بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
30:1 Alif. Lam. Mim.1
See Appendix II.
30:1 A. L. M.1 ,
See Appendix 1for the detailed explanation of these previously mysteriousinitials.
30:1 A.L.M. Alif-Laam-Meem. (Allah, Lateef the Unfathomable, Majeed the Magnificent, states that),1
This is the 30th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 60 verses. As stated earlier, a Surah is not restricted by its title. Only in the beginning, it alludes to the Roman Persian wars, 603-624 CE. The title is more important for reference purposes, and this Surah as well gives us many beautiful concepts in diversity.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
30:2 Ghulibati alrroomu
30:2 The Romans have won,2
You might have noticed that we translated the reference of the verb "GHaLaBa" differently than the traditional translations. Instead of reading the verb in 30:2 as "ghulibat" (were defeated) we read as "ghalabat" which means just the opposite, "defeated." Similarly, we also read its continuous/future tense in the following verse differently. The prophecy of the verse was realized in 636, four years after the death of Muhammed, when Muslims confronted the army of Byzantine Empire around Yarmuk River, in one of the most significant battles in history. Under the command of Khalid bin Walid, the Muslim army beat the Christian imperial army of four or more times their numbers. The six-day war, Yarmuk, occurred in area near the Sea of Galilee and Dead Sea, which are located in the lowest land depression on earth, 200-400 meters below sea level.
The orthodox reading and translation of the verse, reflects an interesting historical conflict and is a prime example of the abuse of a divine book to justify nationalistic wars and imperialistic ambitions. By changing the verse's original reading to the opposite, the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties were able to depict Persians as the major enemy. Thus, they justified aggression against Persian Empire.
30:2 The Romans have won.
30:2 Defeated have been the Byzantines
30:2 Certainly, the Romans will be defeated.,
30:2 The Romans have been defeated,
30:3 Fee adna al-ardi wahum minbaAAdi ghalabihim sayaghliboona
30:3 At the lowest point on the earth. But after their victory, they will be defeated.
30:3 At the lowest part on the earth. But after their victory, they will be defeated.
30:3 in the lands close-by; yet it is they who, notwithstanding this their defeat, shall be victorious
30:3 In the nearest land. After their defeat, they will rise again and win.,
30:3 In the nearby and the lowest land on earth. Yet, despite this defeat, they shall be victorious.2
“Al-Ardhil Adna” = The lowest and nearby lands. The Dead Sea area is the lowest land on earth. Byzantine Romans were defeated at the hands of the Persians in the nearby lands of Syria-Palestine-Egypt, including, most crucially, in the Battle of the Dead Sea region, in 613-615 CE. The war between the two super powers of the times carried on from 603 To 624 CE. Muhammad S had been commissioned as a Prophet in 610 CE
30:4 Fee bidAAi sineena lillahial-amru min qablu wamin baAAdu wayawma-ithin yafrahualmu/minoona
30:4 In a few more years. The decision before and after is for God, and on that day those who acknowledge will rejoice.
30:4 In a few more years. The decision before and after is for God, and on that day the believers will rejoice.
30:4 within a few years: [for] with God rests all power of decision, first and last.2 And on that day will the believers [too, have cause to] rejoice
Lit., "before and after". The defeats and victories spoken of above relate to the last phases of the centuries-long struggle between the Byzantine and Persian Empires. During the early years of the seventh century the Persians conquered parts of Syria and Anatolia, "the lands close-by", i.e., near the heartland of the Byzantine umpire; in 613 they took Damascus and it 614, Jerusalem; Egypt fell to them in 615-16, and at the same time they laid siege to Constantinople itself. At the time of the revelation of this surah - about the seventh year before the hijrah, corresponding to 615 or 616 of the Christian era - the total destruction of the Byzantine Empire seemed imminent. The few Muslims around the Prophet were despondent on hearing the news of the utter discomfiture of the Byzantines, who were Christians and, as such, believed in the One God. The pagan Quraysh, on the other hand, sympathized with the Persians who, they thought, would vindicate their own opposition to the One-God idea. When Muhammad enunciated the above Qur'an-verses predicting a Byzantine victory "within a few years", this prophecy was received with derision by the Quraysh. Now the term bid (commonly rendered as "a few") denotes any number between three and ten; and, as it happened, in 622 - i.e., six or seven years after the Quranic prediction - the tide turned in favour of the Byzantines. In that year, Emperor Heraclius succeeded in defeating the Persians at Issus, south of the Taurus Mountains, and subsequently drove them out of Asia Minor. By 624, he carried the war into Persian territory and thus put the enemy on the defensive: and in the beginning of December, 626, the Persian armies were completely routed by the Byzantines.
30:4 Within several years. Such is GOD's decision, both in the first prophecy, and the second. On that day, the believers shall rejoice.,
30:4 Within ten years! God’s is the command in the past and in the future. On that day the believers too will have cause to rejoice.3
The believers were victorious against the much stronger Makkans bent upon annihilating them at the most crucial battle of all history, the Battle of Badr near Madinah, in 624 CE. This was exactly the time when the Byzantine Romans soundly defeated the Persians
30:5 Binasri Allahi yansuruman yashao wahuwa alAAazeezu alrraheemu
30:5 With God's victory. He gives victory to whom He wishes; He is the Noble, the Compassionate.
30:5 With the victory of God. God gives victory to whom He wishes; He is the Noble, the Merciful.
30:5 in God's succour:3 [for] He gives succour to whomever He wills, since He alone is almighty, a dispenser of grace.
This is a prediction of the battle of Badr, which was to take place eight or nine years later, in the month of Ramadan, 2 H. (corresponding to January, 624, of the Christian era), when the Muslims decisively defeated a very much superior force of pagan Quraysh (see introductory note to surah 8). The expression "on that day" has in this context the meaning of "at the same time", for although the battle of Badr began and ended on one day, the victories of Heraclius over the Persians took some years to materialize.
30:5 In GOD's victory. He grants victory to whomever He wills. He is the Almighty, Most Merciful.,
30:5 By God’s Help. For, He gives victory according to His laws. And He is Exalted in Might, Most Merciful.
30:6 WaAAda Allahi la yukhlifu AllahuwaAAdahu walakinna akthara alnnasi layaAAlamoona
30:6 Such is God's pledge, and God does not break His pledge, but most people do not know.
30:6 Such is the pledge of God, and God does not break His pledge, but most of the people do not know.
30:6 [This is] God's promise. Never does God fail to fulfill His promise - but most people know [it] not:
Preoccupation With the Wrong Life30:6 Such is GOD's promise - and GOD never breaks His promise - but most people do not know.,
30:6 This is God’s promise. God never fails to fulfill His promise. But most people do not know (that His laws never change).
30:7 YaAAlamoona thahiranmina alhayati alddunya wahum AAanial-akhirati hum ghafiloona
Do not be Arrogant30:7 They only know the outside appearance of the worldly life; and regarding the Hereafter, they are ignorant.
30:7 They only know the outside appearance of the worldly life; and regarding the Hereafter, they are ignorant.
30:7 they know but the outer surface of this world's life, whereas of the ultimate things they are utterly unaware.4
The term al-akhirah circumscribes, in this context, both the inner reality of this world's life and the ultimate reality of the hereafter.
30:7 They care only about things of this world that are visible to them, while being totally oblivious to the Hereafter.,
30:7 They know and care only about the apparent instant gratifications of the life of this world, and remain oblivious to the Eternal life to come.
30:8 Awa lam yatafakkaroo fee anfusihim makhalaqa Allahu alssamawati waal-ardawama baynahuma illa bialhaqqiwaajalin musamman wa-inna katheeran mina alnnasibiliqa-i rabbihim lakafiroona
30:8 Did they not reflect upon themselves? God did not create the heavens and the earth and what is between them except by truth and an appointed term. But most of the people are in denial regarding their meeting with their Lord.
30:8 Did they not reflect upon themselves? God did not create the heavens and the earth and what is between them except with truth and an appointed term. But most of the people are in denial regarding their meeting with their Lord.
30:8 Have they never learned to think for themselves?5 God has not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them without [an inner] truth and a term set [by Him]:6 and yet, behold, there are many people who stubbornly deny the truth that they are destined to meet their Sustainer!
Lit., "Have they never thought within themselves?"
I.e., in contrast to God, who is eternal and unlimited, everything created is limited and subject to change and termination. As regards my rendering of illa bil-haqq (lit., "otherwise than with [or "in"] truth) as without [an inner] truth", see note 11 on the second sentence of 10:5.
30:8 Why do they not reflect on themselves? GOD did not create the heavens and the earth, and everything between them, except for a specific purpose, and for a specific life span. However, most people, with regard to meeting their Lord, are disbelievers.,
30:8 Do they not reflect on themselves? God has not created the heavens and earth, and all that is between them, but for a specific purpose and for an appointed term. Yet, a great many people deny that they are destined to meet their Lord.
30:9 Awa lam yaseeroo fee al-ardi fayanthurookayfa kana AAaqibatu allatheena min qablihimkanoo ashadda minhum quwwatan waatharoo al-ardawaAAamarooha akthara mimma AAamarooha wajaat-humrusuluhum bialbayyinati fama kana Allahuliyathlimahum walakin kanoo anfusahumyathlimoona
30:9 Did they not roam the earth and see how it ended for those before them? They were more powerful than them, and they cultivated the land and they built in it far more than these have built, and their messengers came to them with the proofs. God was not to wrong them, but it was they who wronged themselves.
30:9 Did they not roam the earth and see how it ended for those before them? They were more powerful than them, and they cultivated the land and they built in it far more than these have built, and their messengers came to them with the proofs. God was not to wrong them, but it was they who wronged themselves.
30:9 Have they, then, never journeyed about the earth and beheld what happened in the end to those [deniers of the truth] who lived before their time? Greater were they in power than they are; and they left a stronger impact on the earth, and built it up even better7 than these [are doing]; and to them [too] came their apostles with all evidence of the truth: and so, [when they rejected the truth and thereupon perished,] it was not God who wronged them, but it was they who had wronged themselves.
Lit., "more". The phrase can also be rendered as "peopled it [or "dwelt in it"] in great numbers".
30:9 Have they not roamed the earth and noted the consequences for those who preceded them? They used to be more powerful, more prosperous, and more productive on earth. Their messengers went to them with clear signs. Consequently, GOD was not the One who wronged them; they are the ones who wronged their own souls.,
30:9 (Reflecting on your own existence, the Universe, and on history can show you the truth.) Have they not, then, traveled in the land and seen what happened in the end to those who lived before them? They were more powerful than these are, and they left a stronger impact on the earth, and built it up better than these are doing. And to them came their Messengers with all evidence of the truth. It was not God Who wronged them, but it was they who used to wrong their own ‘self’. [35:44, 40:21]
30:10 Thumma kana AAaqibata allatheenaasaoo alssoo-a an kaththaboo bi-ayatiAllahi wakanoo biha yastahzi-oona
30:10 Then the end of those who did evil was evil, that is because they denied God's signs, and they used to mock them.
30:10 Then the end of those who did evil was evil, that is because they denied the signs of God, and they used to mock them.
30:10 And once again:8 evil is bound to be the end of those who do evil by giving the lie to God's messages and deriding them.
For this particular rendering of thumma, see surah 6 note 31 .
30:10 The consequences for those who committed evil had to be evil. That is because they rejected GOD's revelations, and ridiculed them.,
30:10 Then, evil was the end of those who did evil, because they denied the revelations of God and ridiculed them.
30:11 Allahu yabdao alkhalqa thummayuAAeeduhu thumma ilayhi turjaAAoona
30:11 God initiates the creation, then He repeats it, then to Him you will return.
30:11 God initiates the creation, then He repeats it, then to Him you will return.
30:11 GOD CREATES [man] in the first instance, and then brings him forth anew:9 and, in the end, unto Him you all will be brought back.
I.e., He will bring him forth anew: cf. 10:4 and the corresponding note 8. (A more general formulation of the same statement is found in verse 27 of this surah.)
Idol Worshipers Disown Their Idols30:11 GOD is the One who initiates the creation and repeats it. Ultimately, you will be returned to Him.,
30:11 (All this happens to communities according to Divine laws that are operational in the entire Universe.) He initiates the creation, and then repeats it. Ultimately, all of you will be returned to Him.
30:12 Wayawma taqoomu alssaAAatuyublisu almujrimoona
30:12 The day when the moment will be established, the criminals will be in despair.
30:12 And the Day when the Hour will be established, the criminals will be in despair.
30:12 And when the last Hour dawns, those who were lost in sin will be broken in spirit
30:12 On the Day when the Hour comes to pass, the guilty will be shocked.,
30:12 And on the Day when the Hour comes, those who have committed crimes against humanity, will be struck with despair.
30:13 Walam yakun lahum min shuraka-ihimshufaAAao wakanoo bishuraka-ihim kafireena
30:13 They did not have any intercessors from the partners they set up, and they will reject such partners.
30:13 And they did not have any intercessors from the partners they set up, and they will reject such partners.
30:13 for they will have no intercessors in the beings to whom they were wont to ascribe a share in God's divinity,10 seeing that [by then] they themselves will have ceased to believe in their erstwhile blasphemous fancies.11
Lit., "among their [God-] partners" (see surah 6 note 15).
Lit., "they will have rejected those [God-] partners of theirs".
30:13 Their idols will have no power to intercede on their behalf; on the contrary, they will disown their idols.,
30:13 Their ‘idols’ will not be able to stand up for them, rather, they will reject one another.
30:14 Wayawma taqoomu alssaAAatuyawma-ithin yatafarraqoona
30:14 On the day the moment is established, they will be separated.
30:14 And on the Day the Hour is established, they will be separated.
30:14 And when the Last Hour dawns - on that Day will all [men] be sorted out:
30:14 On the day when the Hour comes to pass, they will part company.,
30:14 On the Day the Hour comes, they will part company. And people will be sorted out.
30:15 Faamma allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati fahum fee rawdatinyuhbaroona
30:15 Then as for those who acknowledged and promoted reforms, they will be delighted in a luxurious place.
30:15 So, those who believed and did good works, they will be delighted in a luxurious place.
30:15 as for those who attained to faith and did righteous deeds, they shall be made happy in a garden of delight;
30:15 As for those who believe and lead a righteous life, they will be in Paradise, rejoicing.,
30:16 Waamma allatheena kafaroo wakaththaboobi-ayatina waliqa-i al-akhiratifaola-ika fee alAAathabi muhdaroona
30:16 As for those who rejected and denied Our signs and the meeting of the Hereafter, they shall be brought forth for the retribution.
30:16 And as for those who rejected and denied Our revelations and the meeting of the Hereafter, they shall be brought forth for the retribution.
30:16 but as for those who refused to acknowledge the truth and gave the lie to Our messages - and (thus) to the announcement12 of a life to come - they will be given over to suffering.
See note 111 on 7:147.
30:16 As for those who disbelieve, and reject our revelations and the meeting of the Hereafter, they will last in the retribution forever.,
30:16 Whereas those who disbelieve, and reject Our messages, and the meeting of the Hereafter, they will be presented for punishment.
30:17 Fasubhana Allahi heenatumsoona waheena tusbihoona
30:17 So, glory be to God when you retire and when you wake.
30:17 So glory be to God, when you retire and when you wake.
30:17 EXTOL, then, God's limitless glory when you enter upon the evening hours, and when you rise at morn;
Remember God, Always30:17 Therefore, you shall glorify GOD when you retire at night, and when you rise in the morning.,
30:18 Walahu alhamdu fee alssamawatiwaal-ardi waAAashiyyan waheena tuthhiroona
30:18 To Him is all praise in the heavens and in the earth, and in the evening and when you go out.
30:18 And to Him is all praise in the heavens and the earth, and in the evening and when you go out.
30:18 and [seeing that] unto Him is due all praise in the heavens and on earth, [glorify Him] in the afternoon as well, and when you enter upon the hour of noon.13
I.e., "remember God at all times". Apart from this general exhortation, the hours mentioned above circumscribe the times of the five daily prayers incumbent upon a Muslim. The "evening hours" indicate the prayer after sunset (maghrib) as well as that after nightfall (isha).
30:18 All praise is due to Him in the heavens and the earth, throughout the evening, as well as in the middle of your day.,
30:18 All praise belongs to Him in the heavens and on earth whether it is darkness of the night or brightness of the day.6
The Universe bears testimony that all praise is due to Him
30:19 Yukhriju alhayya mina almayyitiwayukhriju almayyita mina alhayyi wayuhyee al-ardabaAAda mawtiha wakathalika tukhrajoona
30:19 He brings the living out of the dead, and He brings the dead out of the living. He revives the land after its death. Similarly you will be brought out.
30:19 He brings the living out of the dead, and He brings the dead out of the living. And He revives the land after its death. And similarly you will be brought out.
30:19 He [it is who] brings forth the living out of that which is dead, and brings forth the dead out of that which is alive, and gives life to the earth after it had been lifeless: and even thus will you be brought forth [from death to life]
30:19 He produces the live from the dead, and produces the dead from the live, and He revives the land after it had died; you are similarly resurrected.,
30:19 He is the One Who brings forth the living from the dead and brings forth the dead from the living. And He gives life to earth after it has been lifeless. And thus shall you be brought forth.7
Likewise, His guidance revives communities
30:20 Wamin ayatihi an khalaqakummin turabin thumma itha antum basharun tantashiroona
God's Signs in Creation and Diversity30:20 From His signs is that He created you from dust, then you become human beings spreading out.
30:20 And from His signs is that He created you from dust, then you became human beings, spreading out.
30:20 And among His wonders is this: He creates you out of dust 14 and then, lo! you become human beings ranging far and wide!
Marriage: A Divine Institution30:20 Among His proofs is that He created you from dust, then you became reproducing humans.,
30:20 Among His signs it is that He even created you out of dust (beginning of life from water and inorganic matter – life-cell). And then, (after evolution) you became human beings scattered far and wide. [6:2, 6:99, 7:11, 15:26, 21:30, 23:12, 31:28]
30:21 Wamin ayatihi an khalaqa lakummin anfusikum azwajan litaskunoo ilayha wajaAAalabaynakum mawaddatan warahmatan inna fee thalika laayatinliqawmin yatafakkaroona
30:21 From His signs is that He created for you mates from yourselves that you may reside with them, and He placed between you affection and compassion. In that are signs for a people who reflect.3
Marriage must be based on mutual love and care between man and woman. Maintaining and improving love and care requires steady attention, compromise, respect and patience. One spouse should not try to control or suppress the individuality or identity of the other. Marrying through arranged marriages, without the bride and groom seeing and meeting each other, is against God's law in nature, since God must have had a purpose to create man handsome and woman beautiful. Our brain considers the geometric average or the composite of all faces we see as a visual measure for attractiveness. God did not design the package to be ignored at the time it is needed the most. Indeed, physical attraction is mentioned as a main factor in marriage (33:52; 24:30). For divorce, see 2:226 and 4:137. For celibacy, see 57:27.
30:21 And from His signs is that He created for you mates from yourselves that you may reside with them, and He placed between you affection and mercy. In that are signs for a people who reflect.
30:21 And among His wonders is this: He creates for you mates out of your own kind.15 so that you might incline towards them, and He engenders love and tenderness between you: in this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who think!
Lit., "from among yourselves" (see surah 4 note 1).
30:21 Among His proofs is that He created for you spouses from among yourselves, in order to have tranquility and contentment with each other, and He placed in your hearts love and care towards your spouses. In this, there are sufficient proofs for people who think.,
30:21 And among His signs is this: He created for you mates from yourselves, so that you might find comfort in them. And He ordained between you love and kindness. In that are signs for those who reflect.8
Azwaaj = Husband + Wife, that are mates to, and complement, each other’s personality
30:22 Wamin ayatihi khalqu alssamawatiwaal-ardi waikhtilafu alsinatikumwaalwanikum inna fee thalika laayatinlilAAalimeena
30:22 From His signs are the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and your colors. In that are signs for the world.4
In the past, and even in the present, some paranoid majorities banned the language of minorities, because of their differences in color, race, or culture. Totalitarian or racist regimes that ban the language and identity of a group will suffer the consequences of fighting against God's signs. The tradition of changing the names of converts to Arabic names was a diabolic invention started centuries later as an expression of Arab nationalism and cultural imperialism. See 33:5; 49:13.
30:22 And from His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your tongues and your colors. In that are signs for the world.
30:22 And among his wonders is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the diversity of your tongues and colours: for in this, behold, there are messages indeed for all who are possessed of [innate] knowledge!
More Proofs30:22 Among His proofs are the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colors. In these, there are signs for the knowledgeable.,
30:22 And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the diversity of your tongues and colors. Herein are signs for men and women of knowledge.9
‘Aalimeen = ‘Ulema = Scientists, 35:27
30:23 Wamin ayatihi manamukumbiallayli waalnnahari waibtighaokummin fadlihi inna fee thalika laayatinliqawmin yasmaAAoona
30:23 From His signs is your sleep by night and day, and your seeking of His bounty. In that are signs for a people who listen.5
30:23 And from His signs is your sleep by night and day, and your seeking of His bounty. In that are signs for a people who listen.
30:23 And among His wonders is your sleep, at night or in daytime, as well as your [ability to go about in] quest of some of His bounties: in this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who [are willing to] listen!
30:23 Among His proofs is your sleeping during the night or the day, and your working in pursuit of His provisions. In this, there are sufficient proofs for people who can hear.,
30:23 And among His signs is your sleeping during the night or the day, and your quest of His bounty. Herein are signs for people who hear and listen.
30:24 Wamin ayatihi yureekumualbarqa khawfan watamaAAan wayunazzilu mina alssama-imaan fayuhyee bihi al-arda baAAda mawtihainna fee thalika laayatin liqawminyaAAqiloona
30:24 From His signs is that He shows you the lightning, by way of fear and hope, and He sends down water from the sky, and He revives the land with it after its death. In that are signs for a people who understand.
30:24 And from His signs is that He shows you the lightning, giving you fear and hope, and He sends down water from the sky, and He revives the land with it after its death. In that are signs for a people who comprehend.
30:24 And among His wonders is this: He displays before you the lightning, giving rise to [both] fear and hope,16 and sends down water from the skies, giving life thereby to the earth after it had been lifeless: in this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who use their reason!
I.e., hope of rain - an oft-recurring Quranic symbol of faith and spiritual life (cf. 13:12).
30:24 Among His proofs is that He shows you the lightning as a source of fear, as well as hope, then He sends down from the sky water to revive a land that has been dead. In these, there are sufficient proofs for people who understand.,
30:24 And among His signs is this: He displays before you the lightning, for a fear and for hope, and sends down water from the height, giving life to the earth after it had been lifeless. Herein are signs for people who use their intellect.
30:25 Wamin ayatihi an taqooma alssamaowaal-ardu bi-amrihi thumma itha daAAakumdaAAwatan mina al-ardi itha antum takhrujoona
30:25 From His signs is that the heavens and the earth will rise by His command. Then, when He calls you forth from the earth, you will come out.
30:25 And from His signs is that the heavens and the earth will rise by His command. Then, when He calls you forth from the earth, you will come out.
30:25 And among His wonders is this: the skies and the earth stand firm at His behest.17 [Remember all this: for] in the end, when He will call you forth from the earth with a single call - lo! you will [all] emerge [for judgment].
Cf. 13:12, where God is spoken of as having "raised the skies without any supports that you could see" - a phrase explained in the corresponding note 4.
30:25 Among His proofs is that the heaven and the earth are standing at His disposal. Finally, when He calls you out of the earth, one call, you will immediately come out.,
30:25 And among His signs is this: The heavens and earth stand by His command. When He calls you by a single call, you will straightaway emerge from the earth.
30:26 Walahu man fee alssamawatiwaal-ardi kullun lahu qanitoona
30:26 To Him is all that is in the heavens and the earth. All are subservient to Him.
30:26 And to Him is all that is in the heavens and the earth. All are dutiful to Him.
30:26 For, unto Him belongs every being that is in the heavens and on earth; all things devoutly obey His will.
30:26 To Him belongs everyone in the heavens and the earth; all are subservient to Him.,
30:26 To Him belongs every being in the heavens and the earth. All are obedient to Him.
30:27 Wahuwa allathee yabdao alkhalqathumma yuAAeeduhu wahuwa ahwanu AAalayhi walahu almathalu al-aAAlafee alssamawati waal-ardiwahuwa alAAazeezu alhakeemu
30:27 He is the One who initiates the creation, then He repeats it; this is easy for Him. To Him is the highest example in the heavens and the earth. He is the Noble, the Wise.6
For attributes of God, see 59:22.
30:27 And He is the One who initiates the creation, then He repeats it, and this is easy for Him. And to Him is the highest example in the heavens and the earth. And He is the Noble, the Wise.
30:27 And He it is who creates [all life] in the first instance, and then brings it forth anew:18 and most easy is this for Him, since His is the essence of all that is most sublime in the heavens and on earth, and He alone is almighty, truly wise.19
Although this statement is phrased in almost exactly the same words as in verse 11 above (as well as in 10:4), it evidently has here a more general purport, relating not only to man and mans individual resurrection but to the creation and constant re-creation of all life.
Primarily, the term mathal denotes a "likeness" or "similitude", and hence is often used in the Qur'an (e.g., in the next verse) in the sense of "parable". Occasionally, however, it is synonymous with sifah, which signifies the intrinsic "attribute", "quality" or "nature" of a thing, concept or living being (cf. the reference to "the nature of Jesus" and "the nature of Adam" in 3:59). With reference to God, who is sublimely exalted above anything that men may devise by way of definition (see 6:100 and the corresponding note 88), the expression mathal clearly points to a quality of being entirely different from all other categories of existence, inasmuch as there is "nothing like unto Him" (42:11) and "nothing that could he compared with Him" (112:4): hence, the rendering of mathal as "essence" is most appropriate in this context.
30:27 And He is the One who initiates the creation, then repeats it; this is even easier for Him. To Him belongs the most sublime similitude, in the heavens and the earth, and He is the Almighty, Most Wise.,
30:27 And He is the One Who initiates creation in the first instance, and then brings it forth anew, and it is most easy for Him. His is the Sublime Similitude in the heavens and on earth. He is the Mighty, the Wise. [24:35, 30:11]
30:28 Daraba lakum mathalan min anfusikumhal lakum mimma malakat aymanukum min shurakaafee ma razaqnakum faantum feehi sawaon takhafoonahumkakheefatikum anfusakum kathalika nufassilu al-ayatiliqawmin yaAAqiloona
Monotheism: A Natural and Rational System30:28 An example is cited for you from among yourselves: are there any from among those who are still dependant that are partners to you in what provisions We have given you that you become equal therein? Would you fear them as you fear each other? It is such that We clarify the signs for a people who have sense.
30:28 An example is put forth for you from among yourselves: are there any from among those who are maintained by your oaths that are partners to you in what provisions We have given you that you become equal therein? Would you fear them as you fear each other? It is such that We clarify the revelations for a people who have sense.
30:28 He propounds unto you a parable drawn from your own life:20 Would you [agree to] have some of those whom your right hands possess21 as [full-fledged] partners in whatever We may have bestowed upon you as sustenance, so that you [and they] would have equal shares in it, and you would fear [to make use of it without consulting] them, just as you might fear [the more powerful of] your equals?22 Thus clearly do We spell out these messages unto people who use their reason.
Lit., "a parable (mathal) from yourselves".
I.e., slaves or persons otherwise subject to ones authority.
Lit., "yourselves" - i.e., "those who are equal to you in status". The question is, of course, rhetorical, and must be answered in the negative. But if (so the implied argument goes) a human master would not willingly accept his slaves as full-fledged partners - even though master and slave are essentially equal by virtue of the humanness common to both of them (Zamakhshari) - how can man regard any created beings or things as equal to Him who is their absolute Lord and Master, and is beyond comparison with anything that exists or could ever exist? (Parables with a similar purport are found in 16:75.)
Absurdity of Idol Worship30:28 He cites for you herein an example from among yourselves: Do you ever elevate your servants or subordinates to the level where they rival you, and to the point that you pay them as much allegiance as is being paid to you? We thus explain the revelations for people who understand.,
30:28 He gives you an example from your own society. Would you agree to make your employees equal partners in the provision We have bestowed upon you? Are you as mindful of them as you are mindful of yourselves? (So do you conceive of a ‘discriminating’ God!) Thus We explain Our messages for people who use their intellect. [16:71]
30:29 Bali ittabaAAa allatheena thalamooahwaahum bighayri AAilmin faman yahdee man adallaAllahu wama lahum min nasireena
30:29 No, those who were wrong followed their desires without knowledge. So who can guide one whom God misguides? They will have no victors.
30:29 No, those who were wrong followed their desires without knowledge. So who can guide he whom God misguides? And they will have no victors.
30:29 But nay - they who are bent on evildoing follow but their own desires, without having any knowledge (of the truth).23 And who could guide those whom God has [thus] let go astray, and who (thereupon) have none to succour them?24
In this instance, the phrase alladhina zalamu ("they who are bent on evildoing") relates to those who deliberately ascribe divinity or divine powers to anyone or anything beside God, thus yielding to a desire for divine or semi-divine "mediators" between themselves and Him. Inasmuch as such a desire offends against the concept of God's omniscience and omnipresence, its very existence shows that the person concerned does not really believe in Him and, therefore, does not have the least knowledge of the truth.
30:29 Indeed, the transgressors have followed their own opinions, without knowledge. Who then can guide those who have been sent astray by GOD? No one can ever help them.,
30:29 But nay, the transgressors follow their own opinions without knowledge. But who can guide those whom God has let go astray (for violating His laws of guidance 4:88)? To them there will be no helpers.
30:30 Faaqim wajhaka lilddeeni haneefanfitrata Allahi allatee fatara alnnasaAAalayha la tabdeela likhalqi Allahi thalikaalddeenu alqayyimu walakinna akthara alnnasila yaAAlamoona
30:30 So establish yourself to the system of monotheism. It is the nature that God has made the people on. There is no changing in God's creation. Such is the pure system, but most people do not know.7
Accepting God alone as the only Lord and the only Master is a fact that can be attained through philosophical inquiry. However, the weaknesses and ignorance we learn throughout our life cover that innate faculty. See 7:172.
30:30 So establish yourself to the system of monotheism. It is the inclination that God has nurtured the people on. There is no changing in the creation of God. Such is the pure system, but most of the people do not know.
30:30 AND SO, set thy face steadfastly towards the [one ever-true] faith,25 turning away from all that is false,26 in accordance with the natural disposition which God has instilled into man:27 [for,] not to allow any change to corrupt what God has thus created28 this is the [purpose of the one] ever-true faith; but most people know it not.
I.e., "surrender thy whole being"; the term "face" is often used metonymically in the sense of one's "whole being".
For this rendering of hanif, see note 110 on 2:135.
See 7:172 and the corresponding note 139. The term fitrah, rendered by me as "natural disposition", connotes in this context man's inborn, intuitive ability to discern between right and wrong, true and false, and, thus, to sense God's existence and oneness. Cf. the famous saying of the Prophet, quoted by Bukhari and Muslim: "Every child is born in this natural disposition; it is only his parents that later turn him into a 'Jew', a 'Christian', or a 'Magian'." These three religious formulations, best known to the contemporaries of the Prophet, are thus contrasted with the "natural disposition" which, by definition, consists in man's instinctive cognition of God and self-surrender (Islam) to Him. (The term "parents" has here the wider meaning of "social influences" or "environment").
Lit., "no change shall there be [or "shall be made"] in God's creation (khalq)". i.e., in the natural disposition referred to above (Zamakhshari). In this context, the term tabdil ("change") obviously comprises the concept of "corruption".
Monotheism: Natural Instinct30:30 Therefore, you shall devote yourself to the religion of strict monotheism. Such is the natural instinct placed into the people by GOD. Such creation of GOD will never change. This is the perfect religion, but most people do not know.2 ,
Recognizing God ALONE as our Lord and Master is a natural instinct. We are born into this world with such an instinct. See 7:172 and Appendix 7.
30:30 Therefore, devote yourself to the Upright Religion turning away from all that is false. Such is the natural aim of God’s creation of humans. And God’s laws of creation never change. This is the perfect Religion but most people do not know.10
Deen = Divinely prescribed System of Life. God has initiated the Universe with a sublime Plan wherein all things are committed to His law, and mankind being a part of the Universe and given free will must live by His laws
30:31 Muneebeena ilayhi waittaqoohuwaaqeemoo alssalata wala takoonoomina almushrikeena
30:31 Turn to Him, be aware of Him, hold the contact prayer, and do not be of those who set up partners.
30:31 Turn to Him, and be aware of Him, and hold the contact prayer, and do not be of the polytheists.
30:31 [Turn, then, away from all that is false,] turning unto Him [alone]; and remain conscious of Him, and be constant in prayer, and be not among those who ascribe divinity to aught beside Him,
30:31 You shall submit to Him, reverence Him, observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), and - whatever you do - do not ever fall into idol worship.,
30:31 Turn to Him alone then, and be mindful of Him, and establish the Divine System and be not of those who ascribe ‘partners’ to Him,
30:32 Mina allatheena farraqoo deenahum wakanooshiyaAAan kullu hizbin bima ladayhim farihoona
30:32 Or like those who split up their system, and they became sects; each group happy with what it had.8
The clerics who introduce this imam's sect or that imam's sect as God's system are convicted with this verse. History bears witness that professional religious leaders are the most ardent enemies of God and monotheism. Each messenger or prophet, found the greatest opposition to their message from the religious leaders of their time. See 23:53.
Prophet Muhammed was neither Sunni nor Shiite. He was a monotheist, a muslim, a peacemaker, a peaceful submitter to God alone. All other prophets and messengers before him were also monotheists and muslims. All monotheists, starting from Adam until the end of the world, belong to one group. The Quran strictly condemns sectarian division and tells us that power struggle and idol-worship as the source of sectarian division (6:153; 98:4; 21:92; 23:52; 2:285).
The sectarian division came after the departure of the prophet Muhammed. Mostly, out of tribal and political division. When there was a power struggle between Ali, Muhammed's son-in-law, and Uthman, Muhammed's father-in-law, people were divided. Uthman was a weak leader, and unfortunately history shows that he was favoring his tribe (Umayyad) and hiring them to key government positions. This corruption created resentment in other tribes and resurrected the tribal conflict that was almost eradicated by the light of the Quran.
After Uthman, though Ali was elected as the fourth Caliph (president), soon he was assassinated. Ali ruled only for two years. The division among tribes turned to a bloody strife. There were basically two parties. The party who supported Ali and his two sons, Hassan and Hussain, and those who sided with the Umayyad dynasty. The former, started calling themselves Shiite of Ali (Ali's Party) and the later, which was joined by some former Ali supporters, called themselves Ahl-i Sunna (Followers of Tradition). The history of sectarian conflict is a horrible power struggle. The Ummayads turned the federally secular republican that was established by the prophet Muhammed in Yathrib (today's Medina) into a theocratic monarchy. The kingdom of Umayyad committed many atrocities. The most memorable one is their massacre in Karbala; they killed Muhammed's grandson Hussain with his 72 supporters in a dessert near Baghdad.
The division between the Shiite and Ahl-i Sunna grew and transformed into religious and theological matters. Here I will focus on Shiite, since we have numerous times referred to Sunni sects and their distortions. The early Shiites were generally righteous people. They were against nepotism, tribalism and corruption. However, the following generation went to extreme and lost the original noble goal. They turned to a cult who identified themselves with Ali and his descendants and they started worshiping them by giving them authority in designing and defining God's religion. Their clergymen fabricated doctrines thereby sanctifying the descendants of the Prophet Muhammed; they claimed infallibility for the descendants of Muhammed through Ali and Fatima. Volumes of false stories were fabricated to promote this cult. God was no more the focus. Instead, the so-called imam-i masumin (innocent imams), became the focus.
Shiite mosques display the names of those twelve idols and Muhammed besides God's name. Little bricks made of dirt from Karbala is used to put one's forehead on during sala prayers. Some pricks contain inscriptions with the names of their idols besides God: Allah, Muhammed, Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hussein. Sunni mosques, on the other hand, display the names of five (four Caliphs and Muhammed) or seven (four Caliphs plus Hassan and Hussain plus Muhammed) idols besides God's name. The fight between the sects boils down over the non-common idols, as it is the case between Protestants and Catholics. Shiite clerics distorted the meaning of some verses, such as the meaning of 42:23 to establish authority besides God for the descendants of Prophet Muhammed. In Iran now there are thousands of mullahs with black turbans claiming and enjoying this privilege.
After the disappearance (the death) of the 12th Imam in a lost battle with the Sunnite faction, Shiite scholars fabricated stories around his disappearance. He was not dead according to those stories, but he was alive somewhere in a cave. When the right time comes he would return to lead Shiites to an ultimate victory against Sunnis. This story which was initially fabricated to preserve the spirits of the Shiite party, turned into a mythology with the passing of time. Despite centuries, the members of the Shiite cult are still waiting for the return of their 12th imam, the imam who went into hiding in a cave after he lost the battle! Researchers can easily trace the source of this mythology to the teaching of St. Paul who made up a story about the return of Jesus Christ. Denying the death of leaders is a cult syndrome and is one of the signs of idol worshipers; they cannot survive without their idols.
The followers of the Shiite sect developed tact of survival under the oppression of Sunni rulers. This tactic is known as "taqiyya" (hiding one's faith). Shiite clergymen distorted the meaning of 3:28 which permitted believers to hide their faith when they were weak and threatened by their enemy. They broadened this permission and turned it to a lifestyle. Furthermore, they turned this permission to an obligation. Throughout history, the followers of Shiite sect developed a hypocritical religious life even there was no compelling reason to do so. Waiting for the return of 12th imam coupled with this religious mask (taqiyya) turned the Shiite masses to obedient constituencies. They survived under Sunni and oppressive Sultans, Kings and Shahs with no claim for religious governance. However, Ayatullah Khomaini, a charismatic leader, modified this traditional belief. He claimed that even in the absence of the 12th Imam, his substitute could still act and fight against the enemy. With several other minor theological tinkering he released the long locked anger into demonstrations against Reza Shah's corrupt and oppressive regime. The taqiyya erupted like a volcano. Unfortunately, the revolution did not live up to its promises regarding freedom and justice; it devolved into another corrupt and oppressive system. The ousted Shah was replaced by an infallible mullah, the Velayet-i Faqih, with much greater authority: in the name of revolution, in the name of imams, in the name of the lost imam, and in the name of God. The monarchy turned into a mollarchy!
As for the Sunnis, they also fabricated many hadiths to justify their history filled with corruption and injustice. They even justified the atrocities of Umayyad dynasty by choosing silence over the early conflicts between Ali and Uthman and later Muawiya. They fabricated religious amnesty and immunity for every corrupt and cruel sahaba (Muhammed's comrades) or tabeen (the comrades of those comrades). Even the drunken murderer of prophet's grandson, Yazid, the governor of Damascus, was given religious immunity against criticism.
You can find many similarities and differences between Sunni and Shiite sects. In fact, there are more than a dozen Shiite sub-sects which they differ greatly in religious matters and there are dozens of Sunnite sub-sects which also differ significantly. Nevertheless, today only four Sunni sects and a few Shiite sects survive. Their common characteristic is that all hate to accept God's word alone as their religious guide and invoke the names of saints and intercessors in their prayers. They all follow conjecture and fabricated sectarian hadiths to justify their dogmas, complicated rituals and backward practices.
30:32 From those who have divided their system and become sects, each group is happy with what it has.
30:32 [or] among those who have broken the unity of their faith and have become sects, each group delighting in but what they themselves hold [by way of tenets].29
Sectarianism Condemned30:32 (Do not fall in idol worship,) like those who divide their religion into sects; each party rejoicing with what they have.,
30:33 Wa-itha massa alnnasa durrundaAAaw rabbahum muneebeena ilayhi thumma itha athaqahumminhu rahmatan itha fareequn minhum birabbihimyushrikoona
30:33 If harm afflicts the people, they call out sincerely to their Lord. But then, when He gives them a taste of His mercy, a group of them set up partners with their Lord!
30:33 And if harm afflicts the people, they call out sincerely to their Lord. But then, when He gives them a taste of His mercy, a group of them set up partners with their Lord!
30:33 NOW [thus it is:] when affliction befalls men, they cry out unto their Sustainer, turning unto Him [for help]; but as soon as He lets them taste of His grace, lo! some of them [begin to] ascribe to other powers a share in their Sustainer's divinity,30
see note 61 on 16:54.
Bad Weather Friends30:33 When adversity afflicts the people, they turn to their Lord, totally devoting themselves to Him. But then, as soon as He showers them with mercy, some of them revert to idol worship.3 ,
A common example is the classified advertisements we note in the newspapers, placed by people thanking St. Jude for healing them. Beforeundergoing surgery, they sincerely implore God to heal them. But as soonas the surgery succeeds, they thank St. Jude!!!
30:33 When harm touches people they call upon their Lord, turning to Him alone. But as soon as He lets them taste grace from Him, some of them revert to worshiping their idols.
30:34 Liyakfuroo bima ataynahumfatamattaAAoo fasawfa taAAlamoona
30:34 So as to reject what We gave them. Enjoy then, for you will come to know.
30:34 So as to reject what We gave them. Enjoy then, for you will come to know.
30:34 [as if] to prove their ingratitude for all that We have granted them! Enjoy, then, your [brief] life: but in time you will come to know [the truth]!
30:34 Let them be unappreciative of what we have given them. Enjoy temporarily; you will surely find out.,
30:34 This is how they show their ingratitude to what (guidance) We have given them. So, enjoy yourselves awhile, but soon you will come to know.
30:35 Am anzalna AAalayhim sultananfahuwa yatakallamu bima kanoo bihi yushrikoona
30:35 Or have We sent down to them a proof, which speaks to them of what they have set up?
30:35 Or have We sent down to them an authority, which speaks to them of that which they have set up?
30:35 Have We ever bestowed upon them from on high a divine writ31 which would speak [with approval] of their worshipping aught beside Us?32
Lit., "a warrant" or "authority" (sultan), in this context obviously denoting a revelation.
Lit., "of that which they were wont to associate [with Us]". Cf. second paragraph of 35:43 and the corresponding note 27.
30:35 Have we given them authorization that justifies their idolatry?,
30:35 Have We ever sent down to them any authority that tells them to commit Shirk,associate others with God?
30:36 Waitha athaqna alnnasarahmatan farihoo biha wa-in tusibhumsayyi-atun bima qaddamat aydeehim itha hum yaqnatoona
30:36 If We grant the people a taste of mercy, they become happy with it, but if evil afflicts them for what they have done, they become in despair!9
30:36 And if We grant the people a taste of mercy, they become happy with it, but if evil afflicts them for what they have done, they become in despair!
30:36 And [thus it is:] when we let men taste [Our] grace, they rejoice in it; but if evil befalls them as an outcome of what their own hands have wrought33 lo! they lose all hope!
See 4:79 and the corresponding note 94.
30:36 When we bestow mercy upon the people, they rejoice therein. But when adversity befalls them, as a consequence of their own works, they become despondent.,
30:36 And thus it is: When We let people taste grace they are quick to rejoice therein. But when adversity befalls them as a result of their own doings, they are in despair!12
Constancy in personality is attainable only by living righteously
30:37 Awa lam yaraw anna Allaha yabsutualrrizqa liman yashao wayaqdiru inna fee thalikalaayatin liqawmin yu/minoona
30:37 Did they not see that God grants the provisions for whom He wills, and He is able? In that are signs for a people who acknowledge.
30:37 Did they not see that God grants the provisions for whom He wills, and He is able? In that are signs for a people who believe.
30:37 Are they, then, not aware that it is God who grants abundant sustenance, or gives it in scant measure, unto whomever He wills? In this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who will believe!
30:37 Do they not realize that GOD increases the provision for whomever He wills, or reduces it? These should be lessons for people who believe.,
30:37 Have they not seen that God enlarges the provision on whatever (community) it is, according to His laws, and restricts it likewise? Herein are signs for people who believe (in the Divine laws).
30:38 Faati tha alqurba haqqahuwaalmiskeena waibna alssabeeli thalikakhayrun lillatheena yureedoona wajha Allahi waola-ikahumu almuflihoona
30:38 So give the relative his due, and the poor, and the wayfarer. That is best for those who seek God's presence, and they are the successful ones.
30:38 So give the relative his due, and the poor, and the wayfarer. That is best for those who seek the face of God, and they are the successful ones.
30:38 Hence, give his due to the near of kin, as well as to the needy and the wayfarer;34 this is best for all who seek God's countenance: for it is they, they that shall attain to a happy state!
30:38 Therefore, you shall give the relatives their rightful share (of charity), as well as the poor, and the traveling alien. This is better for those who sincerely seek GOD's pleasure; they are the winners.,
30:38 So, give the relatives their rightful share, and to the needy, and the one whose business has stalled, the one who has lost his job, the one whose hard-earned income is insufficient to meet the basic needs, the homeless son of the street, and the needy traveler and the one who has traveled to you for help. This is best for those who seek God's approval. For, it is those who are truly successful.13
Zal qurba, Miskeen, Wabn-is-sabeel, encompass all the meanings rendered. The Divinely ordained Economic Order will ensure equity and prosperity for all
30:39 Wama ataytum min ribanliyarbuwa fee amwali alnnasi falayarboo AAinda Allahi wama ataytum min zakatintureedoona wajha Allahi faola-ika humu almudAAifoona
30:39 Any financial interest you have placed to grow in the people's money, it will not grow with God. But, any contribution that you have placed seeking His presence; those will be multiplied.
30:39 And any usury you have taken to grow from the money of the people, it will not grow with God. And any contribution that you have placed seeking the face of God, then those will be multiplied.
30:39 And [remember:] whatever you may give out in usury so that it might increase through [other] people's possessions will bring [you] no increase in the sight of God35 whereas all that you give out in charity, seeking God's countenance, [will be blessed by Him:]36 for it is they, they [who thus seek His countenance] that shall have their recompense multiplied!
This is the earliest mention of the term and concept of riba in the chronology of Quranic revelation. In its general, linguistic sense, this term denotes an "addition" to or an "increase" of a thing over and above its original size or amount; in the terminology of the Qur'an, it signifies any unlawful addition, by way of interest, to a sum of money or goods lent by one person or body of persons to another. Considering the problem in terms of the economic conditions prevailing at or before their time, most of the early Muslim jurists identified this "unlawful addition" with profits obtained through any kind of interest-bearing loans irrespective of the rate of interest and the economic motivation involved. With all this - as is evidenced by the voluminous juridical literature on this subject - Islamic scholars have not yet been able to reach an absolute agreement on the definition of riba: a definition, that is, which would cover all conceivable legal situations and positively respond to all the exigencies of a variable economic environment. In the words of Ibn Kathir (in his commentary on 2:275), "the subject of riba is one of the most difficult subjects for many of the scholars (ahl al-ilm)". It should be borne in mind that the passage condemning and prohibiting riba in legal terms (2:275) was the last revelation received by the Prophet, who died a few days later (cf. note 268 on 2:281); hence, the Companions had no opportunity to ask him about the shar'i implications of the relevant injunction - so much so that even Umar ibn al-Khattab is reliably reported to have said: "The last [of the Qur'an] that was revealed was the passage [lit.. "the verse"] on riba; and, behold, the Apostle of God passed away without [lit., "before"] having explained its meaning to us" (Ibn Hanbal, on the authority of Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab). Nevertheless, the severity with which the Qur'an condemns riba and those who practice it furnishes - especially when viewed against the background of mankind's economic experiences during the intervening centuries - a sufficiently clear indication of its nature and its social as well as moral implications. Roughly speaking, the opprobrium of riba (in the sense in which this term is used in the Qur'an and in many sayings of the Prophet) attaches to profits obtained through interest-bearing loans involving an exploitation of the economically weak by the strong and resourceful: an exploitation characterized by the fact that the lender, while retaining full ownership of the capital loaned and having no legal concern with the purpose for which it is to be used or with the manner of its use, remains contractually assured of gain irrespective of any losses which the borrower may suffer in consequence of this transaction. With this definition in mind, we realize that the question as to what kinds of financial transactions fall within the category of riba is, in the last resort, a moral one, closely connected with the socio-economic motivation underlying the mutual relationship of borrower and lender; and, stated in purely economic terms, it is a question as to how profits and risks may be equitably shared by both partners to a loan transaction. It is, of course, impossible to answer this double question in a rigid, once-for-all manner: our answers must necessarily vary in accordance with the changes to which mans social and technological development - and, thus, his economic environment - is subject. Hence, while the Quranic condemnation of the concept and practice of riba is unequivocal and final, every successive Muslim generation is faced with the challenge of giving new dimensions and a fresh economic meaning to this term which, for want of a better word, may be rendered as "usury". In the present instance (which, as I have mentioned, is the earliest in the history of the Qur'an), no clear-cut prohibition is as yet laid down; but the prohibition appearing in 2:275 ff. is already foreshadowed by the reference to the immoral hope of increasing one's own substance "through [other] people's possessions", i.e., through the exploitation of others.
30:39 The usury that is practiced to increase some people's wealth, does not gain anything at GOD. But if you give to charity, seeking GOD's pleasure, these are the ones who receive their reward manifold.,
30:39 And the wealth you give in usury in order that it may increase on other people’s money has no increase with God. But what you give in charity, seeking God’s approval, these are the ones who will have their return multiplied. [2:275-276, 3:129, 74:6]
30:40 Allahu allathee khalaqakumthumma razaqakum thumma yumeetukum thumma yuhyeekum halmin shuraka-ikum man yafAAalu min thalikum minshay-in subhanahu wataAAala AAammayushrikoona
30:40 God who created you, then He provided for you, then He puts you to death, then He brings you to life. Is there any among the partners you set up that can do any of this? Be He glorified and exalted above what they set up.
30:40 God is the One who has created you, then He provided for you, then He puts you to death, then He brings you to life. Is there any among the partners you set up that can do any of this? Be He glorified and exalted above what they set up.
30:40 IT IS GOD who has created you, and then has provided you with sustenance, and then will cause you to die, and then will bring you to life again. Can any of those beings or powers to whom you ascribe a share in His divinity37 do any of these things? Limitless is He in His glory, and sublimely exalted above anything to which men may ascribe a share in His divinity!
Lit., "any of your [God-] partners". Cf. note 15 on 6:22.
Who Is Worthy of Worship?30:40 GOD is the One who created you. He is the One who provides for you. He is the One who puts you to death. He is the One who resurrects you. Can any of your idols do any of these things? Be He glorified. He is much too exalted to have any partners.,
30:40 God is He Who has created you and then has provided you with sustenance, then will cause you to die, and then will bring you to life again. Are there any of your ‘partners’ who can do any single one of these things? Glorious He is, and Sublimely Exalted above the ‘partners’ they associate with Him.
30:41 Thahara alfasadu feealbarri waalbahri bima kasabat aydee alnnasiliyutheeqahum baAAda allathee AAamiloolaAAallahum yarjiAAoona
Destruction of Earth Because of Polytheism, Ignorance, Nationalism, Oppression, Wars, Greed, and Waste30:41 Pollution has appeared in the land and the sea by the hands of people for what they earned. He will make them taste some of what they have done, perhaps they will revert.
30:41 Corruption has appeared in the land and the sea at the hands of the people by what they earn. He will make them taste some of what they have done, perhaps they will return.
30:41 [Since they have become oblivious of God,] corruption has appeared on land and in the sea as an outcome of what men's hands have wrought: and so38 He will let them taste [the evil of] some of their doings, so that they might return [to the right path].39
The prefix li in li-yudhiqahum does not indicate here a purport or intent ("so that" or "in order that"), but is a lam al-aqibah, i.e., a prefix expressing a factual consequence (best rendered as "thereupon" or "and so").
Thus, the growing corruption and destruction of our natural environment, so awesomely - if as yet only partially - demonstrated in our time, is here predicted as "an outcome of what men's hands have wrought", i.e., of that self-destructive - because utterly materialistic - inventiveness and frenzied activity which now threatens mankind with previously unimaginable ecological disasters: an unbridled pollution of land, air and water through industrial and urban waste, a progressive poisoning of plant and marine life, all manner of genetic malformations in men's own bodies through an ever widening use of drugs and seemingly "beneficial" chemicals, and the gradual extinction of many animal species essential to human well-being. To all this may be added the rapid deterioration and decomposition of man's social life, the all-round increase in sexual perversion, crime and violence, with, perhaps, nuclear annihilation as the ultimate stage: all of which is, in the last resort, an outcome of man's oblivion of God and, hence, of all absolute moral values, and their super session by the belief that material "progress" is the only thing that matters.
30:41 Disasters have spread throughout the land and sea, because of what the people have committed. He thus lets them taste the consequences of some of their works, that they may return (to the right works).,
30:41 Rampant disorder has appeared in the land and in the sea because of what the hands of people have earned. He will let them taste the consequences of some of their works that they may turn back (from what they have been doing).14
This verse may point toward environmental pollution and greenhouse phenomenon etc
30:42 Qul seeroo fee al-ardi faonthurookayfa kana AAaqibatu allatheena min qablu kanaaktharuhum mushrikeena
30:42 Say, "Roam the earth and see how the end was for those before. Most of them had set up partners."
30:42 Say: "Roam the earth and see how the end was for those before. Most of them were polytheists."
30:42 Say: Go all over the earth, and behold what happened in the end to those [sinners] who lived before [you]: most of them were wont to ascribe divine qualities to things or beings other than God."40
I.e., they worshipped material comfort and power, and thus lost sight of all spiritual values and, in the end, destroyed themselves.
Learning From History30:42 Say, "Roam the earth and note the consequences for those before you." Most of them were idol worshipers.,
30:42 Say, “Travel in the land and notice the end of communities before you. Most of them worshiped idols in various forms (and ran manmade systems 30:31-32).”
30:43 Faaqim wajhaka lilddeeni alqayyimimin qabli an ya/tiya yawmun la maradda lahu mina Allahiyawma-ithin yassaddaAAoona
30:43 So establish yourself to the system which is straight, before a day comes from God that none can avert. On that day they shall be separated.
30:43 So establish yourself to the system which is straight, before a Day comes from God that none can avert. On that Day they shall be separated.
30:43 Set, then, thy face steadfastly towards the one ever-true faith,44 ere there come from God a Day [of reckoning - the Day] which cannot be averted. On that Day all will be sundered:
As in verse 46 above, the reference to "the winds" has here a symbolic significance, namely, spiritual life and hope; hence my interpolation.
30:43 Therefore, you shall devote yourself completely to this perfect religion, before a day comes which is made inevitable by GOD. On that day, they will be shocked.,
30:43 Set your purpose resolutely for the Perfect Religion, before the Inevitable Day comes from God. On that Day people will be in two groups.
30:44 Man kafara faAAalayhi kufruhu waman AAamila salihanfali-anfusihim yamhadoona
30:44 Whosoever rejects, then he will suffer his rejection; and whosoever does good works, then it is for themselves that they are preparing a good place.
30:44 Whoever rejects, then he will suffer his rejection; and whoever does good works, then it is for themselves that they are preparing a good place.
30:44 he who has denied the truth will have to bear [the burden of] his denial, whereas all who did what is right and just will have made goodly provision for themselves,
30:44 Whoever disbelieves, disbelieves to the detriment of his own soul, while those who lead a righteous life, do so to strengthen and develop their own souls.,
30:44 Whoever rejects the truth will suffer from that rejection, whereas all who do constructive deeds, will make goodly provision for themselves.
30:45 Liyajziya allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati min fadlihiinnahu la yuhibbu alkafireena
30:45 So that He will reward those who acknowledge and promote reforms from His grace. He does not love the ingrates.
30:45 So that He will reward those that believe and do good works from His grace. He does not love the rejecters.
30:45 so that He might reward, out of His bounty, those who have attained to faith and done righteous deeds. Verily, He does not love those who refuse to acknowledge the truth
30:45 For He will generously recompense those who believe and lead a righteous life from His bounties. He does not love the disbelievers.,
30:45 That He may reward out of His bounty, those who accept the message, and work to help others. He does not love those who reject the truth.
30:46 Wamin ayatihi an yursila alrriyahamubashshiratin waliyutheeqakum min rahmatihiwalitajriya alfulku bi-amrihi walitabtaghoo min fadlihiwalaAAallakum tashkuroona
30:46 Among His signs is that He sends the winds with glad tidings, and to give you a taste of His mercy, and so that the ships may sail by His command, and that you may seek of His bounty; perhaps you will be thankful.
30:46 And from His signs is that He sends the winds with glad tidings, and to give you a taste of His mercy, and so that the ships may sail by His command, and that you may seek of His bounty; perhaps you will be thankful.
30:46 for among His wonders is this: He sends forth [His messages as He sends forth] the winds that bear glad tidings,42 so that He might give you a taste of His grace [through life-giving rains], and that ships might sail at His behest, and that you might go about in quest of some of His bounties, and that you might have cause to be grateful.
The mention of God's messages, interpolated by me between brackets, is justified by the verses which precede and follow this passage. Moreover, it is only by means of such an interpolation that the symbolic purport of the above reference to "the winds that bear glad tidings" can be made fully obvious.
30:46 Among His proofs is that He sends the winds with good omen, to shower you with His mercy, and to allow the ships to run in the sea in accordance with His rules, and for you to seek His bounties (through commerce), that you may be appreciative.,
30:46 Among His signs is that He sends the winds with glad tiding giving you His grace (of rain on the land), and (the same winds) let the ships sail according to His laws for you to seek His bounty, so that your efforts may become fruitful.15
Shukr = Gratitude = Sharing the bounties with others = Thanks = Efforts becoming fruitful
30:47 Walaqad arsalna min qablika rusulanila qawmihim fajaoohum bialbayyinatifaintaqamna mina allatheena ajramoo wakanahaqqan AAalayna nasru almu/mineena
30:47 We have sent before you messengers to their people, so they came to them with clear proofs, then We took revenge on those who were criminals, and it is an obligation for Us to grant victory to those who acknowledge.
30:47 And We have sent before you messengers to their people. So they came to them with clear proofs; then We took revenge on those who were criminals. And it is binding upon Us to grant victory to the believers.
30:47 And indeed, [O Muhammad, even] before thee did We send forth apostles - each one unto his own people43 and they brought them all evidence of the truth: and then, [by causing the believers to triumph,] We inflicted Our retribution upon those who [deliberately] did evil: for We had willed it upon Ourselves to succour the believers.
Lit., "did We send apostles to their [own] people": see note 96 on 10:74.
Guaranteed Victory for the Believers30:47 We have sent messengers before you to their people, with profound signs. Subsequently, we punished those who transgressed. It is our duty that we grant victory to the believers.,
30:47 We did send Messengers before you to their respective people, and they brought them clear evidence of the truth. Then, We (Our Law of Requital) inflicted Our retribution on those who stole the fruit of others' labor and violated human rights. And We have made it incumbent upon Us to help the believers.
30:48 Allahu allathee yursilu alrriyahafatutheeru sahaban fayabsutuhu fee alssama-ikayfa yashao wayajAAaluhu kisafan fatara alwadqayakhruju min khilalihi fa-itha asaba bihiman yashao min AAibadihi itha humyastabshiroona
30:48 God is the one who sends the winds, so they raise clouds, and He spreads them in the sky as He wishes, then He turns them into joined pieces, then you see the rain drops come forth from their midst. Then when He makes them fall on whomever He wills of His servants, they rejoice!
30:48 God Who sends the winds, so they raise clouds, and He spreads them in the sky as He wishes, then He turns them into joined pieces, then you see the rain drops come forth from their midst. Then when He makes them fall on whoever He wills of His servants, they rejoice!
30:48 It is God who sends forth the winds [of hope],* so that they raise a cloud - whereupon He spreads it over the skies as He wills, and causes it to break up so that thou seest rain issue from within it: and as soon as He causes it to fall upon whomever He wills of His servants - lo! they rejoice,
30:48 GOD is the One who sends the winds, to stir up clouds, to be spread throughout the sky in accordance with His will. He then piles the clouds up, then you see the rain coming down therefrom. When it falls on whomever He chooses from among His servants, they rejoice.,
30:48 (Divine Guidance is a blessing for humanity just as) it is God Who sends forth the winds so that they raise a cloud, and then He spreads it along the high atmosphere according to His laws. And causes it to break up, and you see rain pour down from within it. And when He makes it fall on His servants by His laws, they rejoice.
30:49 Wa-in kanoo min qabli an yunazzalaAAalayhim min qablihi lamubliseena
30:49 Even though just before He sent it down to them, they were in despair!
30:49 Even though just before He sent it down to them, they were in despair!
30:49 even though a short while ago, [just] before it was sent down upon them, they had abandoned all hope!
30:49 Before it fell on them, they had resorted to despair.,
30:49 Even though before that, before it was sent down upon them, they were in despair.
30:50 Faonthur ila atharirahmati Allahi kayfa yuhyee al-ardabaAAda mawtiha inna thalika lamuhyee almawtawahuwa AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
30:50 So look at the effects of God's compassion, how He revives the land after its death. Such is the One who will revive the dead, and He is capable of all things.
30:50 So look at the effects of the mercy of God, how He revives the land after its death. Such is the One who will revive the dead, and He is capable of all things.
30:50 Behold, then, [O man,] these signs of God's grace - how He gives life to the earth after it had been lifeless! Verily, this Selfsame [God] is indeed the One that can bring the dead back to life: for He has the power to will anything!
30:50 You shall appreciate GOD's continuous mercy, and how He revives the land that has been dead. He will just as certainly resurrect the dead. He is Omnipotent.,
30:50 Behold then these signs of God's grace - how He revives the earth after it had been lifeless. He is the Reviver of the dead, and He is Able to do all things.16
Similarly, His guidance can revive individuals and nations
30:51 Wala-in arsalna reehanfaraawhu musfarran lathalloo min baAAdihiyakfuroona
30:51 If We chose to send a wind and they see it turn yellow, then they will continue to be ingrates after it.
30:51 And if We chose to send a wind and they see it turn yellow, they will continue to be rejecters after it.
30:51 But thus it is: if45 We send a wind [that scorches their land], and they see it turn yellow, they begin, after that [erstwhile joy], to deny the truth [of Our almightiness and grace]!46
The particle la'in (lit., "indeed, if ") is often used in the Qur'an to express the recurrent, typical character of the attitude or situation referred to in the sequence; in all such cases it may be suitably rendered as "thus it is: if ", etc.
For a full explanation of this verse, see 11:9 and the corresponding notes 16-19.
30:51 Had we sent upon them instead a yellow sandstorm, they would have continued to disbelieve.,
30:51 But if We send a wind from which they see their crop turn ripen up yellow, then they seek to hide it from fellow humans, thus becoming ungrateful. [56:63-72]
30:52 Fa-innaka la tusmiAAu almawtawala tusmiAAu alssumma aldduAAaaitha wallaw mudbireena
To Receive God's Message30:52 You cannot make the dead listen, nor can you make the deaf hear the call when they have turned their backs.10
Just as we cannot hear or understand a radio broadcast via a radio with dead batteries, or with its switch off, or not being tuned to the correct wavelength, similarly we cannot hear or understand God's message if we do not use our reasoning faculties, and if we do not open our minds to new ideas.
30:52 You cannot make the dead listen, nor can you make the deaf hear the call when they have turned their backs.
30:52 And, verily, thou canst not make the dead hear: and [so, too,] thou canst not make the deaf [of heart] hear this call when they turn their backs [on thee] and go away,
30:52 You cannot make the dead, nor the deaf, hear the call, once they turn away.,
30:52 And you cannot make the dead to hear, nor can you make the deaf of heart to hear the call when they turn their backs and go away. [36:51-52]
30:53 Wama anta bihadi alAAumyi AAandalalatihim in tusmiAAu illa man yu/minu bi-ayatinafahum muslimoona
30:53 Nor can you enlighten the blind from their straying; but you can only make those who acknowledge Our signs listen, for they have peacefully surrendered.
30:53 Nor can you enlighten the blind from their straying; but you can only make those who believe in Our revelations listen, for they have submitted.
30:53 just as thou canst not lead the blind [of heart] out of their error: none canst thou make hear [thy call] save such as [are willing to] believe in Our messages, and thus surrender themselves unto Us.47
Cf. the identical passage in 27:80 and the corresponding note 72.
30:53 Nor can you guide the blind out of their straying. You can only be heard by those who believe in our revelations, and decide to become submitters.,
30:53 Nor can you bring the blind of heart out of their straying. You can make none to hear except those who believe in Our messages (using their vision) and are willing to live in submission to God.
30:54 Allahu allathee khalaqakum mindaAAfin thumma jaAAala min baAAdi daAAfin quwwatanthumma jaAAala min baAAdi quwwatin daAAfan washaybatanyakhluqu ma yashao wahuwa alAAaleemu alqadeeru
30:54 God is the One Who created you from weakness, then He made strength after the weakness, then He makes after the strength a weakness and gray hair. He creates what He wills and He is the Knowledgeable, the Able.
30:54 God is the One who has created you from weakness, then He made strength after the weakness, then He makes after the strength a weakness and grey hair. He creates what He wills and He is the Knowledgeable, the Capable.
30:54 IT IS GOD who creates you [all in a states of weakness, and then, after weakness, ordains strength [for you], and then, after [a period of] strength, ordains [old-age] weakness and grey hair.48 He creates what He wills; and He alone is all-knowing, infinite in His power.
In the original, this sentence is formulated in the past tense ("has created you" and "has ordained"), stressing the recurrent character of man's life-phases. In translation, this recurrence can be suitably expressed by using the present tense.
This Life is Very Short30:54 GOD is the One who created you weak, then granted you after the weakness strength, then substituted after the strength weakness and gray hair. He creates whatever He wills. He is the Omniscient, the Omnipotent.,
30:54 It is God Who creates you weak (as infants), then, after the weak state, gives you strength; then substitutes after the strength, weakness and gray hair. All this happens according to His laws of Creation. And He is the Knower, the Able.
30:55 Wayawma taqoomu alssaAAatuyuqsimu almujrimoona ma labithoo ghayra saAAatin kathalikakanoo yu/fakoona
30:55 The day the moment is established, the criminals will swear that they have remained only for a moment! Thus they were deluded.
30:55 And the Day the Hour is established, the criminals will swear that they have remained only for an hour! Thus they were deluded.
30:55 [He it is who will cause you to die, and in time will resurrect you.]49 And when the Last Hour dawns, those who had been lost in sin will swear that they had not tarried [on earth] longer than an hour: thus were they wont to delude themselves [all their lives]!50
This interpolation - the meaning of which is elliptically implied here - shows the connection of the present passage with the preceding one, as well as with verses 11-16 and 27.
The illusory character of man's earthbound concept of "time" is brought out in the Qur'an in several places. In the above context stress is laid, firstly, on the relativity of this concept - i.e., on the infinitesimal shortness of our life on earth as compared with the timeless duration of life in the hereafter (cf., for instance, 10:45 or 17:52) - and, secondly, on the resurrected sinners' self-deluding excuse that their life on earth had been too short to allow them to realize their errors and mend their ways. It is to this second aspect of the problem that the Qur'an alludes in the words, "thus were they wont to delude themselves" (lit., "to be turned away", i.e., from the truth). For an explanation of the verb yu'fikun, see surah 5 note 90.
30:55 On the day when the Hour comes to pass, the guilty will swear that they lasted (in this world) only one hour. That is how wrong they were.,
30:55 (Since your life is short, your time is precious.) On the Day when the Hour rises, the guilty will swear that they lived in this world no more than an hour, (and that they didn't have time to reform). In fact, they were wandering aimlessly through life.
30:56 Waqala allatheena ootooalAAilma waal-eemana laqad labithtum fee kitabiAllahi ila yawmi albaAAthi fahatha yawmualbaAAthi walakinnakum kuntum la taAAlamoona
30:56 Those who were given knowledge and acknowledgement said, "You have remained according to God's decree until the day of Resurrection; so this is the day of Resurrection, but you did not know."
30:56 And those who were given knowledge and faith said: "You have remained according to the decree of God until the Day of Resurrection; so this is now the Day of Resurrection, but you did not know."
30:56 But those who [in their lifetime] were endowed with knowledge51 and faith will say: Indeed, you have been tardy in [accepting as true] what God has revealed,52 [and you have waited] until the Day of Resurrection: this, then, is the Day of Resurrection: but you - you were determined not to know it!53
See surah 16 note 25.
Lit., "with regard to (fi) God's revelation (kitab)", i.e., that the dead shall be resurrected and judged by Him. It is to be noted that the verb labitha signifies "he waited [for something] or he was tardy [with regard to something]" as well as "he stayed [in a place]" or "he remained". Evidently, in verse 55 ma labithu has the meaning of "they had not stayed" or "remained", while in verse 56 labithtum denotes "you have been tardy" or "you have waited".
Lit., "you were wont not to know" - i.e., "you persistently closed your mind to this promise".
30:56 Those who are blessed with knowledge and faith will say, "You have lasted, according to GOD's decree, until the Day of Resurrection. Now, this is the Day of Resurrection, but you failed to recognize it.",
30:56 But those who have been endowed with knowledge and conviction will say, "You did last within God’s decree, until the Resurrection Day. (Your own ‘self’ never died.) Now, this is the Resurrection Day that you never acknowledged."
30:57 Fayawma-ithin la yanfaAAu allatheenathalamoo maAAthiratuhum wala humyustaAAtaboona
30:57 So on that day, the excuses of those who transgressed will not help them, nor will they be allowed to revert.
30:57 So on that Day, the excuses of those who transgressed will not help them, nor will they be allowed to return.
30:57 And so, on that Day their excuse will be of no avail to those who were bent on evildoing, nor will they be allowed to make amends.
30:57 Therefore, no apology, on that day, will benefit the transgressors, nor will they be excused.,
30:57 And so on that Day no apologies of the wrongdoers will avail them, nor will they be allowed to make amends. [36:51-52]
30:58 Walaqad darabna lilnnasifee hatha alqur-ani min kulli mathalin wala-inji/tahum bi-ayatin layaqoolanna allatheena kafarooin antum illa mubtiloona
The Quran Contains all the Examples Necessary for our Salvation30:58 We have cited for the people in this Quran of every example. If you come to them with a sign, those who rejected will say, "You are bringing falsehood!"
30:58 And We have put forth for the people in this Qur'an of every example. And if you come to them with a sign, those who rejected will say: "You are bringing falsehood!"
30:58 AND, INDEED, We have propounded unto men all kinds of parables in this Qur'an.54 But thus it is: if thou approach them with any [such] message, those who are bent on denying the truth are sure to say, You are but making false claims!"
See note 33 on the first clause of 39:27.
30:58 Thus, we have cited for the people in this Quran all kinds of examples. Yet, no matter what kind of proof you present to the disbelievers, they say, "You are falsifiers.",
30:58 We have given numerous examples in the Qur’an for mankind. But even if you came with a miracle, the opponents of truth would say, "You are only falsifiers."
30:59 Kathalika yatbaAAu AllahuAAala quloobi allatheena la yaAAlamoona
30:59 It is thus that God seals the hearts of those who do not know.
30:59 It is thus that God seals the hearts of those who do not know.
30:59 In this way does God seal the hearts of those who do not [want to] know [the truth].55
For an explanation of God's "sealing" the hearts of such people, see note 7 on 2:7.
Divine Intervention30:59 GOD thus seals the hearts of those who do not know.,
30:59 In this way does God seal the hearts of those who wish not to learn.
30:60 Faisbir inna waAAda Allahihaqqun wala yastakhiffannaka allatheena layooqinoona
30:60 So be patient, for God's promise is true, and do not be dissuaded by those who do not have certainty.
30:60 So be patient, for the promise of God is true, and do not be dissuaded by those who do not have certainty.
30:60 Remain, then, patient in adversity: verily, Gods promise [of resurrection] is true indeed - so let not those who are devoid of all inner certainty disquiet thy mind!
30:60 Therefore, you shall steadfastly persevere - for GOD's promise is the truth - and do not be intimidated by those who have not attained certainty.,
30:60 Remain then, steadfast and remember that God’s promise is always True. So let not those who lack conviction perturb you.