Allaha rabba alAAalameena
59:16 Like the example of the devil, when he says to the human being: "Reject," then as soon as he rejects, he says: "I disown you. I fear God, the Lord of the worlds."
59:16 Like the example of the devil, when he says to man: "Reject," then as soon as he rejects, he says: "I am innocent of you. I fear God, Lord of the worlds."
59:16 the like of [what happens] when Satan says unto man, Deny the truth!" - but as soon as [man] has denied the truth, [Satan] says, Behold, I am not responsible for thee: behold, I fear God, the Sustainer of all the worlds!"23
59:16 They are like the devil: he says to the human being, "Disbelieve," then as soon as he disbelieves, he says, "I disown you. I fear GOD, Lord of the universe.",
59:16 They (the hypocrites) are like Satan when he says to man, “Reject the truth.” But as soon as man has rejected the truth, he says, “I am free of you. I do fear God, the Lord of the Worlds.”
59:17 فكان عاقبتهما انهما فى النار خالدين فيها وذالك جزاؤا الظالمين
59:17 Fakana AAaqibatahumaannahuma fee alnnari khalidayni feehawathalika jazao alththalimeena
59:17 So the destiny for both of them is the fire, abiding therein. Such is the recompense for the wicked.
59:17 So the destiny for both of them is the Fire, abiding therein. And such is the recompense for the wicked.
59:17 Thus, in the end, both [the deniers of the truth and the hypocrites]24 will find themselves in the fire, therein to abide: for such is the recompense of evildoers.
Lit., "the end (aqibah) of both will be that both ",etc.
59:17 The destiny for both of them is the Hellfire, wherein they abide forever. This is the requital for the transgressors.,
59:17 Thus, the end for both is in the fire, therein to abide. Such is the reward of those who relegate the truth.5
Both = The person and his selfish desires
59:18 ياايها الذين ءامنوا اتقوا الله ولتنظر نفس ما قدمت لغد واتقوا الله ان الله خبير بما تعملون
59:18 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooittaqoo Allaha waltanthur nafsun maqaddamat lighadin waittaqoo Allaha inna Allahakhabeerun bima taAAmaloona
Be God-conscious59:18 O you who acknowledge, be aware of God, and let every person examine what it has put forth for tomorrow. Be aware of God; God is fully aware of everything you do.
59:18 O you who believe, be aware of God, and let every soul examine what it has put forth for tomorrow. And be aware of God; for God is fully aware of everything you do.
59:18 O YOU who have attained to faith! Remain conscious of God; and let every human being look to what he sends ahead for the morrow! And [once again]: Remain conscious of God, for God is fully aware of all that you do;
59:18 O you who believe, you shall reverence GOD, and let every soul examine what it has sent ahead for tomorrow. You shall reverence GOD; GOD is fully Cognizant of everything you do.,
59:18 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Be mindful of God and watch what you have invested for your own ‘self’ for tomorrow. Again, remain conscious of God. God is fully Aware of what you do.
59:19 ولا تكونوا كالذين نسوا الله فانسىاهم انفسهم اولائك هم الفاسقون
59:19 Wala takoonoo kaallatheenanasoo Allaha faansahum anfusahum ola-ikahumu alfasiqoona
59:19 Do not be like those who forgot God, so He made them forget themselves. These are the wicked.
59:19 And do not be like those who forgot God, so He made them forget themselves. These are the wicked.
59:19 and be not like those who are oblivious of God, and whom He therefore causes to be oblivious of [what is good for] their own selves: [for] it is they, they who are truly depraved!25
I.e., by having made a deliberately wrong use of the faculty of reason with which God has endowed man, and - by remaining oblivious of Him - having wasted their own spiritual potential.
59:19 Do not be like those who forgot GOD, so He made them forget themselves. These are the wicked.,
59:19 And be not like those who forgot God, and therefore, He made them forget themselves. It is they who have drifted away (from the road to success).
59:20 لا يستوى اصحاب النار واصحاب الجنة اصحاب الجنة هم الفائزون
59:20 La yastawee as-habu alnnariwaas-habu aljannati as-habu aljannatihumu alfa-izoona
59:20 Not equal are the dwellers of the fire and the dwellers of Paradise; the dwellers of Paradise are the winners.
59:20 Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of the Paradise; the dwellers of the Paradise are the winners.
59:20 Not equal are those who are destined for the fire and those who are destined for paradise: those who are destined for paradise - it is they, they [alone] who shall triumph [on Judgment Day]!
59:20 Not equal are the dwellers of the Hellfire and the dwellers of Paradise; the dwellers of Paradise are the winners.,
59:20 Not equal are dwellers of the Fire and dwellers of the Garden. Dwellers of the Garden, they are the ones crowned with honor.
59:21 لو انزلنا هاذا القرءان علىا جبل لرايته خاشعا متصدعا من خشية الله وتلك الامثال نضربها للناس لعلهم يتفكرون
59:21 Law anzalna hatha alqur-anaAAala jabalin laraaytahu khashiAAan mutasaddiAAanmin khashyati Allahi watilka al-amthalu nadribuhalilnnasi laAAallahum yatafakkaroona
59:21 Had We sent down this Quran to a mountain, you would have seen it trembling, crumbling, out of reverence for God. Such are the examples We cite for the people, that they may reflect.
59:21 Had We sent down this Qur'an to a mountain, you would have seen it trembling, crumbling, out of concern from God. And such are the examples We put forth for the people, that they may reflect.
59:21 HAD WE bestowed this Qur'an from on high upon a mountain, thou wouldst indeed see it humbling itself, breaking asunder for awe of God.26 And [all] such parables We propound unto men, so that they might [learn to] think.
I.e., in contrast with those who, by remaining oblivious of God and all moral imperatives, are spiritually more dead than an inert mountain.
Greatness of the Quran59:21 If we revealed this Quran to a mountain, you would see it trembling, crumbling, out of reverence for GOD. We cite these examples for the people, that they may reflect.,
59:21 Had We sent down this Qur’an upon a mountain, you would have seen it humble itself and rent asunder for awesomeness of God. Such examples We cite for mankind, so that they might think.
59:22 هو الله الذى لا الاه الا هو عالم الغيب والشهادة هو الرحمان الرحيم
59:22 Huwa Allahu allathee lailaha illa huwa AAalimu alghaybi waalshshahadatihuwa alrrahmanu alrraheemu
59:22 He is God; there is no other god beside Him. Knower of all secrets and declarations. He is the Gracious, the Compassionate.3
The Quran contains more than 100 attributes of God (most likely, 114). The Bible lists many similar attributes for God:
None beside Him: Deuteronomy 4:35 ; Isaiah 44:6 ;
None before Him: Isaiah 43:10 ;
None like to Him: Exodus 9:14 ; Deuteronomy 33:26 ; 2 Samuel 7:22 ; Isaiah 46:5,9 ;
None good but He: Matthew 19:17 ;
Fills heaven and earth: 1 Kings 8:27 ; Jeremiah 23:24 ;
God Is light: Isaiah 60:19 ; James 1:17 ; 1 John 1:5 ;
Love: 1 John 4:8,16 ; Invisible: Job 23:8-9 ;
Unsearchable: Job 11:7 ; 37:23; Psalms 145:3; Isaiah 40:28 ;
Eternal: Deuteronomy 33:27 ; Psalms 90:2;
Omnipotent: Genesis 17:1 ; Exodus 6:3 ;
Omniscient: Psalms 139:1; Proverbs 5:21 ;
Omnipresent: Psalms 139:7; Jeremiah 23:23 ;
Immutable: Psalms 102:26;
Glorious: Exodus 15:11 ; Psalms 145:5;
Most High: Psalms 83:18; Acts 7:48 ;
Perfect: Matthew 5:48 ;
Holy: Psalms 99:9; Isaiah 5:16 ;
Just: Deuteronomy 32:4 ; Isaiah 45:21 ;
True: Jeremiah 10:10 ; John 17:3 ;
Righteous: Psalms 145:17;
Great: 2 Chronicles 2:5 ; Psalms 86:10;
Gracious: Exodus 34:6 ; Psalm 116:5 ;
Merciful: Exodus 34:6-7 ;
Compassionate: 2 Kings 13:23 ;
Forgiving: Numbers 14:18 ; Micah 7:1 ;
Should be worshipped in spirit and in truth: John 4:24 .
However, the Bible also contains a few attributes that do not fit the overall depiction of God in the Quran. For instance, according to the Old Testament, God is Jealous (Joshua 24:19 ; Nahum 1:2 ), or a Consuming Fire (Hebrews 12:29 ). The God of the Old Testament demonstrates weak qualities, since He regrets creating Adam (Genesis 6:6-7 ); worries about his reputation (Ezekiel 20:8-10 ); cannot see Adam (3:8); rests, eats, sleeps (Exodus 31:17 ; Genesis 18:1-8 ; Psalm 78:65 ); can be seen and cannot be seen (Genesis 32:30 , compare it to Exodus 33:17-20 ; John 1:18 ); loses a wrestling match with Jacob (Genesis 32:24-30 ); and is forgetful (Lamentations 5:20; Psalms 13:1).
For God's attributes in the Quran, see 7:180.
59:22 He is God; there is no other god besides Him. Knower of all secrets and declarations. He is the Almighty, the Merciful.
59:22 GOD IS HE save whom there is no deity: the One who knows all that is beyond the reach of a created being's perception, as well as all that can be witnessed by a creature's senses or mind:27 He, the Most Gracious, the Dispenser of Grace.
See note 65 on the second paragraph of 6:73.
God59:22 He is the One GOD; there is no other god beside Him. Knower of all secrets and declarations. He is the Most Gracious, Most Merciful.,
59:22 He is God; there is no god besides Him. Knower of all that is secret or open. He is the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness.
59:23 هو الله الذى لا الاه الا هو الملك القدوس السلام المؤمن المهيمن العزيز الجبار المتكبر سبحان الله عما يشركون
59:23 Huwa Allahu allathee lailaha illa huwa almaliku alquddoosu alssalamualmu/minu almuhayminu alAAazeezu aljabbaru almutakabbirusubhana Allahi AAamma yushrikoona
59:23 He is God; there is no other god beside Him. The King, the Holy, the Peace, the Trusted, the Supreme, the Noble, the Powerful, the Dignified. God be glorified; far above what they set up.
59:23 He is God; there is no other god besides Him. The King, the Holy, the Peace, the Faithful, the Supreme, the Noble, the Powerful, the Dignified. God be glorified; far above what they set up.
59:23 God is He save whom there is no deity: the Sovereign Supreme, the Holy, the One with whom all salvation rests,28 the Giver of Faith, the One who determines what is true and false,29 the Almighty, the One who subdues wrong and restores right,30 the One to whom all greatness belongs! Utterly remote is God, in His limitless glory, from anything to which men may ascribe a share in His divinity!
Lit., "the Salvation" (as-salam) : see surah 5 note 29.
For this rendering of muhaymin ,see 5:48- where this term is applied to the Qur'an - and the corresponding note.
Since the verb jabara -from which the noun jabbaris derived - combines the concepts of "setting right" or "restoring" (e.g., from astate of brokenness, ill-health, or misfortune) and of "compelling" or "subduing(someone or something) to one's will", I believe that the termal-jabbar, when applied to God, is best rendered as above.
59:23 He is the One GOD; there is no other god beside Him. The King, the Most Sacred, the Peace, the Most Faithful, the Supreme, the Almighty, the Most Powerful, the Most Dignified. GOD be glorified; far above having partners.,
59:23 He is God; there is no god besides Him (no deity, no law-giver and none worthy of worship or obedience)! The King Supreme, the Impeccable, the Peace and the Source of all peace, the Guardian of faith and security, the Watcher over all things, the Majestic, All Powerful, the Superb. Glorious is God, far above what they ascribe to Him.
59:24 هو الله الخالق البارئ المصور له الاسماء الحسنىا يسبح له ما فى السماوات والارض وهو العزيز الحكيم
59:24 Huwa Allahu alkhaliqu albari-oalmusawwiru lahu al-asmao alhusnayusabbihu lahu ma fee alssamawatiwaal-ardi wahuwa alAAazeezu alhakeemu
59:24 He is God; the Creator, the Initiator, the Designer. To Him belong the most beautiful names. Glorifying Him is everything in the heavens and the earth. He is the Noble, the Wise.
59:24 He is God; the Creator, the Initiator, the Designer. To Him belong the most beautiful names. Glorifying Him is everything in the heavens and the earth. He is the Noble, the Wise.
59:24 He is God, the Creator, the Maker who shapes all forms and appearances!31 His [alone] are the attributes of perfection.32 All that is in the heavens and on earth extols His limitless glory: for He alone is almighty, truly wise!
Thus Baydawi. The two termsal-bari ("the Maker") andal-musawwir ("the Shaper", i.e., of all forms and appearances) evidently constitute here one single unit.
For this rendering of al-asmaal-husna, see surah 7 note 145.
59:24 He is the One GOD; the Creator, the Initiator, the Designer. To Him belong the most beautiful names. Glorifying Him is everything in the heavens and the earth. He is the Almighty, Most Wise.,
59:24 He is God, the Supreme Creator, the Shaper out of nothing, the Designer. His Names are the most beautiful Names, and His alone are the attributes of perfection. All things in the heavens and earth strive to manifest His glory. And He is Almighty, the Wise.6
He runs the Universe in His Infinite power with His Infinite wisdom