بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
8:1 يسلونك عن الانفال قل الانفال لله والرسول فاتقوا الله واصلحوا ذات بينكم واطيعوا الله ورسوله ان كنتم مؤمنين
8:1 Yas-aloonaka AAani al-anfali qulial-anfalu lillahi waalrrasooli faittaqooAllaha waaslihoo thata baynikum waateeAAooAllaha warasoolahu in kuntum mu/mineena
8:1 They ask you regarding the spoils of war, say, "The spoils of war are for God and the messenger." So be aware of God, and peacefully reform the matters between you; and obey God and His messenger if you are those who acknowledge.1
8:1 They ask you regarding the spoils, say: "The spoils are for God and the messenger." So be aware of God, and be upright in matters between you; and obey God and His messenger if you are believers.
8:1 HEY WILL ASK thee about the spoils of war. Say: "All spoils of war belong to God and the Apostle."1 Remain, then, conscious of God, and keep alive the bonds of brotherhood among yourselves,2 and pay heed unto God and His Apostle, if you are [truly] believers!
The term nafal (of which anfal is the plural) denotes, in its purely linguistic sense, "an accretion or addition received beyond one's due" or "something given in excess of one's obligation" (from which latter meaning the term salat an-nail - i.e., a "supererogatory prayer" - is derived). In its plural form anfal, which occurs in the Qur'an only in the above verse, this word signifies "spoils of war", inasmuch as such spoils are an incidental accession above and beyond anything that a mujahid ("a fighter in God's cause") is entitled to expect. The statement that "all spoils of war belong to God and the Apostle" implies that no individual warrior has a claim to any war booty: it is public property, to be utilized or distributed by the government of an Islamic state in accordance with the principles laid down in the Qur'an and the teachings of the Prophet. For further details relating to the division of spoils of war, see verse 41 of this surah.-The immediate occasion of this revelation was the question of the booty acquired by the Muslims-in the battle of Badr (an account of which is given in the introductory note to this surah); but the principle enunciated above is valid for all times and circumstances.
Lit., "set to rights the relationship between yourselves" -i.e., "remain conscious of your brotherhood in faith and banish all discord among yourselves".
8:1 They consult you about the spoils of war. Say, "The spoils of war belong to GOD and the messenger." You shall observe GOD, exhort one another to be righteous, and obey GOD and His messenger, if you are believers.,
8:1 They ask you (O Messenger) about the spoils of war. Say, “The spoils of war belong to God and the Messenger. Be mindful of God’s commands and maintain the bonds of brotherhood among you. Obey God and the Messenger if you are believers.1
This is the 8th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 75 verses. One of the great Revolutions that the exalted Messenger brought about, along with the Qur’an, was to ban all raids and ambushes. The negative incentive of tribal battles used to be the achievement of spoils of war. The Divine decree forbade it and allowed to pick up arms only for self-defense and to remove tyranny. The spoils of war can only be legitimate when believers have engaged in the defense of the Divine Order.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
God and the Messenger = The Central Authority. After the exalted Messenger, the Central Authority of the truly Islamic State will equitably allocate all funds at their disposal
8:2 انما المؤمنون الذين اذا ذكر الله وجلت قلوبهم واذا تليت عليهم ءاياته زادتهم ايمانا وعلىا ربهم يتوكلون
8:2 Innama almu/minoona allatheenaitha thukira Allahu wajilat quloobuhum wa-ithatuliyat AAalayhim ayatuhu zadat-hum eemananwaAAala rabbihim yatawakkaloona
8:2 The acknowledgers are those whom, when God is mentioned, their hearts tremble; when His signs are recited to them, it strengthens their acknowledgement; and they put their trust in their Lord.
8:2 The believers are those whom, when God is mentioned, their hearts reverence; and when His revelations are recited to them, it increases their faith; and they put their trust in their Lord.
8:2 Believers are only they whose hearts tremble with awe whenever God is mentioned, and whose faith is strengthened whenever His messages are conveyed unto them,3 and who in their Sustainer place their trust -
Lit., "and whenever His messages are conveyed to them, they increase them in faith"
The True Believers8:2 The true believers are those whose hearts tremble when GOD is mentioned, and when His revelations are recited to them, their faith is strengthened, and they trust in their Lord.,
8:2 The true believers are those who feel a tremor in their hearts when God is mentioned. (They beat synchronously with the commands of God.) And when His revelations are conveyed to them, they find their faith strengthened. They do their best and then put their trust in their Lord.
8:3 الذين يقيمون الصلواة ومما رزقناهم ينفقون
8:3 Allatheena yuqeemoona alssalatawamimma razaqnahum yunfiqoona
8:3 They hold the contact prayer, and from Our provisions to them they spend.
8:3 They hold the contact prayer, and from Our provisions to them they spend.
8:3 those who are constant in prayer and spend on others out of what We provide for them as sustenance :4
See surah 2, note 4.
8:3 They observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), and from our provisions to them, they give to charity.,
8:3 They help establish the Divine System and keep the provision that We have given them, open for the good of humanity.
8:4 اولائك هم المؤمنون حقا لهم درجات عند ربهم ومغفرة ورزق كريم
8:4 Ola-ika humu almu/minoona haqqanlahum darajatun AAinda rabbihim wamaghfiratun warizqunkareemun
8:4 These are the true acknowledgers; they will have ranks at their Lord, forgiveness, and a generous provision.
8:4 These are the true believers; they will have grades with their Lord and a forgiveness and a generous provision.
8:4 it is they, they who are truly believers! Theirs shall be great dignity in their Sustainer's sight, and forgiveness of sins, and a most excellent sustenance.5
I.e., in paradise. According to Razi, however, the "most excellent sustenance" is a metonym for "the spiritual raptures arising from the knowledge of God, the love of Him, and the self-immersion (istighraq) in worshipping Him". In Razi's interpretation, this expression refers to the spiritual reward of faith in this world. Some commentators (cf. Manar IX, 597) regard the above definition of true believers as the most important passage of this surah.-The phrase rendered by me as "theirs shall be great dignity" reads, literally, "they shall have degrees", 'namely, of excellence and dignity.
8:4 Such are the true believers. They attain high ranks at their Lord, as well as forgiveness and a generous provision.,
8:4 Such are the true believers. They have high ranks with their Lord and for them is the protection (against the detriment of their faults) and honorable provision.2
Ghafarah = Helmet = Protection = Shielding = Forgiveness = Cover
8:5 كما اخرجك ربك من بيتك بالحق وان فريقا من المؤمنين لكارهون
8:5 Kama akhrajaka rabbuka min baytika bialhaqqiwa-inna fareeqan mina almu/mineena lakarihoona
8:5 As your Lord made you go out from your home with the truth, but a party from among those who acknowledge opposed this.
8:5 As your Lord made you go out from your home with the truth, but a party from among the believers disliked this.
8:5 EVEN AS thy Sustainer brought thee forth from thy home [to fight] in the cause of the truth, although some of the believers were averse to it,
The Weak Believers8:5 Then your Lord willed that you leave your home, to fulfill a specific plan, some believers became exposed as reluctant believers.,
8:5 (When the time came to defend the Ideological State of Madinah), your Lord commanded you (O Prophet) to go forth from your home with the conviction that the truth was on your side. And some of the believers were reluctant.
8:6 يجادلونك فى الحق بعدما تبين كانما يساقون الى الموت وهم ينظرون
8:6 Yujadiloonaka fee alhaqqibaAAda ma tabayyana kaannama yusaqoona ilaalmawti wahum yanthuroona
8:6 They argue with you about the truth when it has been made clear; as if they were being herded towards death while they are watching!
8:6 They argue with you about the truth when it has been made clear to them; as if they were being herded towards death while they are watching!
8:6 [so, too,] they would argue with thee about the truth [itself] after it had become manifest6 - just as if they were being driven towards death and beheld it with their very eyes.
I.e., after it had become clear that it was indeed God's will that the Muslims should give open battle to the Quraysh army. This reference to the antecedents of the battle of Badr (see the introductory note to this surah) connects with the admonition given in verse l, "pay heed unto God and His Apostle", as well as with the reminder, in verse 2, that true believers place all their trust in God. A few of the followers of the Prophet disliked the idea of giving battle to the main army of the Quraysh, instead of attacking the Meccan caravan returning from Syria and thus of acquiring easy booty; but the majority of them immediately declared that they would follow God's Apostle wherever he might lead them. -Some of the commentators are inclined to relate the adverbial particle kama ("just as" or "even as"), introducing this sentence, to the preceding passage and, thus, to their duty to follow God's commands. Others, however, regard this interpretation as somewhat laboured, and relate the comparison implied in kama to the first clause of verse 6, explaining the passage thus: "Just as some of the believers were averse to going forth from Medina to give battle to the Quraysh, so, too, they would argue with thee as to whether it was really willed by God." This, in particular, was the view of Mujahid, whom Tabari quotes with approval in his commentary on this verse.
8:6 They argued with you against the truth, even after everything was explained to them. They acted as if they were being driven to certain death.,
8:6 (They argued whether to meet the aggressor outside Madinah at Badr, or wait.) And they disputed with you about it after the decision had been made manifest in mutual consultations, as if they were being driven to obvious death.
8:7 واذ يعدكم الله احدى الطائفتين انها لكم وتودون ان غير ذات الشوكة تكون لكم ويريد الله ان يحق الحق بكلماته ويقطع دابر الكافرين
8:7 Wa-ith yaAAidukumu Allahu ihdaaltta-ifatayni annaha lakum watawaddoonaanna ghayra thati alshshawkati takoonu lakumwayureedu Allahu an yuhiqqa alhaqqa bikalimatihiwayaqtaAAa dabira alkafireena
8:7 God promises you that one of the two parties will be defeated by you; yet you wish that the one least armed be the one. But God wishes that the truth be manifest with His words, and that He eliminates the remnant of the ingrates.
8:7 And God promises you that one of the two parties will be defeated by you; and you wish that the one least armed be the one. But God wishes that the truth be manifest with His words, and that He eliminates the remnant of the rejecters.
8:7 And, lo, God gave you the promise that one of the two [enemy] hosts would fall to you: and you would have liked to seize the less powerful one,7 whereas it was God's will to prove the truth to be true in accordance with His words, and to wipe out the last remnant of those who denied the truth8 -
Lit., "while you would have liked the one which was not powerful to be yours"-i.e., the caravan coming from Syria, which was accompanied by only forty armed men and could. therefore, be attacked without great danger.
The destruction of the Meccan army at Badr was the prelude to the elimination, in the course of the next few years, of all opposition to Islam in its homeland: and it is to this future fulfilment of God's promise that the above words refer. See also surah 11, note 103.
8:7 Recall that GOD promised you victory over a certain group, but you still wanted to face the weaker group. It was GOD's plan to establish the truth with His words, and to defeat the disbelievers.,
8:7 God promised you engagement and victory against one of the two groups. You preferred to face the unarmed group, but God willed the truth to prevail according to His Words and soundly defeat the aggressive disbelievers.3
Unarmed = An unarmed caravan of the Quraish
8:8 ليحق الحق ويبطل الباطل ولو كره المجرمون
8:8 Liyuhiqqa alhaqqa wayubtilaalbatila walaw kariha almujrimoona
8:8 So that truth will be manifest and the falsehood will be falsified; even if the criminals oppose it.
8:8 So that the truth will be manifest, and the falsehood will be finished; even if the criminals hate it.
8:8 so that He might prove the truth to be true and the false to be false, however hateful this might be to those who were lost in sin.9
The implication is that the truth of the Prophet's cause could not have been vindicated by the Muslims' overcoming and plundering the rich caravan which was approaching from the north. Although such an action would have benefited the Muslims materially, it would not have lessened the strength of the pagan Quraysh: while. on the other hand, the-encounter at Badr with the main. heavily-armed Quraysh force. resulting as it did in a decisive victory of the Muslims, was destined to shatter the self-confidence of the enemy and thus to pave the way for the ultimate triumph of Islam in Arabia.
8:8 For He has decreed that the truth shall prevail, and the falsehood shall vanish, in spite of the evildoers.,
8:8 (That was the first armed confrontation with the opponents; the believers were greatly outnumbered and ill equipped.) He has decreed that the truth shall triumph, and the falsehood shall vanish, even as the guilty detest it.
8:9 اذ تستغيثون ربكم فاستجاب لكم انى ممدكم بالف من الملائكة مردفين
8:9 Ith tastagheethoona rabbakum faistajabalakum annee mumiddukum bi-alfin mina almala-ikatimurdifeena
The Invisible Soldiers of God8:9 You implored your Lord and He answered you: "I will provide you with one thousand controllers as defenders."
8:9 You called on help from your Lord and He answered you: "I will provide you with one thousand angels as defenders."
8:9 Lo! You were praying unto your Sustainer for aid, whereupon He thus responded to you: "I shall, verily, aid you with a thousand angels following one upon' another!"
God's Invisible Soldiers8:9 Thus, when you implored your Lord to come to the rescue, He responded to you: "I am supporting you with one thousand angels in succession.",
8:9 You sought help from your Lord and He assured you, “I will help you with a thousand of the angels, rank upon rank.”
8:10 وما جعله الله الا بشرىا ولتطمئن به قلوبكم وما النصر الا من عند الله ان الله عزيز حكيم
8:10 Wama jaAAalahu Allahu illabushra walitatma-inna bihi quloobukum wama alnnasruilla min AAindi Allahi inna Allaha AAazeezunhakeemun
8:10 God did not do this except to give you good news, and that your hearts may be assured by it. Victory is only from God; God is Noble, Wise.
8:10 And God did not do this except to give you good news, and that your hearts may be assured by it. And victory is only from God; for God is Noble, Wise.
8:10 And God ordained this only as a glad tiding, and that your hearts should thereby be set at rest-since no succour can come from any save God: verily, God is almighty, wise!10
"On the day of the battle of Badr, the Prophet looked at his followers, who were three hundred and odd men, and he looked at those who were ascribing divinity to beings other than God: and lo, they were more than one thousand. Thereupon God's Prophet turned towards the qiblah, raised his hands and thus implored his Sustainer: `O God! Fulfil what Thou hast promised me! O God! If this little band of those who have surrendered themselves unto Thee is destroyed, Thou wilt not be worshipped on earth . . .'." This authentic Tradition, quoted by Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Tirmidhi, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, etc., appears also in a very similar version in Bukhari's , Sahih. It is said that the above Qur'an-verse was revealed in response to the Prophet's prayer-whereupon he recited another, much earlier verse (54:45): "The hosts shall be routed, and shall turn their backs [in flight]" (Bukhari). - As regards the promise of aid through thousands of angels, see 3:124, where a similar promise - made on the occasion of the battle of Uhud - is said to have been uttered by the Prophet and thus, by implication, confirmed by God. The spiritual nature of this angelic aid is clearly expressed by the words, "and God ordained this only as a glad tiding. . .", etc. (See also surah 3, notes 93 and 94.)
Victory Guaranteed for the Believers8:10 GOD gave you this good news to strengthen your hearts. Victory comes only from GOD. GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.,
8:10 God made this as good news and contentment to your hearts. And there is no help except from God. Certainly, God is Mighty, Wise.4
These Divine Attributes should draw attention to organized force and sound planning
8:11 اذ يغشيكم النعاس امنة منه وينزل عليكم من السماء ماء ليطهركم به ويذهب عنكم رجز الشيطان وليربط علىا قلوبكم ويثبت به الاقدام
8:11 Ith yughashsheekumu alnnuAAasaamanatan minhu wayunazzilu AAalaykum mina alssama-imaan liyutahhirakum bihi wayuthhiba AAankumrijza alshshaytani waliyarbita AAalaquloobikum wayuthabbita bihi al-aqdama
8:11 A peaceful sleep from Him overcame you, and He sent down to you water from the sky to cleanse you with it. He caused the affliction of the devil to leave you so that He may fortify your hearts and set firm your feet.
8:11 Sleep overcame you to give you tranquility from Him; and He sent down to you water from the sky to cleanse you with it and cause the affliction of the devil to leave you; and so that He may strengthen your hearts and set firm your feet.
8:11 [Remember how it was] when He caused inner calm to enfold you,11 as an assurance from Him, and sent down upon you water from the skies, so that He might purify you thereby and free you from Satan's unclean whisperings12 and strengthen your hearts and thus make firm your steps.
Le., before the battle of Badr. Regarding the interpretation of nu'as as "inner calm", see surah 3, note 112. Here it refers to the spiritual quiet and self-confidence of the believers in the face of overwhelming odds.
Lit., "take away from you the pollution of Satan". Immediately before the beginning of the battle, the Meccan army invested the wells of Badr, thus depriving the Muslims of water; and, under the influence of thirst, some of the latter fell prey to utter despair (here symbolized by "Satan's unclean whisperings") -when, suddenly, abundant rain fell and enabled them to satisfy their thirst (Tabari, on the authority of Ibn `Abbas). '
8:11 He caused peaceful slumber to overtake you and pacify you, and He sent down water from the sky to clean you therewith. He protected you from the devil's curse, reassured your hearts and strengthened your foothold.,
8:11 Remember He caused calmness to overtake you to give you inner peace from Himself. And He sent down from the sky water upon you, that He might refresh you, and remove from you the fear of Satan - And that He might, thus, strengthen your hearts and make firm your foothold.5
Fear of Satan: Concern about the satanic act of the enemy as they had confiscated the water wells
8:12 اذ يوحى ربك الى الملائكة انى معكم فثبتوا الذين ءامنوا سالقى فى قلوب الذين كفروا الرعب فاضربوا فوق الاعناق واضربوا منهم كل بنان
8:12 Ith yoohee rabbuka ilaalmala-ikati annee maAAakum fathabbitoo allatheena amanoosaolqee fee quloobi allatheena kafaroo alrruAAba faidriboofawqa al-aAAnaqi waidriboo minhum kulla bananin
Defending People Against an Aggressive Enemy8:12 Your Lord inspired to the controllers: "I am with you so keep firm those who acknowledge. I will cast fear into the hearts of those who have rejected; so strike above the necks, and strike every finger."2
8:12 Your Lord inspired to the angels: "I am with you so keep firm those who believe. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have rejected; so strike above the necks, and strike from them every one standing."
8:12 Lo! Thy Sustainer inspired the angels [to convey this His message to the believers]: "I am with you !"13 [And He commanded the angels:] "And, give firmness unto those who have attained to faith [with these words from Me]:14 `I shall cast terror into the hearts of those who are bent on denying the truth; strike, then, their necks, [O believers,] and strike off every one of their finger-tips!"15
The phrase "I am with you" is addressed (through the angels) to the believers - "for, the purport of these words was the removal of fear, since it was the Muslims, and not the angels, who feared the deniers of the truth" (Razi).
The following is, again, addressed to the believers (Razi). Verse 10 of this surah makes it clear that the aid of the angels was purely spiritual in nature; and there is no evidence anywhere in the Qur'an that they did, or were meant to, participate in the battle in a physical sense. In his commentary on the above verse, Razi stresses this point repeatedly; among modern commentators, Rashid Rida' emphatically rejects the legendary notion that angels actually fought in this or any other of the Prophet's battles (see Manar IX, 612 ff.). It is mainly on the basis of Razi's interpretation of this passage that I have interpolated, in several places, explanatory clauses between brackets.
I.e., "destroy them utterly".
Lessons from History8:12 Recall that your Lord inspired the angels: "I am with you; so support those who believed. I will throw terror into the hearts of those who disbelieved. You may strike them above the necks, and you may strike even every finger."1 ,
All wars are governed by the basic rule in 60:8.
8:12 Recall that your Lord inspired the angels, “I am with you. So make the believers stand firm. I will instill awe in the hearts of the unbelievers.” Then (O believers) launch a swift strike to disillusion their command and scatter their soldiers.6
Fawq al-a’naaq and Kulla banan are exactly similar allegories as we find in 47:4. No commander, during active combat with swords and arrows, would order his soldiers to aim only for ‘above the necks’ and ‘at every one of their finger tips’. Would not that be a sure way to lose the battle?
8:13 ذالك بانهم شاقوا الله ورسوله ومن يشاقق الله ورسوله فان الله شديد العقاب
8:13 Thalika bi-annahum shaqqoo Allahawarasoolahu waman yushaqiqi Allaha warasoolahufa-inna Allaha shadeedu alAAiqabi
8:13 That is because they have aggressed against God and His messenger. Whoever aggresses against God and His messenger, then God is severe in retribution.
8:13 That is because they have transgressed against God and His messenger. And whoever transgresses against God and His messenger, then God is severe in retribution.
8:13 This, because they have cut themselves off from16 God and His Apostle: and as for him who cuts himself off from God and His Apostle - verily, God is severe in retribution.
Or: "contended against" (Baghawi). However, since the primary meaning of shaqqahu ("he separated himself from him" or "cut himself off from him") comprises the concepts of both estrangement and opposition (Tabari, Zamakhshari, Razi), the rendering adopted by me seems to be the most suitable in this context.
8:13 This is what they have justly incurred by fighting GOD and His messenger. For those who fight against GOD and His messenger, GOD's retribution is severe.,
8:13 That is because they opposed God and His Messenger. Whoever opposes God and His Messenger, then, God is Strict in grasping.
8:14 ذالكم فذوقوه وان للكافرين عذاب النار
8:14 Thalikum fathooqoohu waannalilkafireena AAathaba alnnari
8:14 This is for you to sample, and for the ingrates will be retribution of fire.
8:14 This is for you to sample, and for the rejecters will be a retribution of Fire.
8:14 This [for you, O enemies of God]! Taste it, then, [and know] that suffering through fire awaits those who deny the truth!
8:14 This is to punish the disbelievers; they have incurred the retribution of Hell.,
8:14 That is the punishment, so taste it. And there is the torment of fire for the rejecters.
8:15 ياايها الذين ءامنوا اذا لقيتم الذين كفروا زحفا فلا تولوهم الادبار
8:15 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooitha laqeetumu allatheena kafaroo zahfan falatuwalloohumu al-adbara
8:15 O you who acknowledge; when you encounter those who have rejected on the battlefield, do not flee from them.
8:15 O you who believe; when you encounter those who have rejected on the battlefield, do not flee from them.
8:15 O YOU who have attained to faith! When you meet in battle those who are bent on denying the truth, advancing in great force, do not turn your backs on them:17
I.e., in flight: the implication being that in view of God's promise of victory no retreat is permissible. Since this verse (like the whole of this surah) relates predominantly to the battle of Badr, it may well be presumed that the above admonition forms part of the message of encouragement beginning with the words, "I am with you" (verse 12), which God commanded the angels to convey to the believers before the battle. In accordance with the didactic method of the Qur'an, however, the moral lesson contained in this verse is not confined to the historical occasion to which it refers, but has the validity of a permanent law.
8:15 O you who believe, if you encounter the disbelievers who have mobilized against you, do not turn back and flee.,
8:15 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Never turn your backs when you meet the rejecters in battle.
8:16 ومن يولهم يومئذ دبره الا متحرفا لقتال او متحيزا الىا فئة فقد باء بغضب من الله وماوىاه جهنم وبئس المصير
8:16 Waman yuwallihim yawma-ithin duburahuilla mutaharrifan liqitalin aw mutahayyizanila fi-atin faqad baa bighadabin mina Allahiwama/wahu jahannamu wabi/sa almaseeru
8:16 Whoever on that day flees from them; unless it is part of the battle strategy or if he is retreating back to his group; then he has drawn God's wrath upon him, and his abode will be hell. What a miserable destiny.
8:16 And whoever on that day flees from them; unless it is part of the battle strategy or if he is retreating back to his group; then he has drawn the wrath of God upon him, and his abode will be Hell. What a miserable destiny.
8:16 for, whoever on that day turns his back on them-unless it be in a battle manoeuvre or in an endeavour to join another troop [of the believers] - shall indeed have earned the burden of God's condemnation, and his goal shall be hell: and how vile a journey's end!
8:16 Anyone who turns back on that day, except to carry out a battle plan, or to join his group, has incurred wrath from GOD, and his abode is Hell; what a miserable destiny!,
8:16 Anyone who turns back on that day, unless strategically or to join his own troops, incurs God’s disapproval. His abode shall be Hell, a miserable destination.
8:17 فلم تقتلوهم ولاكن الله قتلهم وما رميت اذ رميت ولاكن الله رمىا وليبلى المؤمنين منه بلاء حسنا ان الله سميع عليم
8:17 Falam taqtuloohum walakinna Allahaqatalahum wama ramayta ith ramayta walakinnaAllaha rama waliyubliya almu/mineena minhu balaanhasanan inna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleemun
8:17 It was not you who killed them, but it was God who killed them. It was not you who launched when you did, but it was God who launched. So that those who acknowledge would be tested well by Him. God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
8:17 It was not you who killed them, but it was God who killed them. And it was not you who launched when you did, but it was God who launched. And so that the believers would be tested well by Him. God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
8:17 And yet, [O believers,] it was not you who slew the enemy,18 but it was God who slew them; and it was not thou who cast [terror into them, O Prophet], when thou didst cast it, but it was God who cast it:19 and [He did all this] in order that He might test the believers by a goodly test of His Own or daining.20 Verily, God is all-hearing, all-knowing!
According to several Traditions, the Prophet cast, at the beginning of the battle, a handful of pebbles or dust in the direction of the enemy, thus symbolically indicating their approaching defeat. However, none of these accounts attains to the standard of authenticity described as sahih (i.e., "reliable") by the great exponents of the science of Tradition ( ilm al-hadith), and cannot, therefore, satisfactorily explain the above Qur'anic passage (see Ibn Kathir's commentary on this verse, as well as Manar IX, 620 f.). Since the verb rama (lit., "he cast" or "flung") applies also to the act of "shooting an arrow" or "flinging a spear", it might be explained here as a reference to the Prophet's active participation in the battle. Alternatively, it may denote his "casting terror", i.e., into the hearts of his enemies, by his and his followers' extreme valour. Whichever explanation is adopted, the above verse implies that the victory of the Muslims over the much more numerous and much better equipped army of the Quraysh was due to God's grace alone: and, thus, it is a reminder to the faithful, of all times, not to indulge in undue pride in any of their achievements (which is the meaning of the "test" mentioned in the next sentence).
Lit., "from Himself".
God Is Doing Everything8:17 It was not you who killed them; GOD is the One who killed them. It was not you who threw when you threw; GOD is the One who threw. But He thus gives the believers a chance to earn a lot of credit. GOD is Hearer, Omniscient.2 ,
8:17 You did not subdue them, God did. You did not throw the arrows, God did. But He let the believers test themselves in a blessing from Him in disguise. God is Hearer, Knower.7
‘God did’ = Being the Supreme Controller, God assigns to Himself all that happens in the Universe. Balaa-an-Hasana = Tribulation ending graciously = Blessing in disguise
8:18 ذالكم وان الله موهن كيد الكافرين
8:18 Thalikum waanna Allaha moohinukaydi alkafireena
8:18 That, and God weakens the plots of the ingrates.
8:18 That, and God weakens the plans of the rejecters.
8:18 This [was God's purpose] -and also [to show] that God renders vain the artful schemes of those who deny the truth.
8:18 Additionally, GOD thus nullifies the schemes of the disbelievers.,
8:18 That was the case with you. And know that God is the One Who nullifies the artful schemes of the rejecters.
8:19 ان تستفتحوا فقد جاءكم الفتح وان تنتهوا فهو خير لكم وان تعودوا نعد ولن تغنى عنكم فئتكم شيا ولو كثرت وان الله مع المؤمنين
8:19 In tastaftihoo faqad jaakumualfathu wa-in tantahoo fahuwa khayrun lakum wa-intaAAoodoo naAAud walan tughniya AAankum fi-atukum shay-an walawkathurat waanna Allaha maAAa almu/mineena
8:19 If you sought conquest, then conquest has come to you. But if you cease, then it is better for you. If you return again, then We will also return, and your group will avail you nothing even if it is many. God is with those who acknowledge.
8:19 If you sought conquest, then conquest has come to you, but if you cease, then it is better for you. And if you return again, then We will also return, and your group will avail you nothing even if it is many. God is with the believers.
8:19 If you have been praying for victory, [O believers] - victory has now indeed come unto you. And if you abstain [from sinning], it will be for your own good; but if you revert to it, We shall revoke [Our promise of aid] - and never will your community be of any avail to you, however great its numbers: for, behold, God is [only] with those who believe !21
There is no unanimity among the commentators as to whether this verse is addressed to the believers or to their opponents at Badr, that is, the pagan Quraysh. While some of the commentators (e.g., Razi) are of the opinion that it is an admonition to the believers and understand it in the sense rendered by me above, others maintain that it is a warning addressed to the Quraysh. In order to justify this view, they give to the word fath (lit., "opening") occurring in the first sentence the meaning of "judgment" or "decision" (which is undoubtedly permissible from the linguistic point of view), and arrive at the following rendering: "If you have been seeking a decision [O unbelievers] - a decision has now indeed come unto you. And if you abstain [from making war on God and His Apostle], it will be for your own good; but if you revert to it, We shall revert [to defeating you] -and never will your army be of any avail to you, however great its numbers: for, behold, God is with the believers!" As can be seen from this alternative rendering, the difference in interpretation pivots on the tropical meaning which one gives to the words fath ("decision" or "victory") and fi'ah ("army" or "community"). As regards the latter, it is to be borne in mind that its primary significance is "a group" or "a congregated body of men" - more or less synonymous with ta'ifah or jama'ah ; it can, therefore, be used to denote "an army" as well as "a community". Similarly, the expression na'ud can be understood in either of two ways: namely, as meaning "We shall revert [to defeating you]" - or, as in my rendering, "We shall revoke [Our promise of aid]" - addressed, in the one instance to the unbelievers, and in the other, to the believers. (For the use of the verb `ada in the sense of "he revoked", see Taj al-'Arus; also Lane V, 2189.) But while both interpretations of the above verse are linguistically justified, the one adopted by me (and supported, according to Ibn Kathir, by Ubayy ibn Ka'b) is in greater harmony with the context, inasmuch as both the preceding and subsequent passages are unmistakably addressed to the believers. Thus, the verse must be understood as a reminder to the Muslims that God will be with them only so long as they remain firm in faith and righteous in action, and that, however large their community may be in the future, they will be powerless unless they are true believers.
8:19 You sought victory (O disbelievers), and victory did come; it belonged to the believers. If you refrain (from aggression) it would be better for you, but if you return, so will we. Your armies will never help you, no matter how great. For GOD is on the side of the believers.,
8:19 You sought victory and judgment (O Disbelievers)! Now victory and judgment have come to you. (If you reflect, the triumph of the truth is the victory for all, including yourselves.) If you refrain from aggression, it will be better for you. But, if you return, so shall We. Your armies will not avail you, no matter how numerous. God is with the believers.
8:20 ياايها الذين ءامنوا اطيعوا الله ورسوله ولا تولوا عنه وانتم تسمعون
8:20 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooateeAAoo Allaha warasoolahu wala tawallawAAanhu waantum tasmaAAoona
8:20 O you who acknowledge, obey God and His messenger, and do not turn away from him while you have heard.
8:20 O you who believe, obey God and His messenger, and do not turn away from him while you have heard.
8:20 [Hence,] O you who have attained to faith, pay heed unto God and His Apostle, and do not turn away from Him now that you hear [His message];
8:20 O you who believe, obey GOD and His messenger, and do not disregard him while you hear.,
8:20 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Obey God and His Messenger. Listen to him when he speaks, without getting distracted.
8:21 ولا تكونوا كالذين قالوا سمعنا وهم لا يسمعون
8:21 Wala takoonoo kaallatheenaqaloo samiAAna wahum la yasmaAAoona
8:21 Do not be like those who have said, "We hear," but they do not hear.
8:21 And do not be like those who have said: "We hear," but they do not hear.
8:21 and be not like those who say, "We have heard", the while they do not hearken.22
The Disbelievers Blocked Out8:21 Do not be like those who say, "We hear," when they do not hear.,
8:21 Do not be like those who say that they hear, while they do not hear.
8:22 ان شر الدواب عند الله الصم البكم الذين لا يعقلون
8:22 Inna sharra alddawabbi AAindaAllahi alssummu albukmu allatheena layaAAqiloona
8:22 The worst creatures with God are the deaf and dumb who do not reason.
8:22 The worst creatures with God are the deaf and dumb who do not comprehend.
8:22 Verily, the vilest of all creatures23 in the sight of God are those deaf, those dumb ones who do not use their reason.
Lit., "animals that walk or crawl" (dawab, sing. dabbah ), including man as well.
8:22 The worst creatures in the sight of GOD are the deaf and dumb, who do not understand.,
8:22 The worst of created beings in the Sight of God are the deaf and the dumb, those who do not use their intellect. [2:18, 16:76]
8:23 ولو علم الله فيهم خيرا لاسمعهم ولو اسمعهم لتولوا وهم معرضون
8:23 Walaw AAalima Allahu feehim khayranlaasmaAAahum walaw asmaAAahum latawallaw wahum muAAridoona
8:23 If God had found any good in them, then He would have made them listen. But if He makes them listen, they would still turn away, averse.
8:23 And if God had found any good in them, then He would have made them listen. And if He had made them listen, they would have turned away while they are in aversion.
8:23 For, if God had seen any good in them, He would certainly have made them hear: but [as it is,] even if He had made them hear, they would surely have turned away in their obstinacy.
8:23 Had GOD known of any good in them, He would have made them hearers. Even if He made them hearers, they still would turn away in aversion.,
8:23 If God had seen any good in them, He would have made them hear. But, even if He made them hear, they would have turned away.8
The perceptual and conceptual faculties, both must be used for understanding and attaining guidance. 17:36
8:24 ياايها الذين ءامنوا استجيبوا لله وللرسول اذا دعاكم لما يحييكم واعلموا ان الله يحول بين المرء وقلبه وانه اليه تحشرون
8:24 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooistajeeboo lillahi walilrrasooli itha daAAakumlima yuhyeekum waiAAlamoo anna Allahayahoolu bayna almar-i waqalbihi waannahu ilayhi tuhsharoona
8:24 O you who acknowledge, answer the call of God and His messenger when he calls you to what will grant you life. Know that God comes between a person and his heart, and that to Him you will be gathered.
8:24 O you who believe, answer the call of God and His messenger when he calls you to what will grant you life. And know that God comes between a person and his heart, and that to Him you will be gathered.
8:24 O you who have attained to faith! Respond to the call of God and the Apostle whenever he calls you unto that which will give you life; and know that God intervenes between man and [the desires of] his heart,24 and that unto Him you shall be gathered.
I.e.. between a man's desires and the outward action that may result from those desires: indicating that God can turn man away from what his heart urges him to do (Raghib). In other words, it is God-consciousness alone that can prevent man from being misled by wrong desires and, thus, from becoming like "those deaf, those dumb ones who do not use their reason" (verse 22 above); and it is God-consciousness alone that can enable man to follow the call "unto that which gives life" - that is, spiritual awareness of right and wrong and the will to act accordingly.
The Righteous Do Not Really Die8:24 O you who believe, you shall respond to GOD and to the messenger when he invites you to what gives you life. You should know that GOD is closer to you than your heart, and that before Him you will be summoned.3 ,
See Appendix 17. When the righteous exit their bodies, they go straight to Heaven.
8:24 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Respond to God and the Messenger. He calls you to what gives you life. Know that God intervenes between man and his heart, and that to Him you will be gathered.9
53:24. “Intervene” = His guidance can prevent people from acting on their evil desires and lead them to the right path
8:25 واتقوا فتنة لا تصيبن الذين ظلموا منكم خاصة واعلموا ان الله شديد العقاب
8:25 Waittaqoo fitnatan la tuseebannaallatheena thalamoo minkum khassatanwaiAAlamoo anna Allaha shadeedu alAAiqabi
8:25 Be aware of a test that will not only afflict those of you who were wicked; and know that God is severe in retribution.
8:25 And be aware of a test that will not only afflict those of you who were wicked; and know that God is severe in retribution.
8:25 And beware of that temptation to evil which does not befall only those among you who are bent on denying the truth, to the exclusion of others;25 and know that God is severe in retribution.
The term fitnah - here rendered as "temptation to evil" - comprises a wide range of concepts, e.g., "seduction" or "trial" or "test" or "an affliction whereby one is tried"; hence also "confusion" (as in 3:7 and 6:23), "discord" or "dissension" (because it constitutes a "trial" of human groupments), as well as "persecution" and "oppression" (because it is an affliction which may cause man to go astray and to lose his faith in spiritual values -a meaning in which the word fitnah is used in 2:191 and 193); and, finally, "sedition" and "civil war" (because it leads whole communities astray). Since the expression "temptation to evil" is applicable to all these meanings, it appears to be the most suitable in the above context: the idea being that it is not merely the deliberate deniers of spiritual truths who are exposed to such a temptation, but that also people who are otherwise righteous may fall prey to it unless they remain always, and consciously, on their guard against anything that might lead them astray from the right course.
8:25 Beware of a retribution that may not be limited to the evildoers among you. You should know that GOD's retribution is severe.,4
A community that tolerates homosexuality, for example, may be hit by an earthquake.
8:25 Beware of a tribulation that may not be limited to the wrongdoers among you! Know that God is Strict in retribution. (There is a strong link between individual and collective good.)
8:26 واذكروا اذ انتم قليل مستضعفون فى الارض تخافون ان يتخطفكم الناس فاوىاكم وايدكم بنصره ورزقكم من الطيبات لعلكم تشكرون
8:26 Waothkuroo ith antumqaleelun mustadAAafoona fee al-ardi takhafoonaan yatakhattafakumu alnnasu faawakumwaayyadakum binasrihi warazaqakum mina alttayyibatilaAAallakum tashkuroona
8:26 Recall when you were but a few who were overpowered in the land, you were fearful that men might capture you. But He sheltered you, and He supported you with His victory, and He provided you with good provisions, so that you may be thankful.
8:26 And remember when you were but a few who were weak in the land, you were fearful that the people might capture you. But He sheltered you, and He supported you with His victory, and He provided you with good provisions, so that you may be thankful.
8:26 And remember the time when you were few [and] helpless on earth, fearful lest people do away with you26 - whereupon He sheltered you, and strengthened you with His succour, and provided for you sustenance out of the good things of life, so that you might have cause to be grateful.
A reference to the weakness of the believers in the early days of Islam, before their exodus from Mecca to Medina. In its wider meaning; it is a reminder to every community of true believers, at all times, of their initial weakness and numerical insignificance and their subsequent growth in numbers and influence.
God Supports the Believers8:26 Remember that you used to be few and oppressed, fearing that the people may snatch you, and He granted you a secure sanctuary, supported you with His victory, and provided you with good provisions, that you may be appreciative.,
8:26 Recall when you were few and oppressed in the land (Makkah) and fearful that people may do away with you. He gave you shelter (in Madinah), strengthened you with His help and gave you decent provision. Be grateful in word and action.
8:27 ياايها الذين ءامنوا لا تخونوا الله والرسول وتخونوا اماناتكم وانتم تعلمون
8:27 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola takhoonoo Allaha waalrrasoola watakhoonooamanatikum waantum taAAlamoona
8:27 O you who acknowledge, do not betray God and the messenger, nor betray your responsibilities, while you know.
8:27 O you who believe, do not betray God and the messenger, nor betray your trust, while you know.
8:27 [Hence,] O you who have attained to faith, do not be false to God and the Apostle, and do not knowingly be false to the trust that has been reposed in you;27
Lit., "do not be false to your trusts, the while you know". Regarding the deeper meaning of amanah ("trust"), see note 87 on 33:72.
8:27 O you who believe, do not betray GOD and the messenger, and do not betray those who trust you, now that you know.,
8:27 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Never betray God and His Messenger (the Central Authority), nor betray people who trust you, nor be lax in your duties knowingly.
8:28 واعلموا انما اموالكم واولادكم فتنة وان الله عنده اجر عظيم
8:28 WaiAAlamoo annama amwalukumwaawladukum fitnatun waanna Allaha AAindahu ajrunAAatheemun
8:28 You should know that your money and your children are a test, and that God has the greatest reward.
8:28 And know that your money and your children are a test, and that God has the greatest reward.
8:28 and know that your worldly goods and your children are but a trial and a temptation, and that with God there is a tremendous reward.28
Inasmuch as love of worldly goods and a desire to protect one's family may lead a person to transgression (and, thus, to a betrayal of the moral values postulated in God's message), they are described as fitnah -which, in this context, is best rendered by the two words "trial and temptation". This reminder connects with verse 25 above, "beware of that temptation to evil which does not befall only those who are bent on denying the truth," since it is acquisitiveness and a desire to confer benefits on one's own family which often tempt an otherwise good person to offend against the rights of his fellow-men. It is to be borne in mind that, contrary to the New Testament, the Our'an does not postulate a contempt for worldly attachments as a pre-requisite of righteousness: it only demands of man that he should not allow these attachments to deflect him from the pursuit of moral verities.
Money & Children Are Tests8:28 You should know that your money and your children are a test, and that GOD possesses a great recompense.,
8:28 Know that your wealth and your children are a test for you, and that with God is immense reward.10
Spend your wealth on fellow humans and provide good education and training to your children
8:29 ياايها الذين ءامنوا ان تتقوا الله يجعل لكم فرقانا ويكفر عنكم سياتكم ويغفر لكم والله ذو الفضل العظيم
8:29 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooin tattaqoo Allaha yajAAal lakum furqananwayukaffir AAankum sayyi-atikum wayaghfir lakum waAllahuthoo alfadli alAAatheemi
8:29 O you who acknowledge, if you are aware of God, He will endow you with criterion, and He will cancel your sins and forgive you. God is possessor of great favor.
8:29 O you who believe, if you are aware of God, He will make a criterion for you, and He will cancel your sins and forgive you. God is possessor of great grace.
8:29 O you who have attained to faith! If you remain conscious of God. He will endow you with a standard by which to discern the true from the false,29 and will efface your bad deeds, and will forgive you your sins: for God is limitless in His great bounty.
I.e., the faculty of moral valuation (Manar IX, 648). See also surah 2, note 38.
8:29 O you who believe, if you reverence GOD, He will enlighten you, remit your sins, and forgive you. GOD possesses infinite grace.,
8:29 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! If you remain mindful of God, He will give you distinction among the community of nations and grant you clear discernment between right and wrong. He will absolve your imperfections and grant you the protection of forgiveness. God is of Infinite bounty.
8:30 واذ يمكر بك الذين كفروا ليثبتوك او يقتلوك او يخرجوك ويمكرون ويمكر الله والله خير الماكرين
8:30 Wa-ith yamkuru bika allatheenakafaroo liyuthbitooka aw yaqtulooka aw yukhrijooka wayamkuroonawayamkuru Allahu waAllahu khayru almakireena
8:30 The ingrates plot against you to confine you, to kill you, or to expel you. They plot, and God plots, and God is the best of plotters.
8:30 And the rejecters plot against you to arrest you, or to kill you, or to expel you. And they plot, and God plots, and God is the best of plotters.
8:30 AND [remember, O Prophet,] how those who were bent on denying the truth were scheming against thee, in order to restrain thee [from preaching], or to slay thee, or to drive thee away: thus have they [always] schemed:30 but God brought their scheming to nought-for God is above all schemers.
While the first sentence of this verse is a reference to the persecution to which the Prophet and his followers had been exposed in Mecca before their exodus to Medina, this concluding passage points to the ever-recurring fact of man's religious history that those who deny the truth of divine revelation are always intent on rendering its preachers powerless or destroying them, either physically or, figuratively, through ridicule.
God Protects His Messenger8:30 The disbelievers plot and scheme to neutralize you, or kill you, or banish you. However, they plot and scheme, but so does GOD. GOD is the best schemer.5 ,
God chose His final prophet, Muhammad, from the strongest tribe of Arabia. It was tribal laws and traditions that prevented the disbelievers--byGod's leave--from killing Muhammad. Similarly, it was God's will to moveHis Messenger of the Covenant from the Middle East, where he would have beenkilled, to the U.S.A. where God's message can flourish and reach every cornerof the globe. This is mathematically confirmed: the sura & verse numbers= 8+30=19x2.
8:30 Recall (O Messenger), when the rejecters were making schemes to restrain you (from conveying the Message), slay you, or expel you. That was their plan, but God’s Law of Requital is designed to work in a way unfailing. God is the Best of planners.
8:31 واذا تتلىا عليهم ءاياتنا قالوا قد سمعنا لو نشاء لقلنا مثل هاذا ان هاذا الا اساطير الاولين
8:31 Wa-itha tutla AAalayhim ayatunaqaloo qad samiAAna law nashao laqulnamithla hatha in hatha illa asateerual-awwaleena
8:31 When Our signs are recited to them, they say, "We have listened, and if we wish, we could have said the same thing. This is nothing but tales of the ancients!"
8:31 And if Our revelations are recited to them, they say: "We have listened, and if we wish, we could have said the same thing. This is nothing except fictional tales of old!"
8:31 And whenever Our messages were conveyed to them, they would say, "We have heard [all this] before; if we wanted, we could certainly compose sayings like these [ourselves]: they are nothing but fables of ancient times!"31
Cf. 6:25. As regards the expression la-qulna - here rendered as "we could certainly [ourselves] compose" -it is to be remembered that the verb qala does not always signify only "he said", but also "he asserted" or "expressed an opinion", as well as-in connection with a literary production-"he composed": thus, qala shi'r means "he composed a poem". In the above context, this expression alludes to the oft-repeated (but never fulfilled) boast of the pagan Quraysh that they could produce a poetic message comparable in merit to that of the Qur'an; in its wider sense, it is an allusion to the attitude of many unbelievers towards revealed scriptures in general.
8:31 When our revelations are recited to them, they say, "We have heard. If we wanted to, we could have said the same things. These are no more than tales from the past!",
8:31 When Our messages are conveyed to them, they say, “We have heard. If we wish, we can speak like it. This is nothing but fables of the ancient.”
8:32 واذ قالوا اللهم ان كان هاذا هو الحق من عندك فامطر علينا حجارة من السماء او ائتنا بعذاب اليم
8:32 Wa-ith qaloo allahummain kana hatha huwa alhaqqa min AAindika faamtirAAalayna hijaratan mina alssama-iawi i/tina biAAathabin aleemin
8:32 They said, "Our god, if this is the truth from You, then send down upon us a rain of stones from the sky or bring on us a painful retribution."
8:32 And they said: "Our god, if this is the truth from You, then send down upon us a rain of stones from the heaven or bring upon us a painful retribution."
8:32 And, lo, they would say, "O God! If this. be indeed the truth from Thee, then rain down upon us stones from the skies, or inflict [some other] grievous suffering on us!32
This sarcastic appeal of the unbelievers -referred to several times in the Qur'an -is meant to stress their conviction that the Qur'an is not a divine revelation. According to Anas ibn Malik, these words were first uttered by Abu Jahl, the Prophet's chief opponent at Mecca. who was killed in the battle of Badr (Bukhari).
8:32 They also said, "Our god, if this is really the truth from You, then shower us with rocks from the sky, or pour upon us a painful punishment.",
8:32 They further said, “O God! If this is the truth from You, then shower upon us rocks from the sky or bring on us a painful suffering.”
8:33 وما كان الله ليعذبهم وانت فيهم وما كان الله معذبهم وهم يستغفرون
8:33 Wama kana AllahuliyuAAaththibahum waanta feehim wama kanaAllahu muAAaththibahum wahum yastaghfiroona
8:33 But God was not to punish them while you are with them, nor will God punish them while they continue to seek forgiveness.
8:33 And God will not punish them while you are with them, nor will God punish them while they continue to seek forgiveness.
8:33 But God did not choose thus to chastise them whip thou [O Prophet] wert still among them,33 nor would God chastise them when they [might yet] ask for forgiveness.
I.e., in Mecca, before the exodus to Medina.
8:33 However, GOD is not to punish them while you are in their midst; GOD is not to punish them while they are seeking forgiveness.,
8:33 But, God did not intend to punish them while you (O Messenger), were in their midst (in Makkah, still conveying the message). And He would not punish them while they might seek forgiveness.
8:34 وما لهم الا يعذبهم الله وهم يصدون عن المسجد الحرام وما كانوا اولياءه ان اولياؤه الا المتقون ولاكن اكثرهم لا يعلمون
8:34 Wama lahum alla yuAAaththibahumuAllahu wahum yasuddoona AAani almasjidi alharamiwama kanoo awliyaahu in awliyaohu illaalmuttaqoona walakinna aktharahum la yaAAlamoona
8:34 Why should God not punish them when they are turning others away from the Restricted Temple, and they were never its protectors! Its protectors are the righteous. But most of them do not know.
8:34 And why should God not punish them when they are turning others away from the Restricted Temple, and they were never its protectors! Its protectors are the righteous; but most of them do not know.
8:34 But what have they [now] in their favour that God should not chastise them-seeing that they bar [the believers] from the Inviolable House of Worship, although they are not its [rightful] guardians?34 None but the God-conscious can be its guardians: but of this most of these [evildoers] are unaware;
At the time of the revelation of this surah (the year 2 H.) Mecca was still in the possession of the hostile Quraysh, and no Muslim was allowed to enter it. Owing to their descent from Abraham, the Quraysh considered themselves entitled to the guardianship of the Ka`bah ("the Inviolable House of Worship"), which had been built by Abraham as the first temple ever dedicated to the One God (see surah 2, note 102). The Qur'an refutes this contention, just as it refutes the claim of the children of Israel to being "the chosen people" by virtue of their descent from Abraham. (Cf. in this connection 2:124, and especially the last sentence, "My covenant does not embrace the wrongdoers.") Although they still retained a modicum of belief in God, the Quraysh had entirely forsaken the unitarian faith of Abraham, thus forfeiting any moral claim to the guardianship of the Temple (al-bayt) built by him.
8:34 Have they not deserved GOD's retribution, by repelling others from the Sacred Masjid, even though they are not the custodians thereof? The true custodians thereof are the righteous, but most of them do not know.,
8:34 (Now, this is a new situation.) Have they not deserved God’s requital when they are hindering His servants from the Sacred Masjid of Makkah, even though they are not its guardians? Its guardians can only be those who are mindful of God. Most of them do not even know how awesome this responsibility is.
8:35 وما كان صلاتهم عند البيت الا مكاء وتصدية فذوقوا العذاب بما كنتم تكفرون
8:35 Wama kana salatuhumAAinda albayti illa mukaan watasdiyatan fathooqooalAAathaba bima kuntum takfuroona
Meccan Polytheists Were Formally Following Abraham's Practices8:35 Their contact prayer at the sanctuary was nothing but deception/noise and aversion. Taste the retribution for what you have rejected.3
The Quran informs us that the practices of Islam were initially revealed to Abraham. Abraham and his followers were observing the sala prayer (21:73). Meccan polytheists never accepted that they were polytheists (6:23; 16:35). Since they believed in the intercession of some holy people, and since they falsely attributed numerous prohibitions and rules to God, the Quran considered them polytheists. Those so-called Muslims who reverted to the belief and practices of the era of ignorance after the revelation of the Quran, tried to create some artificial differences between them and Meccan polytheists. They distorted the meaning of the verse into "their prayer is only clapping hands and whistles" so that Meccan polytheists will be seen to be bizarre and different. The word muka means whistle, noise, or hypocrisy. The celebrated Arabic dictionary Lisan al-Arab, under the definition of this word, lists underground escape holes dug by moles. This resembles the word nafaqa (hypocrisy), which relates a semantic relation between physical holes and abstract hypocrisy. As for the word tasdiya, either means aversion or it is a form of tasdidah, which simply means repelling. In fact, the following verse uses its verb form, supporting our understanding.
8:35 And their contact prayer at the Sanctuary was nothing but noise and aversion. Taste the retribution for what you have rejected.
8:35 and their prayers before the Temple are nothing but whistling and clapping of hands.35 Taste then, [O unbelievers,] this chastisement as an outcome of your persistent denial of the truth!36
I.e., devoid of all spiritual contents. Some of the early authorities maintain that dancing around the Ka`bah, accompanied by whistling and hand-clapping, was actually a ritual practiced by the pre-Islamic Arabs. Although this explanation is quite plausible, it would appear from the context that the expression "whistling and clapping of hands" is used here metaphorically, to denote the spiritual emptiness of the religious rituals of people who are wont to attribute a quasi-divine efficacy to all manner of circumstantial "forces"-like wealth, power, social status, "luck", etc.
The chastisement or suffering referred to here was their crushing defeat at Badr.
The Contact Prayers (Salat) Existed Before the Quran8:35 Their Contact Prayers (Salat) at the shrine (Ka`bah) were no more than a mockery and a means of repelling the people (by crowding them out). Therefore, suffer the retribution for your disbelief.6 ,
8:35 What is their worship at the House (of God) but whistling and clapping? Therefore, it is said to them, “Taste of the retribution for your rejection of the truth.”11
House 2:125. Those who plunge in ritualistic worship, trail behind in action and invite suffering
8:36 ان الذين كفروا ينفقون اموالهم ليصدوا عن سبيل الله فسينفقونها ثم تكون عليهم حسرة ثم يغلبون والذين كفروا الىا جهنم يحشرون
8:36 Inna allatheena kafaroo yunfiqoonaamwalahum liyasuddoo AAan sabeeli Allahifasayunfiqoonaha thumma takoonu AAalayhim hasratanthumma yughlaboona waallatheena kafaroo ilajahannama yuhsharoona
8:36 Those who have rejected, they spend their money to turn others away from the path of God. They will spend it, then it will become a source of regret for them, then they are defeated. Those who rejected will be summoned to hell.
8:36 Those who have rejected, they spend their money to turn others away from the path of God. They will spend it, then it will become an anguish for them, then they will be defeated. Those who have rejected will be gathered to Hell.
8:36 Behold, those who are bent on denying the truth are spending their riches in order to turn others away from the path of God; and they will go on spending them until they become [a source of] intense regret for them; and then they will be overcome! And those who [until their death] have denied the truth shall be gathered unto hell,
Spending Their Money to Fight God8:36 Those who disbelieve spend their money to repel others from the way of GOD. They will spend it, then it will turn into sorrow and remorse for them. Ultimately, they will be defeated, and all disbelievers will be summoned to Hell.7 ,
The idol worshiping leaders of corrupted Islam, Saudi Arabia, have allocated huge sums of money annually to fight God and His miracle. For example,the famous Lebanese publisher Daar Al-`Ilm Lil-Malaayeen (Knowledge for theMillions) published the Arabic version of "The Miracle of the Quran" in March1983. The Saudis bought all the copies and destroyed them.
8:36 Those who oppose the truth, spend their riches to hinder people from the path of God. They will spend it, then it will become anguish for them, and they will be overcome. And the rejecters of the truth will be gathered to Hell.
8:37 ليميز الله الخبيث من الطيب ويجعل الخبيث بعضه علىا بعض فيركمه جميعا فيجعله فى جهنم اولائك هم الخاسرون
8:37 Liyameeza Allahu alkhabeetha mina alttayyibiwayajAAala alkhabeetha baAAdahu AAala baAAdinfayarkumahu jameeAAan fayajAAalahu fee jahannama ola-ikahumu alkhasiroona
8:37 This is so that God will distinguish the bad from the good, and so that the bad will be gathered together into one heap; then He will cast it all into hell. These are the losers.
8:37 This is so that God will distinguish the bad from the good, and so that the bad will be gathered together into one heap then He will cast it all into Hell. These are the losers.
8:37 so that God might separate the bad from the good, and join the bad with one another, and link them all together [within His condemnation], and then place them in hell. They, they are the lost!
8:37 GOD will sift away the bad from the good, then pile the bad on top of each other, all in one pile, then throw it in Hell. Such are the losers.,
8:37 God will distinguish the bad from the good, then pile the bad on top of one another and cast them together in the Hellfire. They are truly the losers.12
The clans of rejecters will join hands to fight the believers, but the battleground will become Hell for them
8:38 قل للذين كفروا ان ينتهوا يغفر لهم ما قد سلف وان يعودوا فقد مضت سنت الاولين
8:38 Qul lillatheena kafaroo in yantahooyughfar lahum ma qad salafa wa-in yaAAoodoo faqad madatsunnatu al-awwaleena
8:38 Say to the ingrates: "If they cease, then what has passed before will be forgiven to them, and if they return to it, then the example of the previous generations has already been given."4
The expression of sunnat al-awalyn (the path/laws of previous generations) reminds God's punishment to the past communities who transgressed. The word sunna means "law," and there is only one valid sunna, God's sunna (33:38; 35:43; 40:85; 48:23). Muhammed could not have his own sunna (law) besides God's sunna in the Quran.
8:38 Say to the rejecters: "If they cease, then what has passed before will be forgiven to them, and if they return to it, then the example of the previous generations has already been given."
8:38 Tell those who are bent on denying the truth that if they desist,37 all that is past shall be forgiven them; but if they revert [to their wrongdoing], let them remember what happened to the like of them in times gone by.38
I.e., from their endeavour to turn others way from the path of God and from waging war against the believers.
Lit., "the example (sunnah) of the people of old times has already come to pass": an allusion to the disasters that have overtaken, and are bound to overtake, those who persistently deny moral truths.
8:38 Tell those who disbelieved: if they stop, all their past will be forgiven. But if they return, they will incur the same fate as their previous counterparts.,
8:38 (O Prophet) tell the disbelievers that if they cease hostilities, all their past will be forgiven. But if they return, they will meet the example of the old nations.
8:39 وقاتلوهم حتىا لا تكون فتنة ويكون الدين كله لله فان انتهوا فان الله بما يعملون بصير
8:39 Waqatiloohum hatta latakoona fitnatun wayakoona alddeenu kulluhu lillahifa-ini intahaw fa-inna Allaha bima yaAAmaloona baseerun
Fight Against Oppressive Powers For Freedom8:39 You should fight them all until there is no more oppression, and so that the entire system is God's. But if they cease, then God is seer of what they do.
8:39 And fight them all until there is no more oppression, and the entire system is for God. But if they cease, then God is Seer over what they do.
8:39 And fight against them until there is no more oppression and all worship is devoted to God alone.39 And if they desist-behold, God sees all that they do;40
I.e., until man is free to worship God. Cf. the identical phrase in 2:193, and the corresponding note. Both these passages stress self-defence -in the widest sense of this word -as the only justification of war.
I.e., He knows their motives, and will requite them according to their merits.
8:39 You shall fight them to ward off oppression, and to practice your religion devoted to GOD alone. If they refrain from aggression, then GOD is fully Seer of everything they do.,
8:39 Fight those who persist in aggression until persecution is no more, and all Religion can be freely adopted only for God. Then if they cease, God is the Seer of what they do. (2:193, 12:108).
8:40 وان تولوا فاعلموا ان الله مولىاكم نعم المولىا ونعم النصير
8:40 Wa-in tawallaw faiAAlamoo anna Allahamawlakum niAAma almawla waniAAma alnnaseeru
8:40 If they turn away, then know that God is your Patron. What an excellent Patron, and what an excellent Victor.5
8:40 And if they turn away, then know that God is your Patron. What an excellent Patron, and what an excellent Victor.
8:40 and if they turn away [from righteousness],know that God is your Lord Supreme: [and] how excellent is this Lord Supreme, and how excellent this Giver of Succour!
8:40 If they turn away, then you should know that GOD is your Lord and Master; the best Lord and Master, the best supporter.,
8:40 (Be magnanimous in treating them) knowing that if they returned to their previous ways, God is your Lord Supreme. And how excellent is this Lord Supreme, and how excellent is this Giver of help!
8:41 واعلموا انما غنمتم من شىء فان لله خمسه وللرسول ولذى القربىا واليتامىا والمساكين وابن السبيل ان كنتم ءامنتم بالله وما انزلنا علىا عبدنا يوم الفرقان يوم التقى الجمعان والله علىا كل شىء قدير
8:41 WaiAAlamoo annama ghanimtummin shay-in faanna lillahi khumusahu walilrrasooliwalithee alqurba waalyatama waalmasakeeniwaibni alssabeeli in kuntum amantum biAllahiwama anzalna AAala AAabdina yawmaalfurqani yawma iltaqa aljamAAani waAllahuAAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
8:41 You should know: "Of anything you gain, that one-fifth shall go to God and the messenger: to the relatives, the orphans, the poor, and the wayfarer." You will do this if you acknowledge God and in what We revealed to Our servant on the day of distinction, the day the two armies clashed. God is able to do all things.6
Distorting the meaning of this verse, Shiite clergymen have created an entitlement for themselves. The followers of Shiite sects donate one fifth of their annual income (khumus) to their religious leeches.
8:41 And know that anything you profit, one-fifth shall go to God and the messenger, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the poor, and the wayfarer. You will do this if you believe in God and in what We revealed to Our servant on the Day of the Criterion, the day the two armies clashed; and God is capable of all things.
8:41 AND KNOW that whatever booty you acquire [in war], one-fifth thereof belongs to God and the Apostle, and the near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer.41 [This you must observe] if you believe in God and in what We bestowed from on high upon Our servant on the day when the true was distinguished from the false - the day when the two hosts met in battle. And God has the power to will anything.42
According to verse 1 of this surah, "all spoils of war belong to God and the Apostle", i.e., are to be administered by the authorities of an Islamic state in the interests of the common weal. Most of the great Islamic jurists are of the opinion that whereas four-fifths of all spoils may either be distributed among those who actively took part in the war effort or may be otherwise utilized for the welfare of the community, one-fifth must be reserved for the specific purposes enumerated in the above verse, including a share "for God and the Apostle" (which is obviously a metonym for a government that rules in accordance with the laws of the Qur'an and the teachings of God's Apostle); this latter share is to be used for the exigencies of state administration. Since a full discussion of this complex juridical problem would go far beyond the scope of these explanatory notes, the reader is referred, in particular, to Manar X, 4 ff., where the views of the classical exponents of Islamic jurisprudence are summarized. - For the term ibn as-sabil occurring in this verse, see surah 2, note 145. By "the near of kin and the orphans" apparently the relatives of fallen combatants are meant in this context.
Le., "He can grant you victory or can withhold it from you". The battle of Badr is described here as "the day when the true was distinguished from the false" (yawm al-furqan) because on that occasion a small and poorly armed group of believers utterly destroyed an infinitely better equipped army more than three times its number. The revelation referred to in this connection was God's promise of victory, given in verses 12-14 of this surah. (See also note 38 on 2:53.)
8:41 You should know that if you gain any spoils in war, one-fifth shall go to GOD and the messenger, to be given to the relatives, the orphans, the poor, and the traveling alien. You will do this if you believe in GOD and in what we revealed to our servant on the day of decision, the day the two armies clashed. GOD is Omnipotent.,
8:41 (You ask about the distribution of the spoils of war when you fight aggression and attain victory.) Whatever you take as spoils of war, a fifth of that is for God and the Messenger (the State). (And the rest) is for the families (of the fallen soldiers), those left alone in the society, the widows, the ones whose income has stalled for any reason, and the needy wayfarer, the homeless son of the street. This (you will do) if you believe in God and in what We have revealed to Our servant when the two armies met (at Badr) on the Day of Distinction. God has appointed due measure for all things and events.13
Families of the slain soldiers are included in context
8:42 اذ انتم بالعدوة الدنيا وهم بالعدوة القصوىا والركب اسفل منكم ولو تواعدتم لاختلفتم فى الميعاد ولاكن ليقضى الله امرا كان مفعولا ليهلك من هلك عن بينة ويحيىا من حى عن بينة وان الله لسميع عليم
8:42 Ith antum bialAAudwati alddunyawahum bialAAudwati alquswa waalrrakbuasfala minkum walaw tawaAAadtum laikhtalaftum feealmeeAAadi walakin liyaqdiya Allahuamran kana mafAAoolan liyahlika man halaka AAan bayyinatinwayahya man hayya AAan bayyinatin wa-innaAllaha lasameeAAun AAaleemun
Trust in God8:42 When you were on the near side, and they were on the far side, then the supply line became directly beneath you. Had you planned for this meeting, you would have disagreed on its timing, but God was to enforce a command that was already done. So that He would destroy those to be destroyed with proof, and to let those who will live be alive with proof. God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
8:42 When you were on the near side, and they were on the far side, then the supply line became directly beneath you. And if you had planned for this meeting, you would have disagreed on its timing, but God was to enforce a command that was already done. So that He would destroy those to be destroyed with proof, and to let those who will live be alive with proof; and God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
8:42 [Remember that day] when you were at the near end of the valley [of Badr], and they were at its farthest end, while the caravan was below you.43 And if you had known that a battle was to take place, you would indeed have refused to accept the challenge:44 but [the battle was brought about none the less,] so that God might accomplish a thing [which He willed] to be done,45 [and] that he who would perish might perish in clear evidence of the truth, and that he who would remain alive might live in clear evidence of the truth.46 And, behold, God is indeed all-hearing, all-knowing.
Before the beginning of the battle, the Prophet and his followers were encamped in the northern part of the valley of Badr, nearest to Medina, while their enemies, having come from Mecca, occupied its southern part. The Meccan trade caravan, coming from Syria under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, was in the meantime proceeding southwards through the coastal lowlands (see introductory note to this surah).
This is a very free rendering of the elliptic phrase which runs, literally, thus: "And if you had mutually made an appointment, you would indeed have failed to keep the appointment" - i.e., for battle. As already mentioned in the introductory note to this surah, most of the Prophet's followers had been under the impression that their objective was the relatively weak trade caravan, and some of them were dismayed at finding themselves face to face with the powerful Quraysh army advancing from the south.
According to all the commentators, the words interpolated be me between brackets are implied in this highly elliptical sentence. Literally translated, its last words might be rendered as "a thing that was [already] done": meaning that if God decrees a thing, it must inevitably come about, and may therefore be described as already done.
Some of the great commentators understand this sentence in a metaphorical sense, with "destruction" signifying persistence in denying the truth (kufr), and "life" being synonymous with faith. According to this interpretation, the above sentence would have the following meaning: ' . . . so that the denial of the truth on the part of him who has denied it, and the faith of him who has attained to it, might become clearly evident" (Zamakhshari); or "let him who is bent on denying the truth go on denying it after this clear evidence of God's will, and let him who has attained to belief go on believing" (Ibn Is'haq, as quoted by Ibn Kathir). In my opinion, however, it is preferable to interpret the references to death and life in their prima-facie (that is, not metaphorical) sense - namely, as applying to the death or survival of all who took part in the battle of Badr, believers and unbelievers alike: the believers who fell in that battle died conscious of being martyrs in God's cause, and those who survived could now clearly discern God's hand in their victory; while the dead among the deniers of the truth had clearly given their lives for nothing, and those of them who survived must now realize that their crushing defeat was due, in the last resort, to something infinitely greater than the valour of the Muslims (cf. verse 17, and the corresponding notes).
God Controls Everything and Plans for the Believers8:42 Recall that you were on this side of the valley, while they were on the other side. Then their caravan had to move to lower ground. Had you planned it this way, you could not have done it. But GOD was to carry out a predetermined matter, whereby those destined to be annihilated were annihilated for an obvious reason, and those destined to be saved were saved for an obvious reason. GOD is Hearer, Omniscient.,
8:42 Remember you were on this, (the Madinah)side of the Valley (of Badr), and they were on the farther (Makkah) side of the Valley. And the caravan of the Makkans was on lower ground than you (proceeding south along the low western coast, from Syria to Makkah). Had you attacked the caravan, it would not have accomplished God’s will on a matter already decided, that those who died may die after a clear sign, and those who lived may live after a clear sign. He wanted you to have a decisive victory over the hostile army. God has decreed that the truth shall live and falsehood shall vanish. God is Hearer, Knower.14
My interpolation of the locations can easily be discerned on a good map
8:43 اذ يريكهم الله فى منامك قليلا ولو ارىاكهم كثيرا لفشلتم ولتنازعتم فى الامر ولاكن الله سلم انه عليم بذات الصدور
8:43 Ith yureekahumu Allahu fee manamikaqaleelan walaw arakahum katheeran lafashiltum walatanazaAAtumfee al-amri walakinna Allaha sallama innahuAAaleemun bithati alssudoori
8:43 God shows them to you as being few in your dream, and had He shown them to be many, then you would have failed and you would have disputed in the matter; it was God who saved you. He is the Knower of what is inside the chests.7
8:43 God showed them to you as being few in your dream, and if He had shown them to you to be many, then you would have failed and you would have disputed in the matter, but God saved you. He is the Knower of what is in the chests.
8:43 Lo! God showed them to thee in a dream as few:47 for, had He shown them to you as many, you would surely have lost heart, and would surely have disagreed with one another about what to do.48 But God saved [you from this]: verily, He has full knowledge of what is the hearts [of men].
Lit., "in thy dream"-obviously relating to a dream which the Prophet had had just before the encounter at Badr. We have no authentic Tradition to this effect, but the tabi'i Mujahid is quoted as having said, "God had shown the enemies to the Prophet, in a dream, as few; he informed his Companions accordingly, and this encouraged them greatly" (Razi and Ibn Kathir, with minor variants).
Lit., "about the matter" - i.e., about the advisability of giving battle or retreating.
8:43 GOD made them appear in your dream (O Muhammad) fewer in number. Had He made them appear more numerous, you would have failed, and you would have disputed among yourselves. But GOD saved the situation. He is Knower of the innermost thoughts.,
8:43 God made them few in your vision. Had He made them appear more numerous (and you got intimidated by their great numbers), you would have been discouraged. And you would have disputed among yourselves (whether fighting them at Badr was a good idea). But God saved you from faltering. He is fully Aware of what is in the hearts.
8:44 واذ يريكموهم اذ التقيتم فى اعينكم قليلا ويقللكم فى اعينهم ليقضى الله امرا كان مفعولا والى الله ترجع الامور
8:44 Wa-ith yureekumoohum ithiiltaqaytum fee aAAyunikum qaleelan wayuqallilukum fee aAAyunihimliyaqdiya Allahu amran kana mafAAoolan wa-ilaAllahi turjaAAu al-omooru
8:44 He showed them to you when you met as being few to your eyes, and He made you appear as being fewer to their eyes. That was so God's decree would come to be; and to God all matters are returned.
8:44 And He showed them to you when you met as being few to your eyes, and He made you appear as being fewer to their eyes. That was so the decree of God would come to be; and to God all matters are returned.
8:44 And so, when you met in battle, He made them appear as few in your eyes -just as He made you appear as of little account in their eyes - so that God might accomplish a thing [which He willed] to be done:49 for all things go back to God [as their source].
See note 45 above. Since at the time of the actual encounter the Muslims could no longer be in doubt as to the great number of the enemy force, the phrase "He made them appear as few in your eyes" has obviously a metaphorical meaning: it implies that, by that time, the Prophet's followers were so full of courage that the enemy appeared insignificant to them. The Quraysh, on the other hand, were so conscious of their own power and numerical superiority that the Muslims appeared but of little account to them - a mistake which ultimately cost them the battle and a great number of lives.
8:44 And when the time came and you faced them, He made them appear fewer in your eyes, and made you appear fewer in their eyes as well. For GOD willed to carry out a certain plan. All decisions are made by GOD.,
8:44 When the two armies faced each other, He made them appear few in your eyes, and made you appear weak in their eyes (3:12). God willed that to be the Day of Distinction. All matters go back to God’s laws as their source.
8:45 ياايها الذين ءامنوا اذا لقيتم فئة فاثبتوا واذكروا الله كثيرا لعلكم تفلحون
8:45 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooitha laqeetum fi-atan faothbutoo waothkurooAllaha katheeran laAAallakum tuflihoona
8:45 O you who acknowledge, when you meet an armed group, stand firm and mention God frequently, that you may succeed.
8:45 O you who believe, when you meet a force, stand firm and mention God excessively, that you may succeed.
8:45 [Hence,] O you who have attained to faith, when you meet a host in battle, be firm, and remember God often; so that you might attain to a happy state!
8:45 O you who believe, when you encounter an army, you shall hold fast and commemorate GOD frequently, that you may succeed.,
8:45 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Whenever you meet an army, be firm and remember God much, that you may be successful. [8:10]
8:46 واطيعوا الله ورسوله ولا تنازعوا فتفشلوا وتذهب ريحكم واصبروا ان الله مع الصابرين
8:46 WaateeAAoo Allaha warasoolahuwala tanazaAAoo fatafshaloo watathhaba reehukumwaisbiroo inna Allaha maAAa alssabireena
8:46 You should obey God and His messenger, and do not dispute; else you will fail and your strength will depart. You should also patiently persevere. God is with the ones who patiently persevere.
8:46 And obey God and His messenger, and do not dispute else you will fail and your momentum will depart, and be patient. God is with the patient.
8:46 And pay heed unto God and His Apostle, and do not [allow yourselves to] be at variance with one another, lest you lose heart and your moral strength desert you.50 And be patient in adversity: for, verily, God is with those who are patient in adversity.
The relevant word is rih, which literally signifies "wind"; it is used metaphorically to denote "spirit" or "moral strength".
8:46 You shall obey GOD and His messenger, and do not dispute among yourselves, lest you fail and scatter your strength. You shall steadfastly persevere. GOD is with those who steadfastly persevere.,
8:46 Obey God and His Messenger (the Central Authority) and do not fall into disputation, lest you falter and lose your strength. Be steadfast, for certainly, God is with the steadfast.
8:47 ولا تكونوا كالذين خرجوا من ديارهم بطرا ورئاء الناس ويصدون عن سبيل الله والله بما يعملون محيط
8:47 Wala takoonoo kaallatheenakharajoo min diyarihim bataran wari-aa alnnasiwayasuddoona AAan sabeeli Allahi waAllahubima yaAAmaloona muheetun
8:47 Do not be like those who came out from their homes to boast and to be seen by men, and they repel others away from the path of God. God encompasses of what they do.
8:47 And do not be like those who came out from their homes to boast and to be seen by the people, and they repel others from the path of God; and God is aware of what they do.
8:47 And be not like those [unbelievers] who went forth from their homelands full of self-conceit and a desire to be seen and praised by men51 for they were trying to turn others away from the path of God -the while God encompassed all their doings [with His might].
A reference to the Quraysh army which set forth from Mecca under the leadership of Abu Jahl in the conviction that they would destroy the Prophet and his followers. These words imply a warning to the believers, of all times, never to go to war boastfully and for the sake of empty glory.
8:47 Do not be like those who left their homes grudgingly, only to show off, and in fact discouraged others from following the path of GOD. GOD is fully aware of everything they do.,
8:47 Do not be like the disbelievers who come out of their homes boastfully and to show off, although they come forth to hinder people from the path of God. And God encompasses all their doings.
8:48 واذ زين لهم الشيطان اعمالهم وقال لا غالب لكم اليوم من الناس وانى جار لكم فلما تراءت الفئتان نكص علىا عقبيه وقال انى برىء منكم انى ارىا ما لا ترون انى اخاف الله والله شديد العقاب
8:48 Wa-ith zayyana lahumu alshshaytanuaAAmalahum waqala la ghaliba lakumualyawma mina alnnasi wa-innee jarun lakumfalamma taraati alfi-atani nakasaAAala AAaqibayhi waqala innee baree-on minkum inneeara ma la tarawna innee akhafu AllahawaAllahu shadeedu alAAiqabi
8:48 The devil adorned their work for them, and he said, "None from the people can defeat you today, and I am by your side." But when the two forces came together, he turned on his heels to flee and he said, "I am innocent from you! I see what you do not see. I fear God, and God is severe in punishment."8
Satan's fear (khafy) is without reverence (khashya).
8:48 And the devil adorned their work for them, and he said: "No people can defeat you today, and I am by your side." But when the two forces came together, he turned back on his heels and he said: "I am innocent from you! I see what you do not see. I fear God, and God is severe in punishment."
8:48 And, lo, Satan made all their doings seem goodly to them, and said, "No one can overcome you this day, for, behold, I shall be your protector !"52 but as soon as the two hosts came within sight of one another, he turned on his heels and said, "Behold, I am not responsible for you: behold, I see something that you do not see: behold, I fear God-for God is severe in retribution !"53
Lit., "your neighbour"-an expression derived from the ancient Arabian principle that a man is honour-bound to aid and protect his neighbours.
This allegory of Satan's blandishments and of his subsequent abandonment of the sinner occurs, in a more general form, in 59:16.
The Devil Sees God's Invisible Soldiers8:48 The devil had adorned their works in their eyes, and said, "You cannot be defeated by any people today," and "I will be fighting along with you." But as soon as the two armies faced each other, he turned back on his heels and fled, saying, "I disown you. I see what you do not see. I am afraid of GOD. GOD's retribution is awesome.",
8:48 There was a group of Satanic conspirators, the hypocrites, who praised the disbelievers’ actions, “You cannot be overcome by any people today, and we will be fighting along with you as allies.” But as soon as the two armies came face to face, they turned back on their heels and fled, saying, “We disown you, we see what you do not. We are afraid of God Who has instilled faith in the hearts of the believers. God is Strict in grasping.”
8:49 اذ يقول المنافقون والذين فى قلوبهم مرض غر هاؤلاء دينهم ومن يتوكل على الله فان الله عزيز حكيم
8:49 Ith yaqoolu almunafiqoona waallatheenafee quloobihim maradun gharra haola-ideenuhum waman yatawakkal AAala Allahi fa-inna AllahaAAazeezun hakeemun
8:49 The hypocrites and those who have a disease in their hearts said, "These people have been deceived by their system." But whoever puts his trust in God, then God is Noble, Wise.
8:49 The hypocrites and those who have a disease in their hearts said: "These people have been deceived by their system." But whoever puts his trust in God, then God is Noble, Wise.
8:49 At the same time, the hypocrites and those in whose hearts was disease were saying, "Their faith has deluded these [believers] !"54 But he who places his trust in God [knows that], verily, God is almighty, wise.
I.e., into thinking that in spite of their numerical weakness and lack of arms, they could withstand the powerful Meccan army. The term din, often denoting "religion", obviously stands here for the attitude one has towards his religion: in another word, one's faith. "Those in whose hearts was disease" is a reference to the vacillating and faint-hearted among the Prophet's followers, who were afraid of meeting the Quraysh in battle.-The particle idh which introduces this sentence has often the meaning of "when"; in this case, however, it signifies "at the same time".
8:49 The hypocrites and those who harbored doubt in their hearts said, "These people are deceived by their religion." However, if one puts his trust in GOD, then GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.,
8:49 The hypocrites, and those who harbor doubts in their hearts, taunted the believers, “Their religion has deluded them." But, whoever puts his trust in God, will find that God is Exalted in Might, Wise.
8:50 ولو ترىا اذ يتوفى الذين كفروا الملائكة يضربون وجوههم وادبارهم وذوقوا عذاب الحريق
8:50 Walaw tara ith yatawaffaallatheena kafaroo almala-ikatu yadriboonawujoohahum waadbarahum wathooqoo AAathaba alhareeqi
8:50 If you could only see as the controllers take those who have rejected, they strike their faces and their backs: "Taste the punishment of the blazing fire!"
8:50 And if you could only see as the angels terminate the lives of those who have rejected, they strike their faces and their backs: "Taste the punishment of the blazing Fire!"
8:50 AND IF thou couldst but see [how it will be] when He causes those who are bent on denying the truth to die: the angels will strike their faces: and their backs,55 and [will say]: "Taste suffering through fire
Or: ". . . when the angels gather in death those who were bent on denying the truth. they strike.. .", etc. -depending on whether one attributes the pronoun in yatawaffa to the angels, which gives the reading "they gather [them] in death", or to God, in which case it means "He causes [them] to die" (Zamakhshari and Razi).-The beating of the sinners' faces and backs is. according to Razi, an allegory of their suffering in the life to come in consequence of their having denied the truth while alive in this world: "They have utter darkness behind them and utter darkness before them-and this is the meaning of the words, '[the angels] strike their faces and their backs'." Most of the commentators assume that this passage refers specifically to the pagan Quraysh who fell in the battle of Badr; but while it undoubtedly does apply to them, there is no reason, in my opinion. to restrict its import to this particular historical event-especially in view of the subsequent passages (up to and including verse 55), which obviously refer to all who are "bent on denying the truth".
8:50 If you could only see those who disbelieved when the angels put them to death! They will beat them on their faces and their rear ends: "Taste the retribution of Hell.,
8:50 Only if you could perceive how the rejecters leave this world, as the angels put them to death. It is as if they were smiting their faces and backs, “Taste the doom of burning.”
8:51 ذالك بما قدمت ايديكم وان الله ليس بظلام للعبيد
8:51 Thalika bima qaddamat aydeekumwaanna Allaha laysa bithallaminlilAAabeedi
8:51 "This is for what your hands have put forth, and God does not wrong the servants."
8:51 "This is for what your hands have delivered, and God does not wrong the servants."
8:51 in return for what your own hands have wrought - for, never does God do the least wrong to His creatures!"
8:51 "This is a consequence of what your hands have sent forth. GOD is never unjust towards the creatures.",
8:51 “It is the result of your deeds that you sent forth with your own hands. God is never a tyrant over His servants.” [3:182]
8:52 كداب ءال فرعون والذين من قبلهم كفروا بايات الله فاخذهم الله بذنوبهم ان الله قوى شديد العقاب
8:52 Kada/bi ali firAAawna waallatheenamin qablihim kafaroo bi-ayati Allahi faakhathahumuAllahu bithunoobihim inna Allaha qawiyyunshadeedu alAAiqabi
8:52 Like the behavior of the people of Pharaoh, and those before them; they rejected God's signs, so God took them for their sins. God is Strong, severe in punishment.
8:52 Like the behavior of the people of Pharaoh, and those before them; they rejected the signs of God, so God took them by their sins. God is Strong, severe in punishment.
8:52 [To them shall happen.] the like of what happened to Pharaoh's people and those who lived before them: they denied the truth of God's messagesand so God took them to task for their sins. Verily, God is powerful, severe in retribution!
8:52 This is the same fate as that of Pharaoh's people and those who disbelieved before them. They rejected GOD's revelations, and GOD punished them for their sins. GOD is powerful, and His retribution is severe.,
8:52 (They were made aware of history but) they ended up like Pharaoh's people, and those before them. They rejected God's messages, and God (through His laws) seized them for trailing behind in humanity. God is Strong, Strict in grasping.15
Zanb = Tail = Trailing behind = Sticking a slander behind someone’s back
8:53 ذالك بان الله لم يك مغيرا نعمة انعمها علىا قوم حتىا يغيروا ما بانفسهم وان الله سميع عليم
8:53 Thalika bi-anna Allaha lamyaku mughayyiran niAAmatan anAAamaha AAala qawmin hattayughayyiroo ma bi-anfusihim waanna Allaha sameeAAunAAaleemun
To Change The Negative Conditions You Need First To Change Yourself8:53 That is because God was not to change anything He bestowed to a people, unless they change what is in themselves. God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
8:53 That is because God was not to change any blessing He bestowed upon a people, unless they change what is in themselves. God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
8:53 This, because God would never change56 the blessings with which He has graced a people unless they change their inner selves :57 and [know] that God is all-hearing, all-seeing.
For an explanation of the wide implications of this statement in the context of the law of cause and effect which God has decreed on His creation (and which is described elsewhere in the Qur'an as sunnat Allah. "the way of God"), see my note on the phrase "God does not change men's condition unless they change their inner selves" occurring in 13:11.
Retribution: A Consequence of Sin8:53 GOD does not change a blessing He has bestowed upon any people unless they themselves decide to change. GOD is Hearer, Omniscient.,
8:53 Thus it is. God never changes a blessing that He has bestowed upon a nation until they first change themselves. God is the One Who is Hearer, Knower. [13:11]
8:54 كداب ءال فرعون والذين من قبلهم كذبوا بايات ربهم فاهلكناهم بذنوبهم واغرقنا ءال فرعون وكل كانوا ظالمين
8:54 Kada/bi ali firAAawna waallatheenamin qablihim kaththaboo bi-ayati rabbihimfaahlaknahum bithunoobihim waaghraqna alafirAAawna wakullun kanoo thalimeena
8:54 Like the behavior of Pharaoh's people and those before them. They denied the signs of their Lord, so We destroyed them by their sins, and We drowned the people of Pharaoh; all of them were wicked.
8:54 Like the behavior of the people of Pharaoh, and those before them; they denied the signs of their Lord, so We destroyed them by their sins, and We drowned the people of Pharaoh; all of them were wicked.
8:54 [To those sinners shall happen] the like of what happened to Pharaoh's people and those who lived before them: they gave the lie to their Sustainer's messages - and so We destroyed them in return for their sins, and caused Pharaoh's people to drown: for they were evildoers all.
8:54 Such was the case with the people of Pharaoh and others before them. They first rejected the signs of their Lord. Consequently, we annihilated them for their sins. We drowned Pharaoh's people; the wicked were consistently punished.,
8:54 Pharaoh’s people and those before them are examples. They denied the messages of their Lord. They trailed behind in humanity and We (Our law) annihilated them. Pharaoh’s people were drowned. They had chosen to do wrong and used to violate human rights.
8:55 ان شر الدواب عند الله الذين كفروا فهم لا يؤمنون
8:55 Inna sharra alddawabbi AAindaAllahi allatheena kafaroo fahum la yu/minoona
8:55 The worst creatures to God are those who reject, for they do not acknowledge.
8:55 The worst creatures to God are those who reject, for they do not believe.
8:55 Verily, the vilest creatures in the sight of God are those who are bent on denying the truth and therefore do not believe.58
Cf. verse 22 of this surah, where the same epithet is applied to human beings "who do not use their reason". In the present instance, it should be noted, the particle fa at the beginning of the phrase fa-hum Ia yu'minun has the meaning of "and therefore" ("and therefore they do not believe"): thus showing that lack of belief in spiritual verities is a consequence of one's being "bent on denying the truth". Expressed in positive terms, this amounts to the statement that belief in any ethical proposition depends on one's readiness to consider it on its merits and to admit the truth of whatever one's mind judges to be in conformity with other-empirically or intuitively established-truths. As regards the expression alladhina kafaru, the use of the past tense is meant here, as so often in the Qur'an, to stress the element of intention, and is, therefore, consistently rendered by me - wherever the context warrants it - as "those who are bent on denying the truth" (see also surah 2, note 6).
8:55 The worst creatures in the sight of GOD are those who disbelieved; they cannot believe.,
8:55 The worst among creatures in God's Sight are those who oppose the truth. They show ingratitude by not using their God-given faculties and thus fail to believe.16
Not using our God-given faculties and potentials is extreme ingratitude
8:56 الذين عاهدت منهم ثم ينقضون عهدهم فى كل مرة وهم لا يتقون
8:56 Allatheena AAahadta minhumthumma yanqudoona AAahdahum fee kulli marratin wahum layattaqoona
War and Peace8:56 The ones whom you made a pledge with them, then they break their pledge every time, and they do not care.
8:56 Those of them with whom you made a pledge, then they break their pledge every time, and they do take heed.
8:56 AS FOR THOSE with whom thou hast made a covenant, and who thereupon break their covenant on every occasion,59 not being conscious of God-
Lit., "every time". The covenants referred to are agreements between the Muslim community and non-Muslim political groupments. Although this passage is addressed. in the first instance, to the Prophet, the "thou" relates here to every follower of the Qur'an and, thus, to the Muslim community of all times. With the above verse, the discourse returns to the subject of war with unbelievers to which most of this surah is devoted. The reference to the unbelievers' "breaking their covenants" has two implications: firstly, that the establishment of covenants (i.e., of peaceful relations) with non-Muslims is not only permissible but, in fact. desirable (cf. verse 61): and, secondly, that the Muslims may resort to war only if and when the other party is openly hostile to them.
8:56 You reach agreements with them, but they violate their agreements every time; they are not righteous.,
8:56 Those with whom you have made a peace treaty, and then at every opportunity they break their treaty, certainly violate the Divine laws.
8:57 فاما تثقفنهم فى الحرب فشرد بهم من خلفهم لعلهم يذكرون
8:57 Fa-imma tathqafannahum fee alharbifasharrid bihim man khalfahum laAAallahum yaththakkaroona
8:57 So, when you encounter them in battle, set them as an example to those who would come after them; perhaps they may remember.
8:57 So, when you encounter them in battle, set them as an example for those who will come after them; perhaps they may remember.
8:57 if thou find them at war [with you], make of them a fearsome example for those who follow them,60 so that they might take it to heart;
Lit., "put to flight, by means of them, those who come after them"; or "terrify through them those who follow them": i.e., "fight against them and inflict an exemplary punishment on them".
8:57 Therefore, if you encounter them in war, you shall set them up as a deterrent example for those who come after them, that they may take heed.,
8:57 When you encounter them in war, deal with them to set an example for those who come after them, that they may remember.
8:58 واما تخافن من قوم خيانة فانبذ اليهم علىا سواء ان الله لا يحب الخائنين
8:58 Wa-imma takhafanna min qawminkhiyanatan fainbith ilayhim AAalasawa-in inna Allaha la yuhibbu alkha-ineena
8:58 If you are being betrayed by a people, then you shall likewise move against them. God does not like the betrayers.
8:58 And if you are being betrayed by a people, then you shall likewise move against them. God does not love the betrayers.
8:58 or, if thou hast reason to fear treachery61 from people [with whom thou hast made a covenant], cast it back at them in an equitable manner:62 for, verily, God does not love the treacherous!
The "reason to fear treachery" must not, of course, be based on mere surmise but on clear, objective evidence (Tabari, Baghawi, Razi; also Manar X, 58).
I.e., "renounce the covenant in an equitable manner (`ala sawa')"., Tabari explains this sentence thus: "Before making war on them, inform them that because of the clear evidence of their treachery thou hast renounced the treaty which existed between thee and them, so that both thou and they should know that thou art at war with them." Baghawi, in his commentary on this verse, gives an almost identical interpretation and adds, "so that they should not be under the false impression that thou hast renounced the treaty after having started the war." Thus. the concluding sentence of this verse - "God does not love the treacherous" - is a warning to the believers as well as to their enemies (Manar X, 58 f.).
8:58 When you are betrayed by a group of people, you shall mobilize against them in the same manner. GOD does not love the betrayers.,
8:58 If you anticipate treachery and breach of treaty, then fairly return the treaty back to them. God does not love the treacherous.
8:59 ولا يحسبن الذين كفروا سبقوا انهم لا يعجزون
8:59 Wala yahsabanna allatheenakafaroo sabaqoo innahum la yuAAjizoona
8:59 Let not those who have rejected think that they have escaped; they will never avail themselves.
8:59 And let not those who have rejected think that they have escaped; they will never avail themselves.
8:59 And let them not think - those who are bent on denying the truth -that they shall escapee63 [God]: behold, they can never frustrate [His purpose].
Lit., "that they have outstripped".
8:59 Let not those who disbelieve think that they can get away with it; they can never escape.,
8:59 Let not the rejecters think that they can get away with their violations. They cannot escape the Law of Requital.
8:60 واعدوا لهم ما استطعتم من قوة ومن رباط الخيل ترهبون به عدو الله وعدوكم وءاخرين من دونهم لا تعلمونهم الله يعلمهم وما تنفقوا من شىء فى سبيل الله يوف اليكم وانتم لا تظلمون
8:60 WaaAAiddoo lahum ma istataAAtummin quwwatin wamin ribati alkhayli turhiboona bihiAAaduwwa Allahi waAAaduwwakum waakhareena mindoonihim la taAAlamoonahumu Allahu yaAAlamuhum wamatunfiqoo min shay-in fee sabeeli Allahi yuwaffa ilaykumwaantum la tuthlamoona
8:60 Prepare for them all that you can of might, and from horse powers, that you may instill fear with it towards God's enemy and your enemy, and others beside them whom you do not know but God knows them. Whatever you spend in the cause of God will be returned to you, and you will not be wronged.
8:60 And prepare for them all that you can of might, and from the steeds of war, that you may instill terror with it towards the enemy of God and your enemy, and others besides them whom you do not know but God knows them. And whatever you spend in the cause of God will be returned to you, and you will not be wronged.
8:60 Hence, make ready against them whatever force and war mounts64 you are able to muster, so that you might deter thereby the enemies of God, who are your enemies as well,65 and others besides them of whom you may be unaware, [but] of whom God is aware; and whatever you may expend66 in God's cause shall be repaid to you in full, and you shall not be wronged.
Lit., "tethering of horses" (ribat al-khavl): an expression which signifies "holding in readiness mounted troups at all points open to enemy invasion (thughur)"; hence, tropically, the over-all maintenance of military preparedness.
Lit., "God's enemy and your enemy" - implying that every "enemy of God" (i.e., everyone who deliberately opposes and seeks to undermine the moral laws laid down by God) is, eo ipso, an enemy of those who believe in Him.
I.e., of resources, efforts and sacrifice of life.
You Shall Be Prepared: A Divine Commandment8:60 You shall prepare for them all the power you can muster, and all the equipment you can mobilize, that you may frighten the enemies of GOD, your enemies, as well as others who are not known to you; GOD knows them. Whatever you spend in the cause of GOD will be repaid to you generously, without the least injustice.,
8:60 Make ready for them all the power you can muster, and all the equipment you can mobilize so that you may deter the enemies of God, and your enemies. And others beside them whom you know not, but God knows them. Whatever wealth and effort you spend on your defenses, will be your expenditure in the cause of God, and it will be repaid to you generously. And you shall not be wronged at all.
8:61 وان جنحوا للسلم فاجنح لها وتوكل على الله انه هو السميع العليم
8:61 Wa-in janahoo lilssalmi faijnahlaha watawakkal AAala Allahi innahu huwa alssameeAAualAAaleemu
8:61 If they seek peace, then you also seek it, and put your trust in God. He is the Hearer, the Knowledgeable.
8:61 And if they seek peace, then you also seek it, and put your trust in God. He is the Hearer, the Knowledgeable.
8:61 But if they incline to peace, incline thou to it as well, and place thy trust in God: verily, He alone is all-hearing, all-knowing!
8:61 If they resort to peace, so shall you, and put your trust in GOD. He is the Hearer, the Omniscient.,
8:61 When they incline to peace, you shall incline to it, and trust in God. He is the Hearer, the Knower.
8:62 وان يريدوا ان يخدعوك فان حسبك الله هو الذى ايدك بنصره وبالمؤمنين
8:62 Wa-in yureedoo an yakhdaAAooka fa-inna hasbakaAllahu huwa allathee ayyadaka binasrihi wabialmu/mineena
8:62 If they wish to deceive you, then God is sufficient for you. He is the One who supported you with His victory and with those who acknowledge.
8:62 And if they wish to deceive you, then God is sufficient for you. He is the One who supported you with His victory and with the believers.
8:62 And should they seek but to deceive thee [by their show of peace] - behold, God is enough for thee!67 He it is who has strengthened thee with His succour, and by giving thee believing followers68
The implication is that "even if they offer peace only with a view to deceiving thee, this [offer of] peace must be accepted, since all judgment [of their intentions] must be based on outward evidence alone" (Razi): in other words, mere suspicion cannot be made an excuse for rejecting an offer of peace.
Lit., "and by the believers": thus signifying the visible means (wasitah) by which God succoured the Prophet.
God Suffices the Believers8:62 If they want to deceive you, then GOD will suffice you. He will help you with His support, and with the believers.,
8:62 And if they intend to deceive you, God will be Sufficient for you. He will strengthen you (O Messenger) with His support, and with the believers.17
An offer of peace should not be rejected for undue suspicion
8:63 والف بين قلوبهم لو انفقت ما فى الارض جميعا ما الفت بين قلوبهم ولاكن الله الف بينهم انه عزيز حكيم
8:63 Waallafa bayna quloobihim law anfaqta mafee al-ardi jameeAAan ma allafta bayna quloobihimwalakinna Allaha allafa baynahum innahu AAazeezun hakeemun
8:63 He made unity between their hearts. Had you spent all that is on earth, you would not have united between their hearts, but God united between them. He is Noble, Wise.
8:63 And He made unity between their hearts. And if you had spent all that is on the earth, you would not have united between their hearts, but God united between them. He is Noble, Wise.
8:63 whose hearts He has brought together: [for,] if thou hadst expended all that is on earth, thou couldst not have brought their hearts together [by thyself]: but God did bring them together. Verily, He is almighty, wise.
8:63 He has reconciled the hearts (of the believers). Had you spent all the money on earth, you could not reconcile their hearts. But GOD did reconcile them. He is Almighty, Most Wise.,
8:63 God has brought together the hearts of the believers. If you (O Messenger) had spent all that is on earth, you could not have produced that affection, but God has done it. (The Divine Ideology has unified the believers.) He is Almighty, Wise.
8:64 ياايها النبى حسبك الله ومن اتبعك من المؤمنين
8:64 Ya ayyuha alnnabiyyu hasbukaAllahu wamani ittabaAAaka mina almu/mineena
8:64 O prophet, God is sufficient for you and those who acknowledged among your followers.9
Traditional translations dilute the sufficiency of God by including those who acknowledge as the second subject besides God, rather than another object besides Muhammed. They translate the verse as "God and the believers who follow you suffice for you."
8:64 O prophet, God is sufficient for you,and whoever followed you from the believers.
8:64 O Prophet! God is enough for thee and those of the believers who follow thee!
8:64 O you prophet, sufficient for you is GOD and the believers who have followed you.,
8:64 O Prophet! God is Sufficient for you and the believers who follow you.
8:65 ياايها النبى حرض المؤمنين على القتال ان يكن منكم عشرون صابرون يغلبوا مائتين وان يكن منكم مائة يغلبوا الفا من الذين كفروا بانهم قوم لا يفقهون
8:65 Ya ayyuha alnnabiyyu harridialmu/mineena AAala alqitali in yakun minkumAAishroona sabiroona yaghliboo mi-atayni wa-in yakunminkum mi-atun yaghliboo alfan mina allatheena kafaroobi-annahum qawmun la yafqahoona
8:65 O prophet, urge those who acknowledge to battle. If there are twenty of you who are patient, they will defeat two hundred. If there are one hundred of you, they will defeat one thousand from amongst those who reject; that is because they are a people who do not reason.
8:65 O prophet, urge the believers to fight. If there are twenty of you who are patient, they will defeat two hundred. And if there are one hundred of you, they will defeat one thousand from among those who reject; that is because they are a people who do not understand.
8:65 O Prophet! Inspire the believers to conquer all fear of death when fighting,69 [so that,] if there be twenty of you who are patient in adversity, they might overcome two hundred; and [that,] if there be one hundred of you, they might overcome one thousand of those who are bent on denying the truth, because they are people who cannot grasp it.70
For an explanation of the phrase harrid al-mu'minin, see surah 4, note 102. Consistently with my interpretation, the words `ala 'l-qital can be rendered here in either of two ways: "[with a view] to fighting" or "when fighting". On the basis of the conventional interpretation of the verb harrid as "urge" or "rouse", the phrase could be translated as "urge the believers to fight": but this. as I have pointed out in the earlier note referred to above, does not convey the true sense of this injunction.
8:65 O you prophet, you shall exhort the believers to fight. If there are twenty of you who are steadfast, they can defeat two hundred, and a hundred of you can defeat a thousand of those who disbelieved. That is because they are people who do not understand.,
8:65 O Prophet! Inspire the believers (to conquer all fear of death) in times of war. If there be twenty of you who are patient in adversity, they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be one hundred of you, they shall overcome one thousand of the opponents of the truth. This is because the rejecters of the truth are people who cannot understand (the Eternal rewards that motivate the believers).
8:66 الان خفف الله عنكم وعلم ان فيكم ضعفا فان يكن منكم مائة صابرة يغلبوا مائتين وان يكن منكم الف يغلبوا الفين باذن الله والله مع الصابرين
8:66 Al-ana khaffafa Allahu AAankumwaAAalima anna feekum daAAfan fa-in yakun minkum mi-atun sabiratunyaghliboo mi-atayni wa-in yakun minkum alfun yaghliboo alfaynibi-ithni Allahi waAllahu maAAa alssabireena
8:66 Now, God has lightened for you, for He knows that there is weakness in you. If there are one hundred of you who are patient, they will defeat two hundred. If there are one thousand of you, they will defeat two thousand by God's leave. God is with the patient.
8:66 Now, God has alleviated for you, for He knows that there is weakness in you. If there are one hundred of you who are patient, they will defeat two hundred. And if there are one thousand of you, they will defeat two thousand with the permission of God. God is with the patient.
8:66 For the time being, [however,] God has lightened your burden. for He knows that you are weak: and so, if there be one hundred of you who are patient in adversity, they should [be able to]' overcome two hundred; and if there be one thousand of you, they should [be able to] overcome two thousand by God's leave: for God is with those who are patient in adversity.71
This relates to the time at which the above verse was revealed, namely, immediately after the battle of Badr (2 H.), when the Muslims were extremely weak both in numbers and in equipment, and their community had not yet attained to any significant degree of political organization. Under those circumstances, the Qur'an says, they could not - nor could any Muslim community of later times, in similar circumstances-be expected to bring forth the effort and the efficiency required of a fully developed community of believers; but even so they should be able to stand up to an enemy twice their number. (The proportions one to two, or - as in the preceding verse, one to ten - are not, of course, to be taken literally; as a matter of fact, the Muslims defeated at Badr a much better armed army more than thrice their own number.) The reference to God's having "lightened the burden" imposed on the believers in this respect makes it clear that both this and the preceding verse imply a divine command couched in terms of exhortation, and not a prediction of events to come (Razi).
8:66 Now (that many new people have joined you) GOD has made it easier for you, for He knows that you are not as strong as you used to be. Henceforth, a hundred steadfast believers can defeat two hundred, and a thousand of you can defeat two thousand by GOD's leave. GOD is with those who steadfastly persevere.,
8:66 For the time being, however, God has lightened your burden, for He knows that you are weak. And so, if there be one hundred of you who are steadfast in adversity, they should be able to overcome two hundred; and if there be one thousand of you, they should be able to overcome two thousand by God’s leave. God is with those who are steadfast in adversity.
8:67 ما كان لنبى ان يكون له اسرىا حتىا يثخن فى الارض تريدون عرض الدنيا والله يريد الءاخرة والله عزيز حكيم
8:67 Ma kana linabiyyin an yakoonalahu asra hatta yuthkhina fee al-arditureedoona AAarada alddunya waAllahuyureedu al-akhirata waAllahu AAazeezun hakeemun
Slavery Prohibited8:67 It was not for any prophet to take prisoners unless it was in battle. You desire the materials of this world, while God wants the Hereafter for you. God is Noble, Wise.10
8:67 And it was not for any prophet to take prisoners until he is bound by a campaign. You desire the materials of this world, while God wants the Hereafter for you. God is Noble, Wise.
8:67 IT DOES NOT behove a prophet to keep captives unless he has battled strenuously on earth.72 You may desire the fleeting gains of this world-but God desires [for you the good of] the life to come: and God is almighty, wise.
I.e., as an aftermath of a war in a just cause. As almost always in the Qur'an, an injunction addressed to the Prophet is, by implication, binding on his followers as well. Consequently, the above verse lays down that no person may be taken, or for any time retained, in captivity unless he was taken prisoner in a jihad-that is, a holy war in defence of the Faith or of freedom (regarding which see surah 2, note 167) - and that, therefore, the acquisition of a slave by "peaceful" means, and the keeping of a slave thus acquired, is entirely prohibited: which, to all practical purposes, amounts to a prohitition of slavery as a "social institution". But even with regard to captives taken in war, the Qur'an ordains (in 47:4) that they should be freed after the war is over.
8:67 No prophet shall acquire captives, unless he participates in the fighting. You people are seeking the materials of this world, while GOD advocates the Hereafter. GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.,
8:67 It is beyond the dignity of a Prophet to hold any captives except during warfare in the region. You may desire the fleeting gains of this world, but God advocates the Hereafter. God is Almighty, Wise. (He knows your true welfare.)18
8:68 لولا كتاب من الله سبق لمسكم فيما اخذتم عذاب عظيم
8:68 Lawla kitabun mina Allahisabaqa lamassakum feema akhathtum AAathabunAAatheemun
8:68 Had it not been previously ordained from God, then a severe punishment would have afflicted you for what you took.
8:68 Had it not been previously ordained from God, then a severe punishment would have afflicted you for what you took.
8:68 Had it not been for a decree from God that had already gone forth, there would indeed have befallen you a tremendous chastisement on account of all [the captives] that you took.73
This is apparently a reference to the captives taken by the Muslims at Badr, and the discussions among the Prophet's followers as to what should be done with them. `Umar ibn al-Khattab was of the opinion that they should be killed in revenge for their past misdeeds, and in particular for their persecution of the Muslims before the latters' exodus to Medina; Abu Bakr, on the other hand, pleaded for forgiveness and a release of the prisoners against ransom, supporting his plea with the argument that such an act of mercy might induce some of them to realize the truth of Islam. The Prophet adopted the course of action advocated by Abu Bakr, and released the captives. (The relevant Traditions are quoted by most of the commentators, and especially-with full indication of the sources-by Tabari and Ibn Kathir.) The reference in the above verse to the "tremendous chastisement" that might have befallen the Muslims "but for a decree (kitab) from God that had already gone forth"-i.e., a course of action fore-ordained in God's knowledge makes it clear that the killing of the captives would have been an awesome sin.
8:68 If it were not for a predetermined decree from GOD, you would have suffered, on account of what you took, a terrible retribution.,
8:68 If God had not decreed upon Himself mercy, those of you who fell for temptation (of booty), would have faced a great retribution.
8:69 فكلوا مما غنمتم حلالا طيبا واتقوا الله ان الله غفور رحيم
8:69 Fakuloo mimma ghanimtum halalantayyiban waittaqoo Allaha inna Allahaghafoorun raheemun
8:69 So consume what you have gained, lawful and good, and be aware of God. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
8:69 So consume what you have gained, lawful and good, and be aware of God. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
8:69 Enjoy, then, all that is lawful and good among the things which you have gained in war, and remain conscious of God: verily, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
8:69 Therefore, eat from the spoils you have earned, that which is lawful and good, and observe GOD. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
8:69 (We have seen that you developed your character and established the Divine Order in the society. Then you had to fight off aggression) Now enjoy what you have won as lawful and good. Be mindful of God (His laws). Surely, God is Absolver of imperfections, Merciful.
8:70 ياايها النبى قل لمن فى ايديكم من الاسرىا ان يعلم الله فى قلوبكم خيرا يؤتكم خيرا مما اخذ منكم ويغفر لكم والله غفور رحيم
8:70 Ya ayyuha alnnabiyyuqul liman fee aydeekum mina al-asra in yaAAlami Allahufee quloobikum khayran yu/tikum khayran mimma okhithaminkum wayaghfir lakum waAllahu ghafoorun raheemun
Treat Prisoners of War With Dignity8:70 O prophet, say to those prisoners whom you hold: "If God finds in your hearts any good, He will grant you better than what He took from you, and He will forgive you. God is Forgiving, Compassionate."
8:70 O prophet, say to those prisoners whom you hold: "If God finds in your hearts any good, He will grant you better than what He took from you, and He will forgive you. God is Forgiving, Merciful."
8:70 [Hence,] O Prophet, say unto the captives who are in your hands: "If God finds any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than all that has been taken from you, and will forgive you your sins: for God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace."74
I.e., "If God finds in your hearts a disposition to realize the truth of His message, He will bestow on you faith and, thus, the good of the life to come: and this will outweigh by far your defeat in war and the loss of so many of your friends and companions." Although these words relate primarily to the pagan Quraysh taken prisoner in the battle of Badr, they circumscribe the Islamic attitude towards all unbelieving enemies who might fall into the believers' hands in the course of war. For a further discussion of the problem of prisoners of war, see 47:4.
8:70 O you prophet, tell the prisoners of war in your hands, "If GOD knew of anything good in your hearts, He would have given you better than anything you have lost, and would have forgiven you. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.",
8:70 O Prophet! Tell the captives of war who are in your hand, “If God sees any good in your hearts He will give you better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
8:71 وان يريدوا خيانتك فقد خانوا الله من قبل فامكن منهم والله عليم حكيم
8:71 Wa-in yureedoo khiyanataka faqad khanooAllaha min qablu faamkana minhum waAllahuAAaleemun hakeemun
8:71 If they want to betray you, they have already betrayed God before, and He overpowered them. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
8:71 And if they want to betray you, then they had already betrayed God before, but He has overpowered them; and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
8:71 And should they but seek to play false with thee75 -well, they were false to God [Himself] ere this: but He gave [the believers] mastery over them.76 And God is all-knowing, wise.
Le., by falsely pretending to a change of heart and an acceptance of Islam in order to be freed from the obligation of paying ransom.
Sc., "and He can, if He so wills, do it again". Thus, the Muslims are enjoined, by implication, to accept the declarations of the captives at their face value, and not to be swayed by mere suspicion of their motives. The possibility of treachery on the part of those captives, and even a later discovery that some of them had indeed played false, should not induce the Muslims to deviate from the course ordained by God.
8:71 And if they want to betray you, they have already betrayed GOD. This is why He made them the losers. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
8:71 If they have treacherous designs against you, well, they have already betrayed God before this, and so, He has given you power over them. God is Knower, Wise.
8:72 ان الذين ءامنوا وهاجروا وجاهدوا باموالهم وانفسهم فى سبيل الله والذين ءاووا ونصروا اولائك بعضهم اولياء بعض والذين ءامنوا ولم يهاجروا ما لكم من ولايتهم من شىء حتىا يهاجروا وان استنصروكم فى الدين فعليكم النصر الا علىا قوم بينكم وبينهم ميثاق والله بما تعملون بصير
8:72 Inna allatheena amanoo wahajaroowajahadoo bi-amwalihim waanfusihim fee sabeeli Allahiwaallatheena awaw wanasaroo ola-ikabaAAduhum awliyao baAAdin waallatheenaamanoo walam yuhajiroo ma lakum min walayatihimmin shay-in hatta yuhajiroo wa-ini istansarookumfee alddeeni faAAalaykumu alnnasru illaAAala qawmin baynakum wabaynahum meethaqun waAllahubima taAAmaloona baseerun
International Treaties Trump Other Allegiances8:72 Those who have acknowledged and emigrated and strived with their money and lives in the cause of God, and those who sheltered and supported; these are the allies of one another. Those who acknowledged but did not emigrate, you do not owe them any allegiance until they emigrate. But if they seek your help in the system, then you must support them, except if it is against a people with whom there is a treaty between you. God is watcher over what you do.11
This verse unequivocally states that the rule of law is above any other affiliation. Islam emphasizes the importance of the rule of law, justice and peace (16:91).
8:72 Those who have believed and emigrated and strived with their money and lives in the cause of God, and those who have sheltered and supported; these are the allies of one another. And those who believed but did not emigrate, you do not owe them any obligation until they emigrate. But if they seek your help in the system, then you must support them, except if it is against a people with whom there is a covenant between you and them. And God is Seer over what you do.
8:72 BEHOLD, as for those who have attained to faith, and who have forsaken the domain of evil77 and are striving hard, with their possessions and their lives, in God's cause, as well as those who shelter and succour [them]78 - these are [truly] the friends and protectors of one another. But as for those who have come to believe without having migrated [to your country]79 - you are in no wise responsible for their protection until such a time as they migrate [to you]. Yet, if they ask you for succour against religious persecution,80 it is your duty to give [them] this succour-except against a people between whom and yourselves there is a covenant:81 for God sees all that you do.
See surah 2, note 203. Historically, this expression relates to the Meccan Muslims who migrated with the Prophet to Medina; but the sequence makes it clear that the definitions and injunctions provided by this verse are in the nature of a-general law, valid for all times. With all this, it should be noted that the hijrah referred to here has a preponderantly physical connotation, implying an emigration from a non-Muslim country to a country ruled by the Law of Islam.
This refers, in the first instance, to the ansar at Medina-that is, to the newly-converted Muslims of that town, who gave shelter and whole-hearted aid to the muhajirfn ("emigrants") from Mecca before and after the Prophet's own migration thither: but, similar to the spiritual meaning attaching to the terms hijrah and muhajir, the expression ansar transcends its purely historical connotation and applies to all believers who aid and give comfort to "those who flee from evil unto God".
Le., those Muslims who, for some reason or other, remain outside the political jurisdiction of the Islamic state. Since not every non-Muslim country is necessarily a "domain of evil", I am rendering the phrase wa-lam yuha jiru as "without having migrated [to your country]".
Lit., "to succour them in religion": implying that they are exposed to persecution on account of their religious beliefs.
Le., a treaty of alliance or of non-interference in each other's internal affairs. Since in such cases an armed intervention of the Islamic state in behalf of the Muslim citizens of a non-Muslim state would constitute a breach of treaty obligations, the Islamic state is not allowed to seek redress by force. A solution of the problem could conceivably be brought about by negotiations between the two states or, alternatively, by an emigration of the persecuted Muslims.
8:72 Surely, those who believed, and emigrated, and strove with their money and their lives in the cause of GOD, as well as those who hosted them and gave them refuge, and supported them, they are allies of one another. As for those who believe, but do not emigrate with you, you do not owe them any support, until they do emigrate. However, if they need your help, as brethren in faith, you shall help them, except against people with whom you have signed a peace treaty. GOD is Seer of everything you do.,
8:72 Those who believed, emigrated, and strove with their possessions and lives in the cause of God, as well as those who hosted them and supported them (in Madinah), are close protecting friends of one another. For those who believed but stayed back (in Makkah), you do not owe them support until they migrate. But if they seek your help as sisters and brothers in Divine Ideology, then it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty. God is Seer of all you do.
8:73 والذين كفروا بعضهم اولياء بعض الا تفعلوه تكن فتنة فى الارض وفساد كبير
8:73 Waallatheena kafaroo baAAduhumawliyao baAAdin illa tafAAaloohu takunfitnatun fee al-ardi wafasadun kabeerun
8:73 As for those who reject, they are allies to one another. If you do not do this, then there will be oppression on earth and great corruption.
8:73 As for those who reject, they are allies to one another. If you do not do this, then there will be oppression on the earth and great corruption.
8:73 With all this, [remember that] those who are bent on denying the truth are allies of one another;82 and unless you act likewise [among yourselves], oppression will reign on earth, and great corruption.
The fact of their being bent on denying the truth of the divine message constitutes, as it were, a common denominator between them, and precludes the possibility of their ever being real friends to the believers. This refers; of course, to relations between communities, and not necessarily between individuals: hence my rendering of the term awliya', in this context, as "allies".
8:73 Those who disbelieved are allies of one another. Unless you keep these commandments, there will be chaos on earth, and terrible corruption.,
8:73 Those who reject the Divine message are protectors of one another. Unless you do this (help the immigrants and protect each other), there will be chaos in the land and great disorder.
8:74 والذين ءامنوا وهاجروا وجاهدوا فى سبيل الله والذين ءاووا ونصروا اولائك هم المؤمنون حقا لهم مغفرة ورزق كريم
8:74 Waallatheena amanoo wahajaroowajahadoo fee sabeeli Allahi waallatheenaawaw wanasaroo ola-ika humu almu/minoona haqqanlahum maghfiratun warizqun kareemun
8:74 Those who have acknowledged and emigrated and strived in the cause of God, and those who sheltered and supported, these are truly those who acknowledge. They will have forgiveness and a generous provision.
8:74 And those who have believed and emigrated and strived in the cause of God, and those who have sheltered and supported, these are truly the believers. They will have a forgiveness and a generous provision.
8:74 And they who have attained to faith, and who have forsaken the domain of evil and are striving hard in God's cause, as well as those who shelter and succour [them]-it is they, they who are truly believers! Forgiveness of sins awaits them, and a most excellent sustenance.83
See note 5 on verse 4 of this surah.
8:74 Those who believed and emigrated, and strove in the cause of GOD, as well as those who hosted them and gave them refuge, and supported them, these are the true believers. They have deserved forgiveness and a generous recompense.,
8:74 Those who believed and emigrated, and strove in the cause of God, and those who hosted them and supported them, are True believers. For them is protection of forgiveness and honorable provision.
8:75 والذين ءامنوا من بعد وهاجروا وجاهدوا معكم فاولائك منكم واولوا الارحام بعضهم اولىا ببعض فى كتاب الله ان الله بكل شىء عليم
8:75 Waallatheena amanoo minbaAAdu wahajaroo wajahadoo maAAakum faola-ikaminkum waoloo al-arhami baAAduhum awlabibaAAdin fee kitabi Allahi inna Allahabikulli shay-in AAaleemun
8:75 Those who acknowledged afterwards and emigrated and strived with you, then they are from you. The relatives by birth are also supportive of one another in God's book. God is aware of all things.
8:75 And those who believed afterwards and emigrated and strived with you, then they are from you. And the relatives by birth are also supportive of one another in the Book of God. God is aware of all things.
8:75 And as for those who henceforth come to believe,84 and who forsake the domain of evil and strive hard [in God's cause] together with you - these [too] shall belong to you;85 and they who are [thus] closely related have the highest claim on one another in [accordance with] God's decree.86 Verily, God has full knowledge of everything.
Although the expression alladhina amanu (lit., "those who have come to believe") is in the past tense, the words min ba'd ("afterwards" or "henceforth") indicate a future time in relation to the time at which this verse was revealed: hence, the whole sentence beginning with alladhina amanu must be understood as referring to the future (Manar X, 134f.; see also Razi's commentary on this verse).
Le., they, too, shall belong to the brotherhood of Islam, in which the faith held in common supplies the decisive bond between believer and believer.
The classical commentators are of the opinion that this last clause refers to actual family relations, as distinct from the spiritual brotherhood based on a community of faith. According to these commentators, the above sentence abolished the custom which was prevalent among the early Muslims, whereby the ansar ("the helpers" - i.e., the newly-converted Muslims of Medina) concluded, individually, symbolic ties of brotherhood with the muhajirin ("the emigrants" from Mecca), who, almost without exception, arrived at Medina in a state of complete destitution: ties of brotherhood, that is, which entitled every muhajir to a share in the property of his "brother" from among the ansar, and, in the event of the tatter's death, to a share in the inheritance left by him. The above verse is said to have prohibited such arrangements by stipulating that only actual close relations should henceforth have a claim to inheritance. To my mind, however, this interpretation is not convincing. Although the expression ulu 'l-arham is derived from the noun rahm (also spelt rihm and rahim), which literally signifies "womb", one should not forget that it is tropically used in the sense of "kinship", "relationship" or "close relationship" in general (i.e., not merely blood-relationship). Thus, "in the classical language, ulu 'l-arham means any relations: and in law, any relations that have no portion [of the inheritances termed fara'id]" (Lane III, 1056, citing, among other authorities, the Taj al-'Arus ). In the present instance, the reference to "close relations" comes at the end of a passage which centres on the injunction that the believers must be "the friends and protectors (awliya') of one another", and that all later believers shall, similarly, be regarded as members of the Islamic brotherhood. If the reference to "close relations" were meant to be taken in its literal sense and conceived as alluding to laws of inheritance, it would be quite out of tune with the rest of the passage, which stresses the bonds of faith among true believers, as well as the moral obligations arising from these bonds. In my opinion, therefore, the above verse has no bearing on laws of inheritance, but is meant to summarize, as it were, the lesson of the preceding verses: All true believers, of all times, form one single community in the deepest sense of this word; and all who are thus closely related in spirit have the highest claim on one another in accordance with God's decree that "all believers are brethren" (49:10).
8:75 Those who believed afterwards, and emigrated, and strove with you, they belong with you. Those who are related to each other shall be the first to support each other, in accordance with GOD's commandments. GOD is fully aware of all things.,
8:75 And those who followed them in belief, and left their homes, and strove along with you, they are of you. Remember that blood relatives have certain special rights and obligations over each other according to God's Ordinance. They should be the first ones to help each other. God is Knower of all things.