بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
31:1 Alif. Lam. Mim.1
See Appendix II.
31:1 A. L. M.,1
See Appendix 1for the important role of these initials.
31:1 A.L.M. Alif-Laam-Meem. (Allah, Lateef the Unfathomable, Majeed the Magnificent, states that),1
This is the 31st Surah of the Qur’an. It has 34 verses. The reader is once again reminded that the Qur’an sticks with its style of unity in diversity, and the title does not restrict a whole Surah to itself.
Again, it is to be noted that the timing and the place of the revelation of a Surah is absolutely of no significance since the Book of God transcends temporal and spatial bonds. Long, contradictory and futile argumentation between the commentators about the Shan-e-Nuzool (the circumstance of a particular revelation) are sheer waste of time and energy, and more noxiously, this exercise tends to shackle the Glorious Book to certain events of no significance. This point is proven to “The Qur’an As It Explains Itself” readers by the fact that at no point anywhere in the Mighty Book will they miss what 'caused' a certain Surah or verses to be revealed. The belief in “Shan-e-Nuzool” also implies that if a certain even had not taken place, a particular verse would not have been revealed. The entire Qur’an had been down-loaded on the heart of the exalted Prophet in Ramadhan 610 CE and then revealed to people in stages over a period of 23 years. 2:185, 44:3, 97:1.
Wisdom and knowledge transcend temporal, geographical and racial boundaries. Historically Luqman lived around 200 BC in an oasis in the Nubian desert of Northern Sudan. He was an emancipated slave of African descent.
"Rahib Luqman Mua'ammar Nubi the Hakeem, Suqrat Thani - (Sage Locomon, the Aged, the Nubean, the Wise, Socrates the second" was his full name along with titles.
Luqman is famous as Aesop, his Greek name. He had been taken captive to Greece from NE Sudan in one of their Viking like raids through the Red Sea. Luqman used to work in NE Sudan as a carpenter building boats.
As a child Luqman used to herd sheep, then as a young adult he had become a noted craftsman in carpentry. And that was the main reason for his abduction by the Greek pirates. Given the name Aesop, he lived in Greece under captivity for fifteen years serving his masters while writing his fabulous and world famous Aesop's Tales. An affluent businessman bought from him his collection in return for his emancipation. Luqman lived to be 110 years old and died in his village in Nubia.
He was a very wise man, and copies of his notebook known as Saheefah Luqman (The Scrolls of Luqman, produced in Greece) existed in the times of the exalted Messenger. Legend has it that a man read a few passages from that notebook to the exalted Messenger. He liked them and said, "Shall I now narrate to you a higher wisdom?" Upon hearing a few verses of Surah Luqman that fan of Luqman instantly embraced Islam; and is now remembered as Hazrat Suwaid bin Saamit.
Historians have speculated whether Luqman was a Prophet of God. But his famous quote implies that he was an intellectually and morally gifted man. When asked how and wherefrom he attained his outstanding wisdom, he responded, “From the ignorant!” [Yes, we can learn from any person, even from a child. And we can learn from our mistakes as well as from the mistakes of others]
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and the Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
31:2 Tilka ayatu alkitabi alhakeemi
31:2 These are the signs of the book of wisdom.
31:2 These are the signs of the Book of wisdom.
31:2 THESE ARE MESSAGES of the divine writ, full of wisdom,2
See note 2 on 10:1.
31:2 These (letters) constitute proofs of this book of wisdom.,
31:2 These are the verses of the Book, full of wisdom.
31:3 Hudan warahmatan lilmuhsineena
31:3 A guide and a mercy for the good doers.
31:3 A guide and a mercy for the good doers.
31:3 providing guidance and grace unto the doers of good
31:3 A beacon and a mercy for the righteous.,
31:3 Providing guidance and mercy to those who wish to live a balanced life and do good to humanity.
31:4 Allatheena yuqeemoona alssalatawayu/toona alzzakata wahum bial-akhiratihum yooqinoona
31:4 Those who hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards betterment and regarding the Hereafter they are certain.
31:4 Those who hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards purification and regarding the Hereafter they are certain.
31:4 who are constant in prayer and dispense charity:3 for it is they, they who in their innermost are certain of the life to come!
The term az-zakah seems to have here its more general meaning of "charity" rather than the legal connotation of "purifying dues" (see note 34 on 2:43), the more so as the above passage has a close inner resemblance to 2:2, where "spending on others out of what We provide as sustenance" is described as one of the characteristics of the God-conscious.
31:4 Who observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and as regards the Hereafter, they are absolutely certain.,
31:4 Such people strive to establish the Divine System and set up the Economic Order of Zakaat. For, it is they who have conviction in the eternity of the human ‘self’ and therefore, in the life to come.
31:5 Ola-ika AAala hudan minrabbihim waola-ika humu almuflihoona
31:5 These are on guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful ones.
31:5 These are on a guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful ones.
31:5 It is they who follow the guidance [that comes to them] from their Sustainer; and it is they, they who shall attain to a happy state!
31:5 They are following the guidance from their Lord, and they are the winners.,
31:5 They are the ones who are on the guided path of their Lord and they are the ones who will be ultimately successful.
31:6 Wamina alnnasi man yashtareelahwa alhadeethi liyudilla AAan sabeeli Allahibighayri AAilmin wayattakhithaha huzuwan ola-ikalahum AAathabun muheenun
The Followers of Baseless Teachings31:6 Among the people, there are those who accept baseless hadiths to mislead from the path of God without knowledge, and they take it as entertainment. These will have a humiliating retribution.
31:6 And from the people, there are those who will purchase a baseless narrative with which to mislead from the path of God without knowledge, and to make it a mockery. These will have a humiliating retribution.
31:6 But among men there is many a one that prefers a mere play with words [to divine guidance],4 so as to lead [those] without knowledge astray from the path of God, and to turn it to ridicule: for such there is shameful suffering in store.
Lit., "among the people there is he who [or "such as"] takes playful [or "idle"] talk in exchange", i.e., for divine guidance: apparently an allusion to a pseudo-philosophical play with words and metaphysical speculations without any real meaning behind them (cf. note 38 on 23:67). Contrary to what some of the commentators assume, the above statement does not refer to any one person (allegedly a contemporary of the Prophet) but describes a type of mentality and has, therefore, a general import.
31:6 Among the people, there are those who uphold baseless Hadith, and thus divert others from the path of GOD without knowledge, and take it in vain. These have incurred a shameful retribution.,
31:6 But among people, there are those who invest their time in Hadith which is unfounded, so as to lead those without knowledge away from the path of God, making mockery of it (the Qur’an). For such there is a humiliating punishment in store.2
In order to defend the ‘Imams’ of Hadith, some commentators try to explain away Lahwal Hadith as music. This obviously makes no linguistic or contextual sense
31:7 Wa-itha tutla AAalayhi ayatunawalla mustakbiran kaan lam yasmaAAha kaanna fee othunayhiwaqran fabashshirhu biAAathabin aleemin
31:7 When Our signs are recited to him, he turns away arrogantly as if he did not hear them, as if there is deafness in his ears. So announce to him a painful retribution.
31:7 And when Our revelations are recited to him, he turns away arrogantly as if he did not hear them, as if there is a deafness in his ears. So announce to him a painful retribution.
31:7 For, whenever Our messages are conveyed to such a one, he turns away in his arrogance5 as though he had not heard them - as though there were deafness in his ears. Give him, then, the tiding of grievous suffering [in the life to come].
31:7 And when our revelations are recited to the one of them, he turns away in arrogance as if he never heard them, as if his ears are deaf. Promise him a painful retribution.,
31:7 Whenever Our verses are conveyed to such a purchaser of Hadith, he turns away in arrogance as if he never heard them - as if there were deafness in his ears. So give him the tidings of a painful doom.
31:8 Inna allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati lahum jannatualnnaAAeemi
31:8 Those who acknowledge and promote reforms, for them will be gardens of bliss.
31:8 Those who believe and do good works, for them will be gardens of bliss.
31:8 [As against this,] verily, those who attain to faith and do righteous deeds shall have gardens of bliss,
31:8 Surely, those who believe and lead a righteous life have deserved the gardens of bliss.,
31:8 Whereas those who believe in the Word of God and fulfill the needs of others, for them are the Gardens of delight.
31:9 Khalideena feeha waAAda Allahihaqqan wahuwa alAAazeezu alhakeemu
31:9 Abiding eternally therein with certainty, as promised by God. He is the Noble, the Wise.
31:9 Abiding therein, the promise of God is true. And He is the Noble, the Wise.
31:9 to abide therein in accordance with God's true promise: for He alone is almighty, truly wise.6
Commenting on the above three verses, Razi points out, firstly, that the deliberate contrast between the plural in the promise of "gardens (jannat) of bliss" and the singular in that of "suffering" (adhab) is meant to show that God's grace surpasses His wrath (cf. note 10 on 6:12); and, secondly, that the use of the expression "to abide therein" in connection with the mention of paradise only, and not with that of otherworldly suffering (or hell), is an indication that whereas the enjoyment of the former will be unlimited in duration, suffering in what is described as "hell" will be limited.
31:9 Eternally they abide therein. This is the truthful promise of GOD. He is the Almighty, Most Wise.,
31:9 To abide therein according to God’s true promise. For, He is the Mighty, the Wise.
31:10 Khalaqa alssamawatibighayri AAamadin tarawnaha waalqa fee al-ardirawasiya an tameeda bikum wabaththa feeha min kullidabbatin waanzalna mina alssama-i maanfaanbatna feeha min kulli zawjin kareemin
31:10 He created the skies without pillars that you can see. He placed in the earth firm stabilizers so that it would not tumble with you, and He spread on it all kinds of creatures. We sent down water from the sky, thus We caused to grow all kinds of good plants.
31:10 He created the sky without pillars that you can see. And He cast onto the earth stabilizers so that it would not tumble with you, and He spread on it all kinds of creatures. And We sent down water from the sky, thus We caused to grow all kinds of good plants.
31:10 He [it is who] has created the skies without any supports that you could see,7 and has placed firm mountains upon the earth, lest it sway with you,8 and has caused all manner of living creatures to multiply thereon. And We9 send down water from the skies, and thus We cause every noble kind [of life] to grow on earth.10
See note 4 on 13:2.
See note 11 on 16:15.
This is another of the many Quranic instances where the personal pronoun relating to God is suddenly changed - in this instance, from "He" to "We" - in order to indicate that God, being infinite, cannot be circumscribed by any pronoun applicable to created, finite beings, and that the use of such pronouns with reference to Him is no more than a concession to the limited nature of every human language.
Lit., "thereon". As in 26:7, the term zawj has here the significance of "a kind".
31:10 He created the heavens without pillars that you can see. He established on earth stabilizers (mountains) lest it tumbles with you, and He spread on it all kinds of creatures. We send down from the sky water to grow all kinds of beautiful plants.,
31:10 He has created the skies without any pillars and supports that you can see, and has placed firm mountains upon the earth, lest it sway with you, and He has dispersed therein all kinds of creatures. And We send down water from the sky, and thus We cause plants of every goodly kind to grow therein.3
31:11 Hatha khalqu Allahi faarooneematha khalaqa allatheena min doonihi bali alththalimoonafee dalalin mubeenin
31:11 This is God's creation, so show me what those besides Him have created? Indeed, the transgressors are far astray.
31:11 This is the creation of God, so show me what those besides Him have created? Indeed, the transgressors are far astray.
31:11 [All] this is God's creation: show Me, then, what others than He may have created! Nay, but the evildoers11 are obviously lost in error!
Sc., "who ascribe divine powers to beings or things other than God".
31:11 Such is the creation of GOD; show me what the idols you set up beside Him have created. Indeed, the transgressors are far astray.,
31:11 Such is the creation of God. Now show Me what others besides Him have created. Nay, but those who relegate the truth are obviously lost in error.4
Zaalim = Wrongdoer = Oppressor = One who displaces something from its rightful place = One who relegates the truth = Violator of human rights
31:12 Walaqad atayna luqmanaalhikmata ani oshkur lillahi waman yashkur fa-innamayashkuru linafsihi waman kafara fa-inna Allaha ghaniyyun hameedun
Luqman Shares Wisdom with His Son31:12 We had given Luqman the wisdom: "You shall be thankful to God, and whoever is thankful is being thankful for his own good. As for whosoever rejects, then God is Rich, Praiseworthy."
31:12 And We had given Luqmaan the wisdom: "You shall be thankful to God, and whoever is thankful is being thankful for his own good. As for whoever rejects, then God is Rich, Praiseworthy."
31:12 and, indeed, we granted this wisdom unto Luqman:12 Be grateful unto God - for he who is grateful [unto Him] is but grateful for the good of his own self; whereas he who chooses to be ungrateful [ought to know that], verily, God is self-sufficient, ever to be praised!"
Popularly (though without sufficient justification) identified with Aesop, Luqman is a legendary figure firmly established in ancient Arabian tradition as a prototype of the sage who disdains worldly honours or benefits and strives for inner perfection. Celebrated in a poem by Ziyad ibn Mu'awiyah (better known under his pen-name Nabighah adh-Dhubyani), who lived in the sixth century of the Christian era, the person of Luqman had become, long before the advent of Islam, a focal point of innumerable legends, stories and parables expressive of wisdom and spiritual maturity: and it is for this reason that the Qur'an uses this mythical figure - as it uses the equally mythical figure of Al-Khidr in surah 18 - as a vehicle for some of its admonitions bearing upon the manner in which man ought to behave.
Luqman's Wisdom31:12 We have endowed Luqmaan with wisdom: "You shall be appreciative of GOD." Whoever is appreciative is appreciative for his own good. As for those who turn unappreciative, GOD is in no need, Praiseworthy.,
31:12 We granted this wisdom to Luqman, “Be grateful to God, for whoever is grateful is but grateful for the good of his own ‘self’. And whoever chooses to be ungrateful, must know that God is Absolutely Independent, Owner of all praise.”5
He is in no need of your praises on rosary-beads and chanting. Gratefulness is not limited to verbal acknowledgement of gratitude. Divine bounties must be shared with fellow humans for true gratitude
31:13 Wa-ith qala luqmanu liibnihiwahuwa yaAAithuhu ya bunayya latushrik biAllahi inna alshshirka lathulmunAAatheemun
31:13 And Luqman said to his son, while he was advising him: "O my son, do not set up any partners with God; for setting up partners is an immense wrongdoing."
31:13 And Luqmaan said to his son, while he was advising him: "O my son, do not set up any partners with God; for setting up partners is an immense wrongdoing."
31:13 And, lo, Luqman spoke thus unto his son, admonishing him: O my dear son!13 Do not ascribe divine powers to aught beside God: for, behold, such [a false] ascribing of divinity is indeed an awesome wrong!
Lit., "O my little son" - a diminutive idiomatically expressive of endearment irrespective of whether the son is a child or a grown man.
31:13 Recall that Luqmaan said to his son, as he enlightened him, "O my son, do not set up any idols beside GOD; idolatry is a gross injustice."2 ,
How will you feel if you take care of a child, give him the best education, and prepare him for life, only to see him thank someone else?Thus is idolatry; injustice.
31:13 Luqman, enlightening his son, said this to him, "O My dear son! Never associate anyone with God, for, assigning ‘partners’ to Him is a tremendous wrong.”
31:14 Wawassayna al-insanabiwalidayhi hamalat-hu ommuhu wahnan AAalawahnin wafisaluhu fee AAamayni ani oshkur lee waliwalidaykailayya almaseeru
31:14 We enjoined the human being regarding his parents. His mother bore him with hardship upon hardship, and his weaning takes two calendar years. You shall give thanks to Me, and to your parents. To Me is the final destiny.2
31:14 And We enjoined man regarding his parents. His mother bore him with hardship upon hardship, and his weaning takes two years. You shall give thanks to Me, and to your parents. To Me is the final destiny.
31:14 And [God says:] 'We have enjoined upon man goodness towards his parents: his mother bore him by bearing strain upon strain, and his utter dependence on her lasted two years:14 [hence, O man,] be grateful towards Me and towards thy parents, [and remember that] with Me is all journeys' end.15
Lit., "his weaning is [or "takes place"] within two years". According to some philologists, the term fisal circumscribes the entire period of conception, gestation, birth and earliest infancy (Taj al-'Arus): in brief, the period of a child's utter dependence on its mother.
Thus, gratitude towards parents, who were instrumental in one's coming to life, is here stipulated as a concomitant to man's gratitude towards God, who is the ultimate cause and source of his existence (cf. 17:23).
The Second Commandment31:14 We enjoined the human being to honor his parents. His mother bore him, and the load got heavier and heavier. It takes two years (of intensive care) until weaning. You shall be appreciative of Me, and of your parents. To Me is the ultimate destiny.,
31:14 “(And O My dear son! God says): We have enjoined on the human to be good to his parents. His mother bore him by bearing strain upon strain, and his utter dependence on her lasted no less than two years. So, be grateful to Me and to your parents, and remember that your ultimate destination is with Me.” [2:233, 46:15]
31:15 Wa-in jahadaka AAala antushrika bee ma laysa laka bihi AAilmun fala tutiAAhumawasahibhuma fee alddunya maAAroofanwaittabiAA sabeela man anaba ilayya thumma ilayyamarjiAAukum faonabbi-okum bima kuntum taAAmaloona
31:15 If they strive to make you set up any partners besides Me, then do not obey them. But continue to treat them amicably in this world. You shall follow only the path of those who have sought Me. Ultimately, you all return to Me, then I will inform you of everything you have done.
31:15 If they strive to make you set up any partners besides Me, then do not obey them. But continue to treat them amicably in this world. You shall follow only the path of those who have sought Me. Ultimately, you all return to Me, then I will inform you of everything you have done.
31:15 '[Revere thy parents;] yet should they endeavour to make thee ascribe divinity, side by side with Me, to something which thy mind cannot accept [as divine],16 obey them not; but [even then] bear them company in this world's life with kindness, and follow the path of those who turn towards Me. In the end, unto Me you all must return; and thereupon I shall make you [truly] understand all that you were doing [in life].'
Lit., "something of which thou hast no knowledge", i.e., "something which is contrary to thy knowledge that divine qualities are God's alone" (cf. 29:8).
31:15 If they try to force you to set up any idols beside Me, do not obey them. But continue to treat them amicably in this world. You shall follow only the path of those who have submitted to Me. Ultimately, you all return to Me, then I will inform you of everything you have done.,
31:15 “Yet, if they strive to make you ascribe partners to Me, you will have no such knowledge, so obey them not. Even then, bear them company in this world with kindness. And follow the path of those who turn toward Me. In the end, all of you will return to Me. And thereupon I will make you understand all that you did.”
31:16 Ya bunayya innaha in takumithqala habbatin min khardalin fatakun fee sakhratinaw fee alssamawati aw fee al-ardiya/ti biha Allahu inna Allaha lateefunkhabeerun
31:16 "O my son, God will bring out anything, be it as small as a mustard seed, be it deep inside a rock, or be it in the heavens or the earth, God will bring it. God is Sublime, Ever-aware."
31:16 "O my son, if it be anything, even the weight of a mustard seed, be it deep inside a rock, or be it in the heavens or the earth, God will bring it. God is Sublime, Expert."
31:16 O my dear son," [continued Luqman,] verily, if there be but the weight of a mustard-seed, and though it be [hidden] in a rock, or in the skies, or in the earth, God will bring it to light: for, behold, God is unfathomable [in His wisdom], all-aware17
For my rendering of latif as "unfathomable", see surah 6 note 89.
Luqman's Advice31:16 "O my son, know that even something as tiny as a mustard seed, deep inside a rock, be it in the heavens or the earth, GOD will bring it. GOD is Sublime, Cognizant.,
31:16 "O My dear son! Something even as tiny as a mustard seed, deep inside a rock, or in the Highs or in the Lows, God will bring it forth. God is Sublime, Aware.”
31:17 Ya bunayya aqimi alssalatawa/mur bialmaAAroofi wainha AAani almunkari waisbirAAala ma asabaka inna thalika minAAazmi al-omoori
31:17 "O my son, hold the contact prayer and advocate righteousness and forbid evil, and bear with patience whatever befalls you. These are the most honorable traits."
31:17 "O my son, hold the contact prayer and advocate righteousness and prohibit vice, and be patient to what befalls you. These are the most honorable traits."
31:17 O my dear son! Be constant in prayer, and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and bear in patience whatever [ill] may befall thee: this, behold, is something to set one's heart upon!
31:17 "O my son, you shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat). You shall advocate righteousness and forbid evil, and remain steadfast in the face of adversity. These are the most honorable traits.,
31:17 “O My dear son! Live by the Divinely Prescribed System of Life, and advocate the right and discourage the wrong. And remain steadfast in the face of whatever (tribulation) may befall you. All this requires strong determination.”
31:18 Wala tusaAAAAir khaddaka lilnnasiwala tamshi fee al-ardi marahan inna Allahala yuhibbu kulla mukhtalin fakhoorin
31:18 "Do not turn your cheek arrogantly from people, nor shall you roam the earth insolently. For God does not like the arrogant show offs."
31:18 "And do not turn your cheek arrogantly from people, nor shall you roam the earth insolently. For God does not love the arrogant show off."
31:18 And turn not thy cheek away from people in [false] pride, and walk not haughtily on earth: for, behold, God does not love anyone who, out of self- conceit, acts in a boastful manner.
31:18 "You shall not treat the people with arrogance, nor shall you roam the earth proudly. GOD does not like the arrogant showoffs.,
31:18 “And never be arrogant with people, and do not walk haughtily on earth. God does not love any bragging boaster. [17:37, 57:23]
31:19 Waiqsid fee mashyika waoghdudmin sawtika inna ankara al-aswati lasawtualhameeri
31:19 "Be humble in how you walk and lower your voice. For the harshest of all voices is the donkey's voice."
31:19 "And be humble in how you walk and lower your voice. For the harshest of all voices is the voice of the donkeys."
31:19 Hence, be modest in thy bearing, and lower thy voice: for, behold, the ugliest of all voices is the [loud] voice of asses "
31:19 "Walk humbly and lower your voice - the ugliest voice is the donkey's voice.",
31:19 Walk humbly and lower your voice in humility. For, the harshest of voices is the voice of a donkey."
31:20 Alam taraw anna Allaha sakhkharalakum ma fee alssamawati wamafee al-ardi waasbagha AAalaykum niAAamahu thahiratanwabatinatan wamina alnnasi man yujadilufee Allahi bighayri AAilmin wala hudan walakitabin muneerin
31:20 Did you not see that God has committed in your service everything in the heavens and the earth, and He has showered you with His blessings, both apparent and hidden? Yet from the people are some who argue about God without knowledge, without guidance, and without an enlightening book.
31:20 Did you not see that God has commissioned in your service what is in the heavens and what is in the earth, and He has showered you with His blessings, both apparent and hidden? Yet from the people are some who argue about God with no knowledge nor guidance nor enlightening Book.
31:20 ARE YOU NOT aware that God has made subservient to you all18 that is in the heavens and all that is on earth, and has lavished upon you His blessings, both outward and inward?19 And yet, among men there is many a one that argues about God without having any knowledge [of Him], without any guidance, and without any light-giving revelation;
I.e., "has enabled you to derive benefit from all, etc. (Cf. note 46 on 14:32.)
I.e., both visible and invisible benefits, as well as both physical and intellectual (or spiritual) endowments.
31:20 Do you not see that GOD has committed in your service everything in the heavens and the earth, and has showered you with His blessings - obvious and hidden? Yet, some people argue about GOD without knowledge, without guidance, and without the enlightening scripture.,
31:20 (This was a glimpse of the wisdom Luqman was endowed with.) Do you not realize that God has made of service to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth? And He has granted you His blessings in abundance, tangible and intangible. And yet, among people there are those who dispute about God without exploring the realm of knowledge, without any guidance and without a light-giving scripture.
31:21 Wa-itha qeela lahumu ittabiAAoo maanzala Allahu qaloo bal nattabiAAu ma wajadnaAAalayhi abaana awa law kana alshshaytanuyadAAoohum ila AAathabi alssaAAeeri
31:21 If they are told: "Follow what God has sent down." They say, "No, we will follow what we found our fathers doing." What if the devil had been leading them to the agony of hell?
31:21 And if they are told: "Follow that which God has sent down." They say: "No, we will follow what we found our fathers doing." What if the devil had been leading them to the agony of Hell?
31:21 and when such [people] are told to follow that which God has bestowed from on high, they answer, Nay, we shall follow that which we found our forefathers believing in and doing!" Why - [would you follow your forefathers] even if Satan had invited them unto the suffering of the blazing flame?20
Following the Parents Blindly: A Common Tragedy31:21 When they are told, "Follow these revelations of GOD," they say, "No, we follow only what we found our parents doing." What if the devil is leading them to the agony of Hell?,
31:21 And when such people are told to follow what God has revealed, they say, "Nay, we follow what we have found our fathers doing." What! Even though Satan had invited them to the doom of Flames?"
31:22 Waman yuslim wajhahu ila Allahiwahuwa muhsinun faqadi istamsaka bialAAurwatialwuthqa wa-ila Allahi AAaqibatual-omoori
31:22 Whosoever peacefully surrenders himself completely to God, while he is righteous, then he has taken hold of the strongest bond. To God all matters will return.
31:22 And whoever submits himself completely to God, while he is righteous, indeed he has taken grasp of the strongest hold. And to God is the conclusion of all matters.
31:22 Now whoever surrenders his whole being unto God,21 and is a doer of good withal, has indeed taken hold of a support most unfailing: for with God rests the final outcome of all events.
See note 91 on 2:112.
The Strongest Bond31:22 Those who submit completely to GOD, while leading a righteous life, have gotten hold of the strongest bond. For GOD is in full control of all things.,
31:22 Whoever submits his whole being to God and is a doer of good to others, has grasped the Strongest Bond. And God’s laws determine the end of all things and actions.6
2:256. Wajh = Face = Countenance = Whole being
31:23 Waman kafara fala yahzunkakufruhu ilayna marjiAAuhum fanunabbi-ohum bimaAAamiloo inna Allaha AAaleemun bithati alssudoori
31:23 Whosoever rejects, then do not be saddened by his rejection. To Us is their ultimate return, then We will inform them of what they had done. God is fully aware of what is inside the chests.
31:23 And whoever rejects, then do not be saddened by his rejection. To Us is their ultimate return, then We will inform them of what they had done. God is fully aware of what is in the chests.
31:23 But as for him who is bent on denying the truth - let not his denial grieve thee: unto Us they must return, and then We shall make them [truly] understand all that they were doing [in life]: for, verily, God has full knowledge of what is in the hearts [of men].
31:23 As for those who disbelieve, do not be saddened by their disbelief. To us is their ultimate return, then we will inform them of everything they had done. GOD is fully aware of the innermost thoughts.,
31:23 And let not the disbelief of the disbelievers grieve you. To Us is their return, and then We shall explain to them all they truly accomplished. God is Knower of all that is in the hearts.
31:24 NumattiAAuhum qaleelan thumma nadtarruhumila AAathabin ghaleethin
31:24 We let them enjoy for a while, then We commit them to severe retribution.
31:24 We let them enjoy for a while, then We commit them to a severe retribution.
31:24 We will let them enjoy themselves for a short while - but in the end We shall drive them into suffering severe.
31:24 We let them enjoy temporarily, then commit them to severe retribution.,
31:24 We will let them enjoy themselves for a little while – but ultimately We shall drive them to a heavy doom.
31:25 Wala-in saaltahum man khalaqa alssamawatiwaal-arda layaqoolunna Allahu quli alhamdulillahi bal aktharuhum la yaAAlamoona
31:25 If you ask them: "Who created the heavens and the earth?" They will say, "God." Say, "Praise be to God." Yet, most of them do not know.
31:25 And if you ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth?" They will say: "God." Say: "Praise be to God." Yet, most of them do not know.
31:25 AND THUS it is [with most people]: if22 thou ask them, Who is it that has created the heavens and the earth?" - they will surely answer, God." Say: [Then you ought to know that] all praise is due to God!"- for most of them do not know [what this implies].23
For the above rendering of la in, see surah 30 note 45.
I.e., they give the above answer unthinkingly, following a vague habit of thought, without realizing that a cognition of God as the Ultimate Cause of all existence logically postulates one's full surrender to Him, and to Him alone.
They Believe in God31:25 If you ask them, "Who created the heavens and the earth," they will say, "GOD." Say, "Praise be to GOD." Yet, most of them do not know.,
31:25 And thus it is: If you ask them, “Who is it that has created the heavens and the earth?" They will answer, “God". Say, “All praise is due to God – for, most of them do not know (that His laws are worth implementing in your lives 29:61).
31:26 Lillahi ma fee alssamawatiwaal-ardi inna Allaha huwa alghaniyyu alhameedu
31:26 To God belongs everything in the heavens and the earth. God is the Rich, the Praiseworthy.
31:26 To God belongs everything in the heavens and the earth. God is the Rich, the Praiseworthy.
31:26 Unto God belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth. Verily, God alone is self-sufficient, the One to whom all praise is due!
31:26 To GOD belongs everything in the heavens and the earth. GOD is the Most Rich, Most Praiseworthy.,
31:26 To God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. God is Free of all wants, Owner of all praise (and the Universe is a living witness to that).
31:27 Walaw annama fee al-ardi minshajaratin aqlamun waalbahru yamudduhu minbaAAdihi sabAAatu abhurin ma nafidat kalimatuAllahi inna Allaha AAazeezun hakeemun
God does not Have Shortage of Words31:27 If all the trees on earth were made into pens, and the ocean were supplied by seven more oceans, the words of God would not run out. God is Noble, Wise.
31:27 And if all the trees on the earth were made into pens, and the ocean were supplied by seven more oceans, the words of God would not run out. God is Noble, Wise.
31:27 And if all the trees on earth were pens, and the sea [were] ink, with seven [morel seas yet24 added to it, the words of God would not be exhausted: for, verily, God is almighty, wise.25
Lit., "after that".
Cf. a similar passage in 18:109.
These Are All the Words We Need31:27 If all the trees on earth were made into pens, and the ocean supplied the ink, augmented by seven more oceans, the words of GOD would not run out. GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.,
31:27 And if all the trees on earth were pens, and the sea were ink, with seven more seas yet added, the attributes and laws of God would not be exhausted. God is Almighty, Wise.7
18:109. ‘Kalimaat’ = Words, attributes, laws
31:28 Ma khalqukum wala baAAthukumilla kanafsin wahidatin inna AllahasameeAAun baseerun
31:28 Your creation and your resurrection is all as one breath. God is Hearer, Seer.
31:28 Your creation and your resurrection is all like that of one soul. God is Hearer, Seer.
31:28 [For Him,] the creation of you all and the resurrection of you all is but like [the creation and resurrection of] a single soul:26 for, verily, God is all-hearing, all-seeing.
I.e., in view of His almightiness, there is no difference between the creation and resurrection of many and of one, just as every single soul is as much within His ken as is all mankind.
31:28 The creation and resurrection of all of you is the same as that of one person. GOD is Hearer, Seer.,
31:28 Your creation or your resurrection is only as that of a single life cell. God is Hearer, Seer.
31:29 Alam tara anna Allaha yooliju allaylafee alnnahari wayooliju alnnahara feeallayli wasakhkhara alshshamsa waalqamara kullunyajree ila ajalin musamman waanna Allaha bimataAAmaloona khabeerun
31:29 Have you not seen that God merges the night into the day and merges the day into the night, and that He has committed the sun and the moon, each running to a predetermined term; and that God is Ever-aware of everything you do?
31:29 Have you not seen that God merges the night into the day, and He merges the day into the night, and that He has commissioned the sun and the moon, each running to an appointed term; and that God is expert of everything you do?
31:29 Art thou not aware that it is God who makes the night grow longer by shortening the day, and makes the day grow longer by shortening the night, and that He has made the sun and the moon subservient [to His laws], each running its course for a term set [by Him]27 and that God is fully aware of all that you do?
See note 5 on 13:2.
God ALONE Worthy of Worship31:29 Do you not realize that GOD merges the night into the day and merges the day into the night, and that He has committed the sun and the moon in your service, each running in its orbit for a specific life span, and that GOD is fully Cognizant of everything you do?,
31:29 Do you not see that it is God Who makes the night grow longer by shortening the day, and makes the day longer by shortening the night? And that He has subjected the sun and the moon to His laws, each running along its course for an appointed term? Is He not Aware of all you do? [13:2]
31:30 Thalika bi-anna Allaha huwa alhaqquwaanna ma yadAAoona min doonihi albatilu waanna Allahahuwa alAAaliyyu alkabeeru
The Truth31:30 That is because God is the truth, what they call on besides Him is falsehood, and that God is the High, the Great.
31:30 That is because God is the truth, and that which they call on besides Him is falsehood, and that God is the Most High, the Great.
31:30 Thus it is, because God alone is the Ultimate Truth,28 so that all that men invoke instead of Him is sheer falsehood; and because God alone is exalted, truly great!
See surah 20 note 99.
31:30 This proves that GOD is the truth, while any idol they set up beside Him is falsehood, and that GOD is the Most High, Most Great.,
31:30 This is because God, He is the truth, and whatever they call upon instead of Him is falsehood. And because God, He is the Exalted, the Great.
31:31 Alam tara anna alfulka tajree fee albahribiniAAmati Allahi liyuriyakum min ayatihiinna fee thalika laayatin likulli sabbarinshakoorin
31:31 Have you not seen the ships sailing the sea, carrying God's provisions, to show you some of His signs? In that are signs for every one who is patient, thankful.
31:31 Have you not seen the ships sailing in the sea by the grace of God, so that He shows you some of His signs? In that are signs for every one who is patient, thankful.
31:31 Art thou not aware how the ships speed through the sea by God's favour, so that He might show you some of His wonders? Herein, behold, there are messages indeed for all who are wholly patient in adversity and deeply grateful [to God].
31:31 Do you not see that the ships roam the sea, carrying GOD's provisions, to show you some of His proofs? Indeed, these should be sufficient proofs for everyone who is steadfast, appreciative.,
31:31 Have you not seen how the ships speed through the sea carrying God’s blessed provisions – so that He might show you some of His signs? Herein are messages for everyone who would patiently observe the nature and be grateful for learning.
31:32 Wa-itha ghashiyahum mawjun kaalththulalidaAAawoo Allaha mukhliseena lahu alddeenafalamma najjahum ila albarri faminhum muqtasidunwama yajhadu bi-ayatina illakullu khattarin kafoorin
31:32 When waves surround them like mountains, they call on God, sincerely devoting the system to Him. But when He saves them to the shore, some of them revert. None discard Our signs except those who are betrayers, ingrates.
31:32 And when waves surround them like mountains, they call on God, sincerely devoting the system to Him. But when He saves them to the shore, some of them return. None discard Our signs except those who are betrayers, rejecters.
31:32 For [thus it is with most men:] when the waves engulf them like shadows [of death], they call unto God, sincere [at that moment] in their faith in Him alone: but as soon as He has brought them safe ashore, some of them stop half-way [between belief and unbelief]29 Yet none could knowingly reject Our messages unless he be utterly perfidious, ingrate.
31:32 When violent waves surround them, they implore GOD, sincerely devoting their prayers to Him alone. But as soon as He saves them to the shore, some of them revert. None discards our revelations except those who are betrayers, unappreciative.,
31:32 And so, when violent waves surround them like shadows of gloom, they call to God, sincere in their faith in Him (and work according to Divine laws). But as soon as We save them ashore, some of them compromise (with falsehood). Yet none could knowingly reject Our messages unless he is a betrayer to his own ‘self’, ungrateful for such blessing.
31:33 Ya ayyuha alnnasuittaqoo rabbakum waikhshaw yawman la yajzee walidunAAan waladihi wala mawloodun huwa jazin AAan walidihishay-an inna waAAda Allahi haqqun falataghurrannakumu alhayatu alddunya walayaghurrannakum biAllahi algharooru
31:33 O people, you shall revere your Lord, and fear a day when a father cannot help his own child, nor can a child help his father. Certainly, God's promise is truth. Therefore, do not be deceived by this worldly life; and do not be deceived from God by arrogance.
31:33 O people, you shall reverence your Lord, and be concerned of a Day when a father cannot help his child, nor can a child help his father. Certainly, the promise of God is truth. Therefore, do not be deceived by this worldly life; and do not be deceived from God by arrogance.
31:33 O MEN! Be conscious of your Sustainer, and stand in awe of the Day on which no parent will be of any avail to his child, nor a child will in the least avail his parent! Verily, God's promise [of resurrection] is true indeed: let not, then, the life of this world deludes you, and let not [your own] deceptive thoughts about God delude you!30
For instance, the self-deluding expectation, while deliberately committing a sin, that God will forgive it (Sa'id ibn Jubayr, as quoted by Tabari, Baghawi, Asas) According to Tabari, the term gharur denotes "anything that deludes" (ma gharra) a person in the moral sense, whether it be Satan, or another human being, or an abstract concept, or (as in 57:14) "wishful thinking".
31:33 O people, you shall reverence your Lord, and fear a day when a father cannot help his own child, nor can a child help his father. Certainly, GOD's promise is truth. Therefore, do not be distracted by this life; do not be distracted from GOD by mere illusions.,
31:33 O Mankind! Be mindful of your Lord, and fear a Day when a father cannot help his son, nor a son can help his father. Certainly, the promise of God is true. Therefore, do not be distracted by the life of this world. And let not any deceiver distract you from God.8
Gharoor = Deceiver = Satan = Satanic people = Evil companions = Deceptive thoughts = Illusion
31:34 Inna Allaha AAindahu AAilmu alssaAAatiwayunazzilu alghaytha wayaAAlamu ma fee al-arhamiwama tadree nafsun matha taksibu ghadan wamatadree nafsun bi-ayyi ardin tamootu inna AllahaAAaleemun khabeerun
31:34 With God is the knowledge regarding the moment. He sends down the rain, and He knows what is inside the wombs. No person knows what it may gain tomorrow, nor does any person know in which land it will die. God is Knowledgeable, Ever-aware.3
Only two subjects cannot be known by people. Commentaries relying on hadith and sunna misinterpret this verse and claim that five subjects cannot be known by people. God’s knowledge of something does not necessarily negate another person's knowledge. See 15.87; 20:15.
31:34 With God is the knowledge regarding the Hour. And He sends down the rain, and He knows what is inside the wombs. No soul knows what it may gain tomorrow, nor does any soul know in which land it will die. God is Knowledgeable, Expert.
31:34 Verily, with God alone rests the knowledge of when the Last Hour will come: and He [it is who] sends down rain; and He [alone] knows what is in the wombs:31 whereas no one knows what he will reap tomorrow, and no one knows in what land he will die, Verily. God [alone] is all-knowing, all-aware.
This relates not merely to the problem of the sex of the as yet unborn embryo, but also to the question of whether it will be born at all, and if so, what its natural endowments and its character will be, as well as what role it will be able to play in life: and life itself is symbolized by the preceding mention of rain, and the end of all life in this world, by the mention of the Last Hour.
Things We May and May Not Know31:34 With GOD is the knowledge about the Hour (end of the world). He is the One who sends down the rain, and He knows the contents of the womb. No soul knows what will happen to it tomorrow, and no one knows in which land he or she will die. GOD is Omniscient, Cognizant.3 ,
God reveals His knowledge whenever He wills. We learn from this verse that we may be able to predict the rain, and the gender of the fetus. Butwe can never know the time or place of death. In accordance with72:27, God has revealed the end of the worldthrough His Messenger of the Covenant. See15:87,20:15, andAppendix25 forthe details.
31:34 With God alone rests the knowledge of the Hour. He is the One Who sends down rain, and He alone knows what is (being nourished) in the wombs. No one knows what he or she will reap tomorrow, and no one knows in what land (circumstance) he or she will die. God is Knower, Aware.9
Hour = The Great Revolution = Resurrection = Day of Judgment. Rain = Also alludes to resurgence of humanity. What is in the wombs = What is being nourished therein = In the wombs of any female creatures = Fate of the embryo = Spurious pregnancy = Uterine tumors, moles etc. Reap tomorrow = What one does or happens to him in the future