بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
15:1 Alif-lam-ra tilka ayatualkitabi waqur-anin mubeenin
15:1 A1L30R200 these are the signs of the book, and a clear Quran.1
Quran's divine nature, authenticity and the promise regarding the protection of its message (zikr) have been supported by the mathematical structure of the Quran discovered in 1974. See 74:1; 1:1; 2:1; 13:38; 27:82; 38:1; 40:28; 46:10; 72:28.
15:1 ALR, these are the signs of the Book, and a clear Qur'an.
15:1 Alif. Lam. Ra.1 THESE ARE MESSAGES of revelation -of a discourse clear in itself and clearly showing the truth.2
See Appendix II.
Regarding this lengthy rendering of the participial adjective mubin, see surah 12, note 2. In the above context, the term Qur'an (which, whenever it appears without the definite article al, denotes a solemn "recital" or "discourse") is preceded by the conjunction wa, which, in its simplest connotation, signifies "and"; but since it is used here to stress the present, particular instance of the divine writ (al-kitab), it can be omitted in the translation without affecting the meaning of the sentence.
15:1 A.L.R.1 These (letters) are proofs of this scripture; a profound Quran.,
15:1 A.L.R. Alif–Laam–Ra (Allah, Lateef the Unfathomable, Raaziq the Provider, states that), These are the verses of revelation, of Qur’an that explains itself.1
This is the 15th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 99 verses. Al-Hijr implies "The Valley of Rocks". The valley extends from Makkah to Syria, a distance of about 1,000 miles. The people of Prophets Saleh and Sho’aib inhabited here in their respective times. Prophet Lot was sent a bit north in the valley, close to the Dead Sea. Rocky and desert grounds, the “stone-hearted” behavior of these three communities, and the history of their annihilation through earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, perhaps gave the Valley its name. The ancient Greek philosopher, Ptolemy (Batlimus) mentioned the place as ‘Hegra’.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
15:2 Rubama yawaddu allatheenakafaroo law kanoo muslimeena
15:2 Those who have rejected will often wish they were of those who peacefully surrendered!
15:2 Ultimately, those who have rejected will wish they had submitted!
15:2 And it will come to pass that those who are [now] bent on denying this truth will wish that they had surrendered themselves to God [in their life time].3
Since this revelation-i.e., the Qur'an-is clear in itself and clearly shows the truth, those who deliberately reject it now will have no excuse on Resurrection Day. As so often in the Qur'an, the past tense in the expression alladhina kafaru is indicative of conscious intent (see surah 2, note 6).
15:2 Certainly, those who disbelieved will wish they were submitters.,
15:2 The time is coming when the rejecters of the truth will ardently wish that they were Muslims.
15:3 Tharhum ya/kuloo wayatamattaAAoowayulhihimu al-amalu fasawfa yaAAlamoona
15:3 Leave them to eat and enjoy, and let them be preoccupied with hope. They will come to know.
15:3 Leave them to eat and enjoy, and let them be preoccupied with wishful thinking. They will come to know.
15:3 Leave them alone; let them eat and enjoy themselves the while the hope [of vain delights] be guiles them: for in time they will come to know [the truth].
15:3 Let them eat, enjoy, and remain blinded by wishful thinking; they will find out.,
15:4 Wama ahlakna min qaryatin illawalaha kitabun maAAloomun
15:4 We have not destroyed any town except that it had an appointed time.
15:4 Wehave not destroyed any town except that it had an appointed time.
15:4 And never have We destroyed any community [for its wrongdoing] unless a divine writ had (previously] been made known to it;4
Lit., "unless it [the community] had a known divine writ (kitab ma'lum)"-i.e., unless the people in question had been shown through a divine writ the meaning of right and wrong, and had deliberately rejected this divine guidance: cf. the statement, in 26:208, that "never have We destroyed any community unless it had had its warners", or in 6:131, that God "would never destroy a community for its wrongdoing so long as its people are still unaware [of the meaning of right and wrong]".
15:4 We never annihilated any community, except in accordance with a specific, predetermined time.,
15:4 And We never annihilated any community that had not a term assigned and decreed.3
All communities are given a period of respite. 13:38
15:5 Ma tasbiqu min ommatin ajalahawama yasta/khiroona
15:5 No nation can quicken its fate, nor can they delay.
15:5 Nonation can quicken its fate, nor can they delay it.
15:5 [but remember that] no community can ever forestall [the end of] its term - and neither can they delay [it].5
I.e., every community - and, in the widest sense of this term, every civilization - has a God-willed, organic span of life resembling in this respect all other living organisms, destined to grow, to reach maturity and ultimately to decay. For the ethical implications of this law of nature and its bearing on the passage that follows, see 7:34 and the corresponding note 25.
15:5 The end of any community can never be advanced, nor delayed.,
15:5 (The Law of Respite makes no exceptions.) The end of any community can neither be advanced, nor delayed.
15:6 Waqaloo ya ayyuha allatheenuzzila AAalayhi alththikru innaka lamajnoonun
15:6 They said, "O you upon whom the Reminder has been sent down, you are crazy."
15:6 And they said: "O you upon whom the Reminder has been sent down, you are crazy."
15:6 And yet, they [who deny the truth] say: "O thou unto whom this reminder has [allegedly] been bestowed from on high: verily, thou art mad!
15:6 They said, "O you who received this reminder, you are crazy.,
15:6 And yet, those who deny the truth, say, “O You, to whom this Reminder has been revealed, certainly you are mad!”
15:7 Law ma ta/teena bialmala-ikatiin kunta mina alssadiqeena
15:7 "Why not bring us the controllers if you are of the truthful ones?"
15:7 "Why not bring us the angels if you are of the truthful ones?"
15:7 Why dost thou not bring before us angels, if thou art a man of truth?6
Cf. 6:8. The reference of the unbelievers to the Prophet's revelation is obviously sarcastic (Zamakhshari); hence my interpolation of the word "allegedly". Although these verses relate primarily to the pagan contemporaries of the Prophet, they broadly describe the negative attitude of unbelievers of all times.
15:7 "Why do you not bring down the angels, if you are truthful?",
15:7 “Why do you not bring angels to us if you are among the truthful?”
15:8 Ma nunazzilu almala-ikata illabialhaqqi wama kanoo ithan munthareena
15:8 We do not send down the controllers except with truth, and then they would have no more respite.
15:8 Wedo not send down the angels except with the truth, and then they would have no more delay.
15:8 [Yet] We never send down angels otherwise than in accordance with the [demands of] truth;7 and [were the angels to appear now,] lo! they [who reject this divine writ] would have no further respite!8
Sc., "and not just to satisfy a frivolous demand of people who-refuse to consider a prophetic message on its merits". Moreover-as is evident from the next clause-an actual appearance of the angels to ordinary men would but presage the Day of Judgment (described in 78:39 as "the Day of Ultimate Truth") and, thus, the doom of the deniers of the truth spoken of here.
Cf. 6: 8-"had We sent down an angel, all would indeed have been decided", i.e., the Day of Judgment would have come.
15:8 We do not send down the angels except for specific functions. Otherwise, no one will be respited.,
15:8 We do not send down the angels except when the period of respite is over. And in that case the rejecters get no further reprieve.
15:9 Inna nahnu nazzalna alththikrawa-inna lahu lahafithoona
Divine Protection15:9 We, indeed We, it is We who have sent down the Reminder, and indeed it is We who will preserve it.2
The Quran is protected through an interlocking error-sensitive mathematical code. The emphasis in this short verse is unique; with its four references to God and his controllers, it makes it clear that it is not the humans who would protect it, but the One who revealed the message. The word zikr (reminder) establishes a link between the preservation of the Quran and its mathematical system, which is described with the grammatically feminine of the same word, zikra (74:31). See 9:127; 41:41.
15:9 Indeed it is Wewho have sent down the Reminder, and indeed it is We who will preserve it.
15:9 Behold, it is We Ourselves who have bestowed from on high, step by step, this reminder?9 and, behold, it is We who shall truly guard it [from all corruption].10
I.e., the Qur'an. The grammatical form nazzalna implies a gradual revelation ("step by step") over a period of time, as has been pointed out by Zamakhshari in his commentary on 2:23 (see the last sentence of my corresponding note 14).
This prophecy has been strikingly confirmed by the fact that the text of the Qur'an has remained free from all alterations, additions or deletions ever since it was enunciated by the Prophet in the seventh century of the Christian era; and there is no other instance of any book, of whatever description, which has been similarly preserved over such a length of time. The early-noted variants in the reading of certain words of the Qur'an, occasionally referred to by the classical commentators, represent no more than differences in respect of diacritical marks or of vocalisation, and, as a rule, do not affect the meaning of the passage in question. (See also note 11 on 85:22, explaining the expression lawh mahfuz.)
God's Messenger of the Covenant15:9 Absolutely, we have revealed the reminder, and, absolutely, we will preserve it.2 ,
The divine source and the perfect preservation of the Quran are proven by the Quran's mathematical code (App. 1). God's Messengerof the Covenant was destined to unveil this great miracle. The word "Dhikr"denotes the Quran's code in several verses ( 15:6, 21:2, 26:5, 38:1, 38:8, 74:31). The value of "Rashad Khalifa" (1230)+15+9=1254, 19x66.
15:9 We have sent down this Reminder, and We will guard it. [6:115]
15:10 Walaqad arsalna min qablika feeshiyaAAi al-awwaleena
15:10 We have sent before you to the factions of old.
15:10 AndWe had sent before you, among the groups of old.
15:10 AND, INDEED, [O Prophet,] even before thy time did We send [Our apostles] unto communities11 of old -
The term shi'ah denotes a distinct group of people having in common the same persuasion or adhering to the same principles of behaviour, and is sometimes (though not here) used in the sense of "sect".
15:10 We have sent (messengers) before you to the communities in the past.,
15:10 Of course, (O Prophet) even before your time We sent Messengers to the communities.
15:11 Wama ya/teehim min rasoolin illakanoo bihi yastahzi-oona
15:11 Any messenger that came to them, they would mock him.
15:11 And no messenger would come to them, except that they would mock him.
15:11 and never yet came an apostle to them without their deriding him.
15:11 Every time a messenger went to them, they ridiculed him.,
15:11 And never came a Messenger to them that they did not mock him.
15:12 Kathalika naslukuhu fee quloobialmujrimeena
15:12 We thus let it sneak into the hearts of the criminals.
15:12 It is such that We let it seep into the hearts of the criminals.
15:12 Even so do We [now] cause this [scorn of Our message] to pervade the hearts of those who are lost in sin,
15:12 We thus control the minds of the guilty.,
15:12 We instill this attitude in the hearts of the guilty.4
Mujrim = One who thrives on the fruit of other’s labor = Guilty
15:13 La yu/minoona bihi waqad khalatsunnatu al-awwaleena
15:13 They do not acknowledge it, while the examples of the early generations has been brought to them.
15:13 They do not believe in it, while the way of the earlier generations has gone before.
15:13 who do not believe in it,12 . although the way which those [evildoers] of olden times had to go has long been within their ken.13
Cf. 6:10 and the corresponding note 9. My interpolation of the words "derision of Our message" is based on Tabari's and Zamakhshari 's interpretations of the above passage. Regarding God's "causing" the deniers of the truth to sin, see surah 2, note 7, as well as surah 14, note 4.
Lit., "although the way of life (sunnah) of those of olden times has already passed"-i.e., although the manner in which God has dealt with them has long since become a matter of common knowledge (Ibn Kathir).
15:13 Consequently, they cannot believe in him. This has been the system since the past generations.,
15:13 They do not accept the message. Such has been the way of those who went before them.
15:14 Walaw fatahna AAalayhim babanmina alssama-i fathalloo feehiyaAArujoona
15:14 If We opened for them a gate in the sky and they were to continue ascending to it,
15:14 Andif We opened for them a gate in the heaven and they were to continue ascending into it,
15:14 Yet even had We opened to them a gateway to heaven and they had ascended, on and on, up to it,
15:14 Even if we opened for them a gate into the sky, through which they climb;,
15:14 And even if We opened to them a Gate into the Heaven, and they kept ascending through it,
15:15 Laqaloo innama sukkirat absarunabal nahnu qawmun mashooroona
15:15 They would have said, "Our sight has been distorted. No, we are a people who are being bewitched!"
15:15 They would have said: "Our sight has been fogged. No, we are a people being bewitched!"
15:15 they would surely have said, "It is only our eyes that are spellbound! Nay, we have been bewitched!,14
Lit., "we are people bewitched". Cf. 6:7, as well as the last paragraph of 10:2 and the corresponding note 5. The confusing of revealed truths with illusory "enchantment" or "sorcery" is often pointed out in the Qur'an as characteristic of the attitude of people who a priori refuse to accept the idea of revelation and, thus, of prophethood. The above two verses, implying that not even a direct insight into the wonders of heaven could convince "those who are bent on denying the truth", are a prelude to the subsequent passage, which once again draws our attention to the wonders of nature as an evidence of God's creative activity.
15:15 they will say, "Our eyes have been deceived. We have been bewitched.",
15:15 They would say, "Our eyes are intoxicated. Nay, we are a people bewitched."
15:16 Walaqad jaAAalna fee alssama-iburoojan wazayyannaha lilnnathireena
15:16 We have placed galaxies in the heavens and We have made them pleasant to the onlookers.
15:16 AndWe have placed towers in the heaven and We have made them pleasant to the onlookers.
15:16 AND, INDEED, We have set up in the heavens great constellations,15 and endowed them with beauty for all to behold;
My rendering of buruj as "great constellations" is based on the Taj al-'Arus; among the classical commentators, Baghawi, Baydawi and Ibn Kathir give the same interpretation, while Tabari (on the authority of Mujahid and Qatadah) explains this term as signifying "the stars" in general.
15:16 We placed galaxies in the sky, and adorned it for the beholders.,
15:16 We have set constellations in the Sky and We have beautified it for the beholders.
15:17 Wahafithnahamin kulli shaytanin rajeemin
15:17 We have guarded them from every outcast devil.
15:17 AndWe have guarded it from every outcast devil.
15:17 and We have made them secure against every satanic force accursed16 -
The term shaytan ("satan") -derived from the verb shatana ("he was [or "became"] remote") -often denotes in the Qur'an a force or influence remote from, and opposed to, all that is true and good (Taj al-'Arus, Raghib): thus, for instance, in 2:14 it is used to describe the evil impulses (shayatin) within the hearts of "those who are bent on denying the truth". In its widest, abstract sense it denotes every "satanic force", i.e., every impulsion directed towards ends which are contrary to valid ethical postulates. In the present context, the phrase "every satanic force accursed (rajim)"-like the phrase "every rebellious (marid) satanic force" in a similar context in 37:7-apparently refers to endeavours, strongly condemned in Islam, to divine the future by means of astrological speculations: hence the preceding reference to the skies and the stars. The statement that God has made the heavens "secure" against such satanic forces obviously implies that He has made it impossible for the latter to obtain, through astrology or what is popularly described as "occult sciences", any real knowledge of "that which is beyond the reach of human perception" (al-ghayb).
15:17 And we guarded it against every rejected devil.,
15:17 And We have guarded it from every destructive force.
15:18 Illa mani istaraqa alssamAAafaatbaAAahu shihabun mubeenun
15:18 Except he who manages to eavesdrop, he will be pursued clearly by a flaming meteor.
15:18 Except he who manages to eavesdrop, he will be pursued by a visible flame.
15:18 so that anyone who seeks to learn [the unknowable] by stealth is pursued by a flame clear to see.17
Lit., "excepting [or "except that"] anyone who seeks to hear by stealth.. .", etc. The implication seems to be that any attempt at fathoming the mysteries of the unknowable by such illicit means ("by stealth") is inevitably followed by "a flame clear to see", i.e., by burning, self-evident frustration. (Cf. also 37:10.)
15:18 If any of them sneaks around to listen, a mighty projectile will chase him back.,
15:18 The Shining Flame of knowledge has now come to you to dispel the deceptive claims of every deceiver.5
15:19 Waal-arda madadnahawaalqayna feeha rawasiya waanbatnafeeha min kulli shay-in mawzoonin
15:19 As for the land, We have stretched it, placed stabilizers in it, and We have planted in it everything in balance.
15:19 Andthe land We have stretched, and placed stabilizers in it, and We have planted in it from everything in balance.
15:19 And the earth -We have spread it out wide, and placed on it mountains firm, and caused [life] of every kind to grow on it in a balanced manner,
15:19 As for the earth, we constructed it, and placed on it stabilizers (mountains), and we grew on it a perfect balance of everything.,
15:19 And the earth, We have spread it out, and placed in it mountains firmly. And caused each seemly thing to grow therein in due proportion. [15:19-20, 31:10, 39:5, 41:10, 79:28-30, 88:18-20]
15:20 WajaAAalna lakum feeha maAAayishawaman lastum lahu biraziqeena
15:20 We made for you in it a habitat, as well as those whom you are not required to provide for.
15:20 AndWe have made for you in it a habitat, and for those to whom you are not providers.
15:20 and provided thereon means of livelihood for you [O men] as well as for all [living beings] whose sustenance does not depend on you.18
Lit., "whose providers you are not"; i.e., all living organisms -whether plants or animals which are not tended by man but are nevertheless provided for. in its wider sense, this phrase stresses the notion that all living beings-man included-are provided for by God, and by Him alone (cf. 11:6).
15:20 We made it habitable for you, and for creatures you do not provide for.,3
When we send astronauts into space, we provide them with precisely measured quantities of food, water, and oxygen. God created the spaceship Earth with billions of astronauts who work and reproduce; He supplied them with a self-supporting system that generates oxygen, fresh water, and a great variety of delicious foods and drinks.
15:20 We have given you means of livelihood, as well as for all whose sustenance does not depend on you.
15:21 Wa-in min shay-in illa AAindanakhaza-inuhu wama nunazziluhu illa biqadarinmaAAloomin
15:21 There is not a thing, except that We have vaults of it, yet We only send it down in a measured amount.
15:21 Andthere is not a thing, except that We have vaults of it, and We do not send it down except in a precise measure.
15:21 For, no single thing exists that does not have its source with Us;19 and nought do We bestow from on high unless it be in accordance with a measure well-defined.20
Lit., "but with Us are its storehouses".
Lit., "and We do not send it down [i.e., "create it"] otherwise than according to a measure known [to Us]": that is, in accordance with the exigencies of God's plan as such and with the function which any particular thing or phenomenon is to have within that plan.
15:21 There is nothing that we do not own infinite amounts thereof. But we send it down in precise measure.,
15:21 There is not a thing but with Us are the treasures thereof. And We send it down but in precise measure.
15:22 Waarsalna alrriyaha lawaqihafaanzalna mina alssama-i maanfaasqaynakumoohu wama antum lahu bikhazineena
Wind: Pollinator of Clouds and Plants15:22 We have sent the winds to pollinate, and We sent down water from the sky for you to drink. It is not you who store it up.
15:22 AndWe send the winds to pollinate, so We send down water from the sky, so We give to you to drink; and it is not you who are its storers.
15:22 And We let loose the winds to fertilize [plants]21 and We send down water from the skies and let you drink thereof: and it is not you who dispose of its source-
I.e., by pollination as well as by bringing rain-clouds.
15:22 And we send the winds as pollinators, and cause water to come down from the sky for you to drink. Otherwise, you could not keep it palatable.,
15:22 We send the winds as pollinators that fertilize plants, and cause water to come down from the height for you to drink. Who holds the stores of the Universe? You do not. [51:4]
15:23 Wa-inna lanahnu nuhyeewanumeetu wanahnu alwarithoona
15:23 It is indeed We who give life and death, and We are the inheritors.
15:23 Andit is indeed We who bring to life and make to die, and We are the inheritors.
15:23 for, behold, it is We-We alone -who grant life and deal death, and it is We alone who shall remain after all else will have passed away !22
Lit., "We are [or "shall be"] the inheritors (al-warithun)": an idiomatic metaphor based, according to the consensus of all classical commentators, on the use of the term "inheritor" or "heir" in the sense of "one who remains after his predecessor has passed away"-in this case, after all creation has perished. (Cf. the expression "the heritage of the heavens and of the earth" used, with reference to God, in 3:180 and 57:10.)
15:23 It is we who control life and death, and we are the ultimate inheritors.,
15:23 For, it is We, We alone Who control the laws of life and death, and it is We alone Who remain the Ultimate Inheritor.6
So, the provision must remain accessible to all. 56:63
15:24 Walaqad AAalimna almustaqdimeenaminkum walaqad AAalimna almusta/khireena
15:24 Certainly We know those among you who are progressive, and We know those of you who are regressive.
15:24 AndWe know those who have advanced among you, and We know those who have lagged.
15:24 And well do We know [the hearts and deeds of all human beings - both] those who lived before you and those who will come after you;23
Or: "those of you who hasten forward [towards Us], and those who lag behind". Both these interpretations are considered equally legitimate by the early commentators.
15:24 And we fully know those among you who advance, and we fully know those who regress.,
15:24 We know those who passed on before you, and We know those who will come after you.7
And We know those who advance in goodness and those who lag behind
15:25 Wa-inna rabbaka huwa yahshuruhuminnahu hakeemun AAaleemun
15:25 It is your Lord that will gather them. He is Wise, Knowledgeable.
15:25 Andit is your Lord who will gather them. He is Wise, Knowledgeable.
15:25 and, behold, it is thy Sustainer who will gather them all together [on Judgment Day]: verily, He is wise, all-knowing!
15:25 Your Lord will surely summon them. He is Most Wise, Omniscient.,
15:25 It is your Lord Who will gather all of them together. Surely, He is Wise, All Knower.
15:26 Walaqad khalaqna al-insana minsalsalin min hama-in masnoonin
Creation of Humans15:26 We have created the human being from hardened clay of aged mud.3
Creation "from" clay has two meanings. (1) clay as the substance of origin, and (2) clay as a place of origin. Both meanings could be true at the same time, though we learn from other verses that clay is not the only substance used in our creation; water too is a vital ingredient. Our Creator started the biological evolution of microscopic organisms within layers of clay. Recent scientific research led some scientists to consider clay as the origin of life, since clay is a porous network of atoms arranged geodesically within octahedral and tetrahedral forms. This design creates sliding and flexible layers that catalyze chemical reactions. Humans are the most advanced fruits of organic life started millions years ago from layers of clay. See 29:18; 41:9; 7:69; 24:45; 32:7; 71:14.
15:26 AndWe have created man from a sludge from hot sediment.
15:26 AND, INDEED, We have created man out of sounding clay, out of dark-slime transmuted24
There are many references in the Qur'an to man's having been "created out of clay (tin)" or "out of dust (turab)", both these terms signifying man's lowly biological origins as well as the fact that his body is composed of various organic and inorganic substances existing-in other combinations or in their elementary forms-on or in the earth. The term salsal, occurring in three verses of this surah as well as in 55:14, adds a further dimension to this concept. According to most of the philological authorities, it denotes "dried clay that emits a sound" (i.e., when it is struck); and since it is used in the Qur'an exclusively with reference to the creation of man, it seems to contain an allusion to the power of articulate speech which distinguishes man from all other animal species, as well as to the brittleness of his existence (cf. the expression "like pottery" in 55:14). As the construction of the sentence shows, this salsal is stated to have evolved (Razi) out of hama' - which, according to some authorities, is the plural of ham'ah, signifying "dark, fetid mud" or "dark slime"-while the participial adjective masnun which qualifies this noun denotes, as Razi points out, both "altered" (i.e., in its composition) and "brought into shape": hence my rendering of this expression as "transmuted", which to some extent combines both of the above meanings. To my mind, we have here a description of the primeval biological environment out of which the "sounding clay" - the matrix, as it were - of man's physical body has evolved in accordance with God's plan of creation.
The Human Race15:26 We created the human being from aged mud, like the potter's clay.,
15:26 And We created man from sounding clay, out of dark inorganic matter. [37:11]
15:27 Waaljanna khalaqnahumin qablu min nari alssamoomi
15:27 The Jinn, We created him before that from the flames of fire.
15:27 Andthe Jinn, We created him before that from the fire of the fierce hot winds.
15:27 whereas the invisible beings We had created, [long] before that, out of the fire of scorching winds.25
Cf. 55:15- "out of the confusing flame of fire (marij min nar)": i.e., of non-corporeal elements. The noun al-jann, rendered by me as "the invisible beings", is in reality a singular, denoting here the kind of these particular beings or forces, similar to the use of the singular noun "man" (al-insan) which describes the collective entity "mankind". The etymology of the word jann (the plural of which is jinn) has been briefly touched upon in note 86 on 6:100; a more detailed discussion of its meaning is found in Appendix III.
15:27 As for the jinns, we created them, before that, from blazing fire.,
15:27 Before humanity became civilized, We had placed in them a fiery disposition. See Jinn – Surah 72, note)
15:28 Wa-ith qala rabbuka lilmala-ikatiinnee khaliqun basharan min salsalin min hama-inmasnoonin
15:28 Your Lord said to the controllers: "I am creating a human from hardened clay of aged mud."
15:28 Andyour Lord said to the angels: "I am creating a human being from a sludge from hot sediment."
15:28 And lo! Thy Sustainer said unto the angels: "Behold, I am about to create mortal man out of sounding clay, out of dark slime transmuted;
15:28 Your Lord said to the angels, "I am creating a human being from aged mud, like the potter's clay.,
15:28 Recall when your Lord said to the angels, "Indeed, I am about to create man out of sounding inorganic matter, (and then) out of hydrated clay.” [2:30-35, 7:11-22, 17:61, 19:21, 20:116-120]
15:29 Fa-itha sawwaytuhu wanafakhtu feehimin roohee faqaAAoo lahu sajideena
15:29 "So when I perfect him, and blow of My Spirit in him, you shall fall prostrate to him."4
The word ruh, does not mean soul or spirit, as commonly thought. In the terminology of the Quran ruh means revelation, inspiration, information, or commands. The word nafs is used to mean person or consciousness (39:42). If we try to describe the human genetic makeup and the program etched into the brain in computer language, it is like a piece of hardware that facilitates communication, processing, analysis and synthesis of information through an intelligent system program containing God's knowledge/commands/code/logic (ruh) in its core. Person (nafs) is analogous to an open system program that can be improved through new application programs, addition of new features, and memory (experience) data. This system program (person) can be put in hibernation (sleep), or terminated by the turning off of the switch, or by the destruction of its essential hardware (death) (39:42; 21:35; 29:57; 2:28; 10:56; 32:11; 45:15).
Contradictory and irrational actions that are the products of reflexive choices, gullibility, superstitious ideas, intoxicants, religious dogmas, peer pressure, ignorance, etc, might make the system program vulnerable to the attacks of evil viruses and Trojan horses (6:116; 10:36; 17:36; 53:28; 2:170; 3:154; 8:22; 10:100; 12:40; 13:19; 28:63; 35:28; 39:9; 41:46; 45:15; 79:40; 9:31). If due to prejudice and acquired bad habits, they do not use vigilant virus protection programs called critical thinking or logic, numerous harmful and fatal viruses might infect and corrupt system programs (persons) beyond reform (2:231; 4:110; 7:160; 17:7; 31:13; 65:1; 91:7, and 6:110). Good intentions, thoughts, deeds, habits, good networks, and numerous tests advance the system program (person) to new levels (2:272; 23:60). Then the improved or regressed system program is separated from the hardware (death) and uploaded (recorded in the master record/ummul-kitab) for evaluation (18:49; 6:38; 54:53). Those that kept the system program free from infection and corruption, and improved it through various tests, are beamed to a higher dimension for eternal enjoyment (89:27). The system programs (persons) that had progressed (through acknowledgment and good deeds) and passed all major tests (through a humble and appreciative attitude during blessings and tragedies) in its previous hardware (2:155; 3:186; 29:1); these few successful system programs will be matched with an indestructible hardware (body) to live in eternal bliss (81:7; 3:30; 40:17; 45:22; 50:21; 74:38; 89:27; 2:123). Also, see 17:85; 39:42.
15:29 "Sowhen I evolve him, and blow from My Spirit in him, you shall yield to him."
15:29 and when I have formed him fully and breathed into him of My spirit, fall down before him in prostration!26
Cf. 2 : 30-34 and the corresponding notes, as well as 7:11. The allegorical character of all the passages bearing on the creation of man and on God's command to the angels to prostrate themselves before him is brought out clearly in God's saying, "I am about to create mortal man ... ; and when I have formed him fully. ..", etc.: for it is obvious that, in reality, no lapse of time is required for God's completing His creation - since, "when He wills a thing to be, He but says unto it, 'Be'-and it is" (cf. 2:117, 3:47 and 59, 6:73, 16:40, 19:35, 36:82 and 40:68). God's "breathing of His spirit" into man is obviously a metaphor for His endowing him with life and consciousness: that is, with a soul.
15:29 "Once I perfect him, and blow into him from My spirit, you shall fall prostrate before him.",
15:29 And when I have perfected him in due proportion and breathed into him from My Energy, be of service to him.”8
Note "from My Energy". So God gave humans 'something' from His Energy. That something is free will. 76:3
15:30 Fasajada almala-ikatu kulluhumajmaAAoona
15:30 Thus, all of the controllers fell prostrate to him,
15:30 Thus, all of the angels yielded.
15:30 Thereupon the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together,
15:30 The angels fell prostrate; all of them,,
15:30 Thereupon the angels agreed to be subservient, all of them together.9
The physical laws in the Universe were made subservient to mankind
15:31 Illa ibleesa aba an yakoonamaAAa alssajideena
15:31 Except for Satan, he refused to be with those who prostrated.
15:31 Except for Satan, he refused to be of those who yielded.
15:31 save Iblis: he refused to be among those who prostrated themselves.27
See note 10 on 7:11. For the deeper meaning of this "rebellion", see note 31 below.
15:31 except Iblis (Satan). He refused to be with the prostrators.,
15:31 But Iblees (Satan) refused to be among those who submitted.10
The selfish desires of humans declared rebellion against the higher controls of Reason. 2:34
15:32 Qala ya ibleesu ma lakaalla takoona maAAa alssajideena
15:32 He said, "O Satan, what is the matter that you are not with the prostrators?"
15:32 He said: "O Satan, what is the matter that you are not of those who yielded?"
15:32 Said He: "O Iblis! What is thy reason for not being among those who have prostrated themselves?"
15:32 He said, "O Iblis (Satan), why are you not with the prostrators?",
15:32 God asked, "O Iblees! Why are you not with those who submitted?"
15:33 Qala lam akun li-asjuda libasharinkhalaqtahu min salsalin min hama-in masnoonin
15:33 He said, "I am not to prostrate to a human You have created from a hardened clay of aged mud."
15:33 He said: "I am not to yield to a human being whom You have created from a sludge from hot sediment."
15:33 [Iblis] replied: "It is not for me to prostrate myself before mortal man whom Thou hast created out of sounding clay, out of dark slime transmuted!"
15:33 He said, "I am not to prostrate before a human being, whom You created from aged mud, like the potter's clay.",
15:33 He replied, "I am not one to submit to man whom You have created from sounding inorganic matter."
15:34 Qala faokhruj minhafa-innaka rajeemun
15:34 He said, "Exit from here, you are cast out."
15:34 He said: "Exit from here, you are cast out."
15:34 Said He: "Go forth, then, from this [angelic state]: for, behold, thou art [henceforth] accursed,
15:34 He said, "Therefore, you must get out; you are banished.,
15:34 God said, "Go forth then, from here! You are dismissed forthwith.”
15:35 Wa-inna AAalayka allaAAnata ila yawmialddeeni
15:35 "A curse shall be upon you until the day of judgment."
15:35 "And a curse shall be upon you until the Day of Recompense."
15:35 and [My] rejection shall be thy due28 until the Day of Judgment!"
Lit., "is upon thee".
15:35 "You have incurred My condemnation until the Day of Judgment.",
15:35 “My rejection shall be your due until the Day of Judgment." [7:14-15]
15:36 Qala rabbi faanthirneeila yawmi yubAAathoona
15:36 He said, "My Lord, respite me until the day they are resurrected."
15:36 He said: "My Lord, respite me until the Day they are resurrected."
15:36 Said [Iblis]: "Then, O my Sustainer, grant me a respite till the Day when all shall be raised from the dead!"
15:36 He said, "My Lord, respite me until the day they are resurrected.",
15:36 Said Iblees, "Then O My Lord! Grant me respite until the Day when all shall be raised from the dead."
15:37 Qala fa-innaka mina almunthareena
15:37 He said, "You are given respite,"
15:37 He said: "You are given respite."
15:37 Answered He: "Verily, so be it: thou shalt be among those who are granted respite
15:37 He said, "You are respited.,
15:37 Answered He, "Surely, so be it. You shall be among those who are granted respite.”
15:38 Ila yawmi alwaqti almaAAloomi
15:38 "Until the day of the appointed time."
15:38 "Until the Day of the time appointed."
15:38 till the Day the time whereof is known [to Me alone]."
15:38 "Until the specified day and time.",
15:38 “Till the Day known (to Me alone).”
15:39 Qala rabbi bima aghwaytaneelaozayyinanna lahum fee al-ardi walaoghwiyannahumajmaAAeena
Satan's Limited Power15:39 He said, "My Lord, you sent me astray, I will make the earth appear beautiful for them, and I will mislead them all,"
15:39 He said: "My Lord, for that by which You have caused me to be misled, I will beautify for them what is on the earth, and I will mislead them all."
15:39 [Whereupon Iblis] said: "O my Sustainer! Since Thou hast thwarted me,29 I shall indeed make [all that is evil] on earth seem goodly to them, and shall most certainly beguile them-into grievous error -
See surah 7, note 11.
15:39 He said, "My Lord, since You have willed that I go astray, I will surely entice them on earth; I will send them all astray.,
15:39 Iblees said, "O My Lord! Because You have put me in the wrong, I will entice them on earth, and I will put them all in the wrong.”11
Ghawa = Put in error = Thwart = Mislead = Deprive of sound judgment
15:40 Illa AAibadaka minhumualmukhlaseena
15:40 "Except Your devoted servants."
15:40 "Except Your servants from among them, the devoted ones."
15:40 [all] save such of them as are truly Thy servants!"30
Lit., "Thy sincere servants": i.e., those who are so deeply conscious of God that no "blandishment of Satan" can lead them astray. (See also note 32 below.)
15:40 "Except those among Your worshipers who are devoted absolutely to You alone.",
15:40 “Except those who are truly Your servants."
15:41 Qala hatha siratunAAalayya mustaqeemun
15:41 He said, "This is a straight path to Me."
15:41 He said: "This shall be a straight path to Me."
15:41 Said He: "This is, with Me. a straight way:31
I.e., "this is what I have willed" - namely, that Iblis (or Satan) should tempt man, but should have no power to seduce those who are truly conscious of God. Thus, the Qur'an makes it clear that despite his ostensible "rebellion" against his Creator. Satan fulfils a definite function in God's plan: he is the eternal tempter who enables man to exercise his God-given freedom of choice between good and evil and, thus, to become a being endowed with moral free will. (See in this connection 19:83, as well as note 26 on 2:34 and note 16 on 7:24.)
15:41 He said, "This is a law that is inviolable.,
15:41 "This is, with Me, a straight path," said God.
15:42 Inna AAibadee laysa laka AAalayhimsultanun illa mani ittabaAAaka mina alghaweena
15:42 "For My servants, you shall have no authority over them, except those who are misled and follow you."
15:42 "For My servants, you shall have no authority over them, except those who are misled and follow you."
15:42 verily, thou shalt have no power over My creatures- unless it be such as are [already] lost in grievous error and follow thee [of their own will]:32
Lit., "except him who shall follow thee from among those who are lost in grievous error". (Cf. 14:22, according to which Satan will thus address his erstwhile followers on Judgment Day: "I had no power at all over you: I but called you-and you responded unto me.") This phrase constitutes the essential difference between the above passage and the similar one in 7:11.
15:42 "You have no power over My servants. You only have power over the strayers who follow you.,
15:42 “Surely, you shall have no power over My servants, except those who put themselves in error and follow you.”
15:43 Wa-inna jahannama lamawAAiduhum ajmaAAeena
15:43 "Hell, shall be the appointed place for them all."
15:43 "And that Hell shall be their appointment, all of them."
15:43 and for all such, behold, hell is the promised goal.
15:43 "And Hell awaits them all.,
15:43 “And for all such, Hell is the promised abode.”
15:44 Laha sabAAatu abwabin likullibabin minhum juz-on maqsoomun
15:44 "It has seven gates, for every gate will be an assigned segment from them."
15:44 "Ithas seven gates, for every gate will be an assigned segment from them."
15:44 with seven gates leading into it, each gate receiving its allotted share of sinners. -33
Lit., "it has seven gates, [with) an allotted share of them for each gate". This probably means "seven degrees" of hell, i.e., of the suffering which, in the life to come, awaits the "followers of Satan" in accordance with the gravity of their sins (Razi; a similar explanation is given by Qatadah, as quoted by Tabari). It should also be remembered that the concept of "hell" as such is referred to in the Qur'an under seven different names, all of them metaphorical (necessarily so, because they relate to what the Qur'an describes as al-ghayb, "something that is beyond the reach of human perception"): namely nar ("fire, which is the general term), jahannam ("hell"), jahim ("blazing fire"), sa`ir ("blazing flame"), saqar ("hell-fire"). laza ("raging flame"), and hutamah ("crushing torment"). Since. as I have mentioned, these designations of other-worldly suffering are obviously allegorical, we may also assume that the "seven gates of hell" have the same character, and signify "seven approaches [or "ways"] to hell". Furthermore. it is well known that in the Semitic languages-and most particularly in classical Arabic-the number "seven" is often used in the sense of "several" or "various" (cf. Lisan al-'Arab, Taj al-'Arus, etc.): and so the above Qur'anic phrase may well have the meaning of "various ways leading to hell" -in other words, many ways of sinning.
15:44 "It will have seven gates. Each gate will get a specific share of them.",
15:44 With seven gates leading into it - each gate receiving its share of wrongdoers.12
Sab’ah = Seven = Many. The right path is one, while the wrong paths are numerous and each of them leads to Hell. 30:30
15:45 Inna almuttaqeena fee jannatinwaAAuyoonin
15:45 The righteous will be in paradises and springs.
15:45 Therighteous will be in gardens and springs.
15:45 VERILY, those who are conscious of God [shall find themselves in the hereafter] amidst gardens and springs,
15:45 As for the righteous, they will enjoy gardens and springs.,
15:45 Surely, those who live upright, will find themselves amidst gardens and springs.
15:46 Odkhulooha bisalamin amineena
15:46 "Enter it in peace and security."
15:46 "Enter it in peace and security."
15:46 [having been received with the greeting,] "Enter here in peace, secure!"
15:46 Enter therein, peaceful and secure.,
15:46 They will be told, “Enter them in peace, secure.”
15:47 WanazaAAna ma fee sudoorihimmin ghillin ikhwanan AAala sururin mutaqabileena
15:47 We removed all negative feelings in their chests; they are brothers in quarters facing one another.
15:47 AndWe removed what animosity was in their chests, they are brothers in quarters facing one another.
15:47 And [by then] We shall have removed whatever unworthy thoughts or feelings may have been [lingering] in their breasts, [and they shall rest] as brethren, facing one another [in love] upon thrones of happiness.34
I.e.. all being equal in dignity, and therefore free from envy. As Razi points out, the plural noun surur (sing. sarir), which literally denotes "couches" or, occasionally, "thrones", signifies also "seats [or "thrones"] of eminence" or "of happiness (surur)", from which latter word the noun sarir and its plural surur may be derived. The sublime. quality of these "thrones of happiness" is in some instances further symbolized by expressions like "gold-encrusted" (56:15) or "raised high" (88:13).
15:47 We remove all jealousy from their hearts. Like one family, they will be on adjacent furnishings.,
15:47 And We shall remove from their hearts any sense of jealousy, rancor, rivalry and bitterness. And they shall rest as brothers and sisters, facing one another, on thrones of happiness.13
15:48 La yamassuhum feeha nasabunwama hum minha bimukhrajeena
15:48 No fatigue shall touch them, nor will they be made to leave from it.
15:48 No fatigue shall touch them, nor will they be evicted from it.
15:48 No weariness shall ever touch them in this [state of bliss], and never shall they have to forgo it.35
Lit., "never shall they be caused to depart from it".
15:48 Never will they suffer any fatigue therein; never will they be evicted therefrom.,
15:48 No weariness shall ever touch them, and never shall they lose this abode of bliss.
15:49 Nabbi/ AAibadee annee anaalghafooru alrraheemu
15:49 Inform My servants that I am the Forgiver, the Compassionate.
15:49 Inform My servants that I am the Forgiver, the Merciful.
15:49 Tell My servants that I - I alone - am truly forgiving, a true dispenser of grace;
15:49 Inform My servants that I am the Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
15:49 Tell My servants that I am Forgiving, Merciful.
15:50 Waanna AAathabee huwa alAAathabual-aleemu
15:50 That My punishment is a painful retribution.
15:50 Andthat My punishment is a painful retribution.
15:50 and [also,] that the suffering which I shall impose [on sinners] will indeed be a suffering most grievous.36
In his commentary on the above two verses, Razi notes that the statement relating to God's forgiveness and grace contains a threefold emphasis-expressed by the repetition of the personal pronoun ana relating to God, and the definite article al before each of the two participial adjectives - whereas there is no such stress in the mention of His chastisement of recalcitrant sinners. (Cf. 6:12-and the corresponding note 10-as well as 6:54, both of which verses state that God "has willed upon Himself the law of grace and mercy".)
15:50 And that My retribution is the most painful retribution.,
15:50 Yet, My Law of Requital dispenses a severe requital.
15:51 Wanabbi/hum AAan dayfi ibraheema
Controllers Give Good and Bad News15:51 Also inform them of Abraham's guests.
15:51 Andinform them of the guests of Abraham.
15:51 AND TELL THEM [once again] about Abraham's guests37 -
For a more detailed story of Abraham and the heavenly messengers, see verses 69-76 of Surah 11 (Hud), which was revealed shortly before the present one. The connection between this story and the preceding stress on God's grace arises from Abraham's saying (in verse 56), "And who-other than those who have utterly lost their way-could ever lose the hope of his Sustainer's grace?" Similarly, the subsequent references (in verses 58-84) to the sinful communities that were destroyed because they refused to heed the warnings of their prophets are, obviously, meant to illustrate the reverse of God's grace, namely, His inevitable chastisement of deliberate, unrepented sinning (verse 50 above).
Angels Visit Abraham15:51 Inform them about Abraham's guests.,
15:51 As an example, tell them once again about Abraham's guests.
15:52 Ith dakhaloo AAalayhi faqaloosalaman qala inna minkum wajiloona
15:52 That they entered upon him, they said, "Peace." He said, "We are worrisome of you."
15:52 When they entered upon him, they said: "Peace." He said: "We are worrisome of you."
15:52 [how,] when they presented themselves before him and bade him peace, he answered: "Behold, we are afraid of you!"38
For the reason of Abraham's and Sarah's apprehension. see 11:70.
15:52 When they entered his quarters, they said, "Peace." He said, "We are apprehensive about you.",
15:52 When they came to him, and said, “Peace!” He said, "Indeed, We are afraid of you."
15:53 Qaloo la tawjal innanubashshiruka bighulamin AAaleemin
15:53 They said, "Do not worry, we bring you good news of a knowledgeable son."
15:53 They said: "Do not worry, we bring you good news of a knowledgeable son."
15:53 Said they: "Fear not! Behold, we bring thee the glad tiding of [the birth of] a son who will be endowed with deep knowledge."39
Le., will be a prophet.
15:53 They said, "Do not be apprehensive. We have good news for you: an enlightened son.",
15:53 Said they, "Fear not! Indeed, we bring you the glad tiding of an enlightened son."
15:54 Qala abashshartumoonee AAalaan massaniya alkibaru fabima tubashshirooni
15:54 He said, "What good news can you bring me when old age has come upon me? Is that your good news?"
15:54 He said: "What good news can you bring me when old age has come upon me? Is that your good news?"
15:54 Said he: "Do you give me this glad tiding despite the fact that old age has overtaken me? Of what [strange thing], then, are you giving me a tiding!"
15:54 He said, "How can you give me such good news, when I am so old? Do you still give me this good news?",
15:54 He said, "How can you give me such glad tiding even though I have been overtaken by old age?"
15:55 Qaloo bashsharnaka bialhaqqifala takun mina alqaniteena
15:55 They said, "We have brought you good news with truth, so do not be of those in denial."*
15:55 They said: "We have brought you good news with the truth, so do not be of those in denial."
15:55 They answered: "We have given thee the glad tiding of something that is bound to come true. -40 so be not of those who abandon hope!"
Lit., "We have given thee the glad tiding of the truth" -i.e., of the truth willed by God On (Ibn`Abbas, as quoted by Razi).
15:55 They said, "The good news we give you is true; do not despair.",
15:55 They answered, “We have given you the glad tiding that is bound to come true. So be not of those who abandon hope!”
15:56 Qala waman yaqnatu min rahmatirabbihi illa alddalloona
15:56 He said, "Who would deny the mercy of his Lord except the misguided ones!"5
15:56 He said: "And who would deny the mercy of his Lord except the misguided ones!"
15:56 [Abraham] exclaimed: "And who-other than those who have utterly lost their way-could ever abandon the hope of his Sustainer's grace?"
15:56 He said, "None despairs of his Lord's mercy, except the strayers.",
15:56 Abraham exclaimed, "And who, other than the one in error, despairs of the grace of his Lord?”
15:57 Qala fama khatbukumayyuha almursaloona
15:57 He said, "What then is your business here, O messengers?"
15:57 He said: "What then is your affair, O messengers?"
15:57 He added: "And what [else] may you have in view, O you [heavenly] messengers?"
15:57 He said, "What is your mission, O messengers?",
15:57 He added, “And afterward what is your mission, O Messengers?"
15:58 Qaloo inna orsilna ilaqawmin mujrimeena
15:58 They said, "We have been sent to a people who are criminals;"
15:58 They said: "We have been sent to a people who are criminals."
15:58 They answered: "We are sent to people lost in sin41 [who are to be destroyed],
15:58 They said, "We are being dispatched to guilty people.,
15:58 They replied, "We are sent to dispense retribution to a guilty people,
15:59 Illa ala lootin innalamunajjoohum ajmaAAeena
15:59 "Except for the family of Lot, we will save them all;"
15:59 "Except for the family of Lot, we will save them all."
15:59 barring Lot's household, all of whom, behold, we shall save -
15:59 "As for Lot's family, we will save them all.,
15:59 Except Lot’s household and followers, all of whom we shall save (as commanded).
15:60 Illa imraatahu qaddarna innahalamina alghabireena
15:60 "Except for his wife, we have measured that she will be with those destroyed."
15:60 "Except for his wife, we have evaluated that she will be with those destroyed."
15:60 excepting only his wife, [of whom God says,] `We have ordained [that], behold, she should be among those who stay behind!'42
See 7:83 and the corresponding note 66, as well as 11:81 and 66:10. My interpolation of the words "of whom God says" is necessitated by the elliptic use of the verb gaddarna - which, in the sense of "We have ordained" or "decreed", is an act attributed in the Qur'an invariably, and exclusively, to God. As I have repeatedly pointed out in my notes, God's "ordaining" a sinner to commit a sin or His "decreeing" that he should remain deaf to the voice of truth is a metonym for the natural law instituted by Him, which has been explained in surah 2, note 7; it refers also, generally speaking, to God's absolute fore-knowledge of how any of His creatures will act in a given situation (Zamakhshari). See also note 56 on 11:34 and note 4 on 14:4.
15:60 "But not his wife; she is destined to be with the doomed.",
15:60 But not his wife, who, we have ascertained, will be among those who will lag behind.”
15:61 Falamma jaa ala lootinalmursaloona
Lot and the Aggressive of the Homosexuals15:61 So when the messengers came to the family of Lot.
15:61 So when the messengers came to the family of Lot.
15:61 AND WHEN the messengers [of God] came to the house of Lot,
Lot15:61 The messengers went to Lot's town.,
15:61 When the Messengers came to Lot's house,
15:62 Qala innakum qawmun munkaroona
15:62 He said, "You are a people unknown to me."
15:62 He said: "You are an unknown people."
15:62 he said: "Behold, you are people unknown [here] !"43
Implying that they might be assaulted by the sinful people of his town: cf. 11:77 and the corresponding note 107.
15:62 He said, "You are unknown people.",
15:62 He said, "Indeed, you are people unknown."
15:63 Qaloo bal ji/naka bimakanoo feehi yamtaroona
15:63 They said, "Alas, we have come to you with what they are in doubt."
15:63 They said: "Alas, we have come to you with that which they are doubting."
15:63 They answered: "Nay, but we have come unto thee with [the announcement of] something that they [who are given to evil] have always been wont to call in question,44
Lit., "that about which they have persistently been (kanu) in doubt"-i.e., the doom which, in this world or in the hereafter, is the inevitable consequence of deliberate sinning: a prediction which the sinners themselves so often deride (cf. 6:57, 8:32, 11:8, and the corresponding notes). To my mind, this sentence constitutes the reason for the repetition, in this surah, of the stories of Lot's people and the other sinful communities of old that were punished for their persistent transgressions against all moral laws.
15:63 They said, "We bring to you what they have been doubting.,
15:63 They answered, "Nay, we bring to you the decision concerning what they keep disputing with you.”
15:64 Waataynaka bialhaqqiwa-inna lasadiqoona
15:64 "We have come to you with the truth, and we are forthcoming."
15:64 "And we have come to you with the truth, and we are forthcoming."
15:64 and we are bringing thee the certainty [of its fulfilment] :45 for, behold, we are speaking the truth indeed.
Lit., "We have brought thee for "come to thee with"] the truth".
15:64 "We bring to you the truth; we are truthful.,
15:64 “And we are bringing you the certainty (that the period of respite for your people is over). We are indeed truthful.”
15:65 Faasri bi-ahlika biqitAAin minaallayli waittabiAA adbarahum wala yaltafitminkum ahadun waimdoo haythutu/maroona
15:65 "So let your family leave during the last moments of the night, and you follow just behind them, and do not let any of you look back, and go to where you are commanded."
15:65 "Solet your family leave during the late hours of the night, and you follow just behind them, and do not let any of you look back, and go to where you are commanded."
15:65 Go, then., with thy household while it is yet night, with thyself following them in the rear; and let none of you look back,46 but proceed whither you are bidden."
For an explanation of this metaphorical "looking back", see Surah 11, note 112.
15:65 "You shall take your family during the night. Stay behind them, and make sure that none of you looks back. Go straight as commanded.",
15:65 “Go, then, with your family and followers while it is yet night. Follow them in the rear, and let none of you look back (never to come back to this place). But proceed as you are commanded (by your Lord 11:81).”
15:66 Waqadayna ilayhi thalikaal-amra anna dabira haola-i maqtooAAunmusbiheena
15:66 We conveyed him the decree, that the remnants of these people will be cut off in the morning.
15:66 AndWe made the matter known to him, that the remainder of these people would be wiped out by the morning.
15:66 And [through Our messengers] We revealed unto him this decree: "The last remnant of those [sinners] shall be wiped out"47 in the morn."
Lit., "cut off".
15:66 We delivered to him this command: those people are to be annihilated in the morning.,
15:66 And We made plain the case to him, “The last remnant of those shall be wiped out in the morning.”
15:67 Wajaa ahlu almadeenati yastabshiroona
15:67 The people of the city came seeking good news.
15:67 Andthe people of the city came seeking good news.
15:67 And the people of the city came [unto Lot], rejoicing at the glad tiding.48
15:67 The people of the city came joyfully.,
15:67 The residents of the town came in rejoicing in anticipation.14
They thought that these Messengers could make for them permissible what Lot had been declaring non-permissible
15:68 Qala inna haola-i dayfeefala tafdahooni
15:68 He said, "These are my guests, so do not embarrass me!"
15:68 He said: "These are my guests, so do not embarrass me!"
15:68 Exclaimed [Lot]: "Behold, these are my guests: so put me not to shame,
15:68 He said, "These are my guests; do not embarrass me.,
15:68 Lot said, "Indeed, these are my guests; so do not embarrass me.”
15:69 Waittaqoo Allaha walatukhzooni
15:69 "Be aware of God, and do not disgrace me!"
15:69 "And be aware of God, and do not disgrace me!"
15:69 but be conscious of God and disgrace me not!"
15:69 "Fear GOD, and do not shame me.",
15:69 “Be mindful of God and disgrace me not!”
15:70 Qaloo awa lam nanhaka AAani alAAalameena
15:70 They said, "Did we not forbid you from outsiders?"
15:70 They said: "Did we not prohibit you from the world?"
15:70 They answered: "Have we not forbidden thee [to offer protection] to any kind of people?"49
Lit., "all people" (al-'alamin): obviously, because Lot was a stranger in Sodom-having come there from Mesopotamia, his and Abraham's country of origin (see surah 11, note 102)-and had previously aroused the ire of the Sodomites by his moral reproaches (cf. 7:80).
15:70 They said, "Did we not enjoin you from contacting anyone?",
15:70 They said, "Did we not forbid you from entertaining anyone?”
15:71 Qala haola-i banateein kuntum faAAileena
15:71 He said, "Here are my daughters if you are going to act."6
Did prophet Lot mean his own daughters or the daughters in his town? Regardless, he was reminding them to follow God's design, rather than choosing a lifestyle that contradicts it. The distorted Bible contains many false accusations against prophets. For instance, it depicts Lot as a drunkard who committed incest with his daughters (Genesis 19:30-38 ).
15:71 He said: "Here are my daughters if it is your intention."
15:71 [Lot] said: "[Take instead] these daughters of mine,50 if you must do [whatever you intend to do]!"
See surah 11, note 109.
15:71 He said, "Here are my daughters, if you must.",
15:71 Lot said, "These (your wives who are like) my daughters, are better for you, if you would.”
15:72 LaAAamruka innahum lafee sakratihimyaAAmahoona
15:72 By your life, they are in their drunkenness, blundering.
15:72 By your life, they are in their intoxication, blundering.
15:72 [But the angels spoke thus:] "As thou livest, [O Lot, they will not listen to thee:]51 behold, in their delirium [of lust] they are but blindly stumbling to and fro!"
The above two interpolations are based on Zamakhshari's oath "As thou livest" reads, literally, "By thy life"._
15:72 But, alas, they were totally blinded by their lust.,
15:72 The Messengers said to Lot, "They will not listen to you even if you preach them all your life." They were highly intoxicated, stumbling up and down.
15:73 Faakhathat-humu alssayhatumushriqeena
15:73 So the scream took them at sunrise.
15:73 So the scream took them at sunrise.
15:73 And thereupon the blast [of Our punishment] overtook them52 at the time of sunrise,
Regarding the meaning of the term sayhah, rendered by me as "blast ment", see surah 11, note 98.
15:73 Consequently, the disaster struck them in the morning.,
15:73 The blast (of requital) overtook them at the time of sunrise.
15:74 FajaAAalna AAaliyaha safilahawaamtarna AAalayhim hijaratan minsijjeelin
15:74 Thus We turned it upside down, and rained upon them with fiery projectiles.
15:74 Thus We made its highest part become its lowest, and We rained upon them fiery projectiles.
15:74 and We turned those [sinful towns} upside down, and rained down upon them stone-hard blows of chastisement pre-ordained.53
See surah 11, note 114.
15:74 We turned it upside down, and showered them with devastating rocks.,
15:74 We turned the towns upside down and showered upon them hard heated rocks.
15:75 Inna fee thalika laayatinlilmutawassimeena
15:75 In this are signs for those who distinguish.
15:75 In this are signs for those who see.
15:75 Verily, in all this there are messages indeed for those who can read the signs:54
In its full significance, the term mutawassim denotes "one who applies his mind to the study of the outward appearance of a thing with a view to understanding its real nature and its inner characteristics" (Zamakhshari and Razi).
15:75 This is a lesson for those who possess intelligence.,
15:75 Therein, are lessons for the inquiring minds.
15:76 Wa-innaha labisabeelin muqeemin
15:76 It is on an established path.
15:76 Andit was on an established path.
15:76 for, behold, those [towns] stood by a road that still exists.55
The existence of that road, which led from northern Hijaz to Syria, skirting the Dead Sea-to the north-east of which Sodom and Gomorrah were situated-has received startling confirmation through aerial photographs recently published by the American School of Oriental Research (New Haven, Connecticut). These photographs clearly show the ancient road as a dark streak winding northwards, more or less parallel with the eastern shores of the Dead Sea.
15:76 This will always be the system.,
15:76 Those towns (Sodom and Gomorrah) stood by a road that still exists.
15:77 Inna fee thalika laayatanlilmu/mineena
15:77 In that is a sign for those who acknowledge.
15:77 In that is a sign for the believers.
15:77 Verily, herein lies a message indeed for all who believe [in God].
15:77 This is a sign for the believers.,
15:77 Herein is a message for those who believe.
15:78 Wa-in kana as-habual-aykati lathalimeena
15:78 The dwellers of the forest were wicked.
15:78 Andthe people of the Sycamore were wicked.
15:78 AND THE DWELLERS of the wooded dales [of Madyan, too,] were inveterate evildoers,56
15:78 The people of the woods also were transgressors.,
15:78 And the dwellers in woods (of Midyan, the people of Sho’aib), were also wrongdoers.
15:79 Faintaqamna minhum wa-innahumalabi-imamin mubeenin
15:79 So, We sought revenge from them. They were both on an open plain.
15:79 So,We sought revenge from them. And they are in a clear ledger.
15:79 and so We inflicted Our retribution on them. And, behold, both these [sinful communities] lived by a highway, [to this day] plain to see57
Le., the people of Lot and those of Shu'ayb, who inhabited adjacent regions (see surah 7, note 67), and whose fate should be an example as plain to see as the highway which passes through the regions once inhabited by them.
15:79 Consequently, we avenged from them, and both communities are fully documented.,
15:79 And so We (Our Law of Requital) struck them. Both these communities lived by a highway, plain to see.
15:80 Walaqad kaththaba as-habualhijri almursaleena
15:80 The dwellers of the cavern rejected the messengers.
15:80 Andthe dwellers of the enclosure disbelieved the messengers.
15:80 AND, [likewise,] indeed, the people of Al-Hijr58 gave the lie to [Our] message-bearers:
I.e., the tribe of Thamud (see surah 7, note 56), who in pre-Islamic times inhabited the region of Al-Hijr in northernmost Hijaz, south of the oasis of Taymah. The story of the Thamud is found in 7:73.
15:80 The people of Al-Hijr disbelieved the messengers.,
15:80 And likewise, the dwellers in Al-Hijr (Thamud of Prophet Saleh) denied Our Messengers.
15:81 Waataynahum ayatinafakanoo AAanha muAArideena
15:81 We gave them Our signs, but they turned away from them.
15:81 AndWe gave them Our signs, but they turned away from them.
15:81 for We did vouchsafe them Our messages, but they obstinately turned their backs upon them-
15:81 We gave them our revelations, but they disregarded them.,
15:81 And We gave them Our messages, but they stubbornly turned away from them.
15:82 Wakanoo yanhitoona mina aljibalibuyootan amineena
15:82 They used to sculpt from the mountains dwellings that were secure.
15:82 Andthey used to carve from the mountains homes, to be secure.
15:82 notwithstanding that they had been wont [to enjoy Our blessings and] to hew out dwellings from the mountains, [wherein they could live] in security59
See 7:74 and the corresponding notes (particularly note 59).
15:82 They used to carve secure homes out of the mountains.,
15:82 They used to carve secure homes out of the mountains.
15:83 Faakhathat-humu alssayhatumusbiheena
15:83 But the blast took them in the morning.
15:83 So the scream took them in the morning.
15:83 and so the blast [of Our punishment] overtook them at early morn,
15:83 The disaster hit them in the morning.,
15:83 And so the blast (of requital) overtook them early in the morning.
15:84 Fama aghna AAanhum ma kanooyaksiboona
15:84 What they earned did not benefit them.
15:84 What benefit did what they earn make for them?
15:84 and of no avail to them was all [the power] that they had acquired.
15:84 What they hoarded did not help them.,
15:84 And of no avail to them was all the power that they had acquired.
15:85 Wama khalaqna alssamawatiwaal-arda wama baynahuma illabialhaqqi wa-inna alssaAAata laatiyatunfaisfahi alssafhaaljameela
The End of the World and Seven Pairs15:85 We did not create the heavens and the earth and what is in between except with the truth. The moment is coming, so overlook their faults gracefully.7
15:85 AndWe have not created the heavens and the earth and what is in between except with the truth. And the Hour is coming, so overlook their faults gracefully.
15:85 AND [remember:] We have not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them without [an inner] truth;60 but, behold, the Hour [when this will become clear to all] is indeed yet to come. Hence, forgive [men's failings] with fair forbearance:
For an explanation of this rendering of illa bi'l-hagq (lit., "otherwise than with [or "in"] truth"), see surah 10, note 11.
End of the World Unveiled15:85 We did not create the heavens and the earth, and everything between them, except for a specific purpose. The end of the world will come, so treat them with benign neglect.4 ,
One of the functions of God's Messenger of the Covenant is to deliver the Quranic assertion that the world will end in AD 2280 ( 20:15:27 &Appendix25 ).
15:85 We have not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, without purpose. The Hour (of revolution) is surely coming. So overlook their faults (O Prophet), and forgive them graciously.15
Nations failing to meet the natural conditions of survival destroy themselves. So shall happen to these people if they do not mend their ways. 73:10
15:86 Inna rabbaka huwa alkhallaqualAAaleemu
15:86 Your Lord is the Creator, the Knower.
15:86 Your Lord is the Creator, the Knower.
15:86 verily, thy Sustainer is the all-knowing Creator of all things!61
Le., "He has created all human beings with full knowledge of their natural differentiation and the disparity in their respective conditions" (Razi) -and this, of course, includes their failings and errors. (Cf. 7:199 - "Make due allowance for man's nature" - and the corresponding note 162.)
15:86 Your Lord is the Creator, the Omniscient.,
15:86 Your Lord is the all Knowing Creator.
15:87 Walaqad ataynaka sabAAan minaalmathanee waalqur-ana alAAatheema
15:87 We have given you seven of the pairs and the great Quran.8
The meaning of saban minal mathani (seven from pairs) has been interpreted by the majority of scholars as "oft-repeated seven," implying the most repeated chapter of the Quran, the seven-versed first chapter. However, if the first chapter of the Quran is part of the Quran, it surely is the part of the "great Quran." If the arrangement of the words were different, "we gave you the great Quran and seven from pairs," then, such an interpretation could be more plausible, since a part of the whole can be repeated after the whole for the purpose of emphasis.
If the "great Quran" is the entire Quran, which is the most reasonable understanding, then the "seven pairs" or "fourteen" (of something) might have implications beyond the Quran. There is a hint in the verse: it might refer to the life span of Muhammed's people and its relation to the end of the world.
15:87 And We have given you seven of the pairs, and the great Qur'an.
15:87 AND, INDEED, We have bestowed upon thee seven of the oft repeated [verses], and [have, thus, laid open before thee] this sublime Qur'an:62
With these words, the discourse returns to the theme enunciated at the beginning of this surah and indirectly alluded to in verse 85 as well: namely, the revelation of the divine writ, destined to serve as a moral guidance to man, who cannot, as yet, discern the meaning and purpose of God's creation. - According to most of the authorities, including some of the foremost Companions of the Prophet, "The Seven Oft-Repeated [Verses]" is a designation given by Muhammad himself to the first surah of the Qur'an, which has also been described by him as "The Essence of the Divine Writ" (Umm al-Kitab) inasmuch as it alludes to all the ethical and metaphysical principles set forth in the Qur'an (Bukhari, Kitab at-Tafsir). See also my introductory note to Al-Fatihah ("The Opening").
15:87 We have given you the seven pairs, and the great Quran.,
15:87 We have given you several examples from history that repeats itself, and We have given you this Sublime Qur’an that defines the laws of the rise and fall of nations.16
Most ancient and contemporary exponents have misunderstood this verse because of uncritical following of Bukhari. They maintain that Sab’an Seven here means the seven verses of the first Surah, Al-Fatihah. Obviously, this interpretation is against the flowing context here and it reduces the glorious meaning to naught. Saba’ = Seven, often denotes several
15:88 La tamuddanna AAaynayka ila mamattaAAna bihi azwajan minhum wala tahzanAAalayhim waikhfid janahaka lilmu/mineena
15:88 So do not linger with your eyes on what We have bestowed upon some couples from them, do not grieve for them, and lower your wing for those who acknowledge.
15:88 Do not linger with your eyes on what We have bestowed upon some couples from them, and do not grieve for them, and lower your wing for the believers.
15:88 [so] turn, not thine eyes [longingly] towards the worldly benefits which We have granted unto some63 of those [that deny the truth]. And neither grieve over those [who refuse to heed thee], but spread the wings of thy tenderness over the believers,64
The philological authorities are unanimous in that the plural noun azwaj denotes here "kinds" of people, or "some" of them, and not -as certain modern translators of the Qur'an have assumed - "pairs".
Lit., "lower thy wing for the believers": an idiomatic metaphor for loving tenderness and humility (see 17:24 and the corresponding note 28).
15:88 Do not be jealous of what we bestowed upon the other (messengers), and do not be saddened (by the disbelievers), and lower your wing for the believers.,
15:88 Do not even look at the worldly possessions that We have given to them and grieve not (over unbelievers). But lower your wing of kindness to the believers. [15:94]
15:89 Waqul innee ana alnnatheerualmubeenu
15:89 Say, "I am a manifest warner."
15:89 Andsay: "I am the clarifying warner."
15:89 and say: "Behold, I am indeed the plain warner [promised by God] !65
The above interpolated phrase offers, to my mind, the only satisfactory explanation of the definite articles prefixed to the words an-nadhir al-mubin ("the plain warner"). This construction possibly alludes to the Biblical prediction of the advent of the Prophet Muhammad appearing in Deuteronomy xviii, 15 and 18, which has been discussed by me in surah 2, note 33.
15:89 And proclaim: "I am the manifest warner.",
15:89 Say, "Truly, I am one who warns openly and without ambiguity."
15:90 Kama anzalna AAalaalmuqtasimeena
The Dividers15:90 As We have sent down on the dividers.9
These verses criticize the followers of sects, those who claim the existence of abrogation in the Quran, and those who ignore the entire context of the Quran when trying to understand a particular Quran statement or term. See 2:106.
15:90 As for the dividers in what We sent down.
15:90 [For, thou art the bearer of a divine writ66 ] such as We have bestowed from on high upon those who [afterwards] broke it up into parts,67
Thus Zamakhshari, explaining the elliptic beginning of this sentence and its logical connection with the preceding verse as well as with verse 87.
This is apparently a reference to the followers of the Bible, who "believe in some parts of the divine writ and deny the truth of other parts" (cf. 2:85)-i.e., who act in accordance with those principles of the Bible which suit their inclinations and the prevailing social trends, and disregard the others, thus denying, by implication, their validity.
15:90 We will deal with the dividers.,
15:90 We did send down punishment upon the formulators of sects (after such warnings).
15:91 Allatheena jaAAaloo alqur-anaAAideena
15:91 The ones who have taken the Quran apart.
15:91 Theones who have made the Qur'an partial.
15:91 [and] who [now] declare this Qur'an to be [a tissue of] falsehoods!68
This, according to the Taj al-'Arus (art. `adiha and `adawa) is the meaning of `idin in the above context: an interpretation also advanced by Tabari and Razi (in the last paragraph of the latter's commentary on this verse). Another interpretation -equally acceptable from the purely linguistic point of view - is "[those] who cut up the Qur'an into separate parts": i.e., accept (on the analogy of the Jews and the Christians) some of it as true and regard the rest as Muhammad's invention. But since - as Tabari points out - those who refuse to believe in the divine origin of the Qur'an do not accept any of it as true, the first interpretation is by far the preferable.
15:91 They accept the Quran only partially.,
15:91 Those who (cause division and sectarianism) dismember the Qur’an.
15:92 Fawarabbika lanas-alannahum ajmaAAeena
15:92 By your Lord, We will ask them all.
15:92 By your Lord, We will ask them all.
15:92 But, by thy Sustainer! [On the Day of Judgment] We shall indeed call them to account, one and all,
15:92 By your Lord, we will question them all,,
15:92 Therefore, by your Lord, We will call all of them to account.
15:93 AAamma kanoo yaAAmaloona
15:93 Regarding what they used to do.
15:93 Regarding what they used to do.
15:93 for whatever they have done!
15:93 about everything they have done.,
15:93 For whatever they have done!
15:94 FaisdaAA bima tu/maruwaaAArid AAani almushrikeena
15:94 So proclaim what you have been commanded and turn away from those who set up partners.
15:94 So proclaim what you have been commanded and turn away from the polytheists.
15:94 Hence, proclaim openly all that thou hast been bidden [to say], and leave alone all those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God:
15:94 Therefore, carry out the orders given to you, and disregard the idol worshipers.,
15:94 So, proclaim openly all that you have been commanded and disregard those who bring forth ‘authorities’ parallel to Him.
15:95 Inna kafaynaka almustahzi-eena
15:95 We will relieve you from the mockers.
15:95 We will relieve you from those who mocked.
15:95 verily, We shall suffice thee against all who [now] deride [this message - all]
15:95 We will spare you the mockers,,
15:95 Surely, We shall suffice you against all who deride this message.
15:96 Allatheena yajAAaloona maAAa Allahiilahan akhara fasawfa yaAAlamoona
15:96 Those who sat up with God another god; they will come to know.
15:96 Those who place with God another god. They will come to know.
15:96 who assert that there are, side by side with God, other divine powers as well:69 for in time they will come to know [the truth].
Lit., "who postulate (yaj'alun), side by side with God, another deity (ilah)"-a term which is obviously used here in its generic sense, embracing anything that could be visualized as a "divine power": hence my use of the plural.
15:96 who set up another god beside GOD. They will surely find out.,
15:96 And those who set up another god besides God, soon they will come to know.
15:97 Walaqad naAAlamu annaka yadeequ sadrukabima yaqooloona
15:97 We know that your chest is strained by what they say.
15:97 AndWe know that your chest is strained by what they say.
15:97 And well do We know that thy bosom is constricted by the [blasphemous] things that they say:
15:97 We know full well that you may be annoyed by their utterances.,
15:97 And We know well that your heart is distressed by what they say.
15:98 Fasabbih bihamdi rabbika wakunmina alssajideena
15:98 So glorify with the praise of your Lord, and be of those who prostrate.
15:98 So glorify the praiseof your Lord, and be of those who prostrate.
15:98 but extol thou thy Sustainer's limitless glory and praise Him, and be of those who prostrate themselves [before Him] in adoration,
15:98 You shall sing the praises of your Lord, and be with the prostrators.,
15:98 But strive to manifest the glory of your Lord that the Giver of such Magnificent guidance is worthy of all praise. Be among those who humbly adore Him.17
Saajid = One who adores God = He who prostrates = One who sincerely submits to God = The truly devoted
15:99 WaoAAbud rabbaka hattaya/tiyaka alyaqeenu
15:99 Serve your Lord until certainty comes to you.
15:99 Andserve your Lord until certainty comes to you.
15:99 and worship thy Sustainer till death comes to thee.70
Lit., "till there comes unto thee that which is certain (al-yaqin)" - a term which in the Qur'an is often used as a metonym for "death" (
15:99 And worship your Lord, in order to attain certainty.,5
The practices of worship are our means of attaining certainty ( Appendix 15 ).
15:99 Serve your Lord so that you may have conviction in the forthcoming success.