بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
39:1 Tanzeelu alkitabi mina AllahialAAazeezi alhakeemi
39:1 The sending down of the book is from God, the Noble, the Wise.
39:1 The sending down of the Book is from God, the Noble, the Wise.
39:1 THE BESTOWAL from on high of this divine writ issues from God, the Almighty, the Wise:
39:1 This is a revelation of the scripture, from GOD, the Almighty, the Wise.,
39:1 The revelation of this Book issues from God, the Almighty, the Wise.1
This is the 39th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 75 verses. Besides other concepts, this Surah underscores collective life of people as tribes, nations and communities. It indicates that people will enter their worldly or Afterlife Paradise or Hellfire in groups. This confirms the sociological observation that societies are made for individuals but individuals are not made for societies. It also confirms that a benevolent social order facilitates the development of the ‘self’ toward actualization.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
39:2 Inna anzalna ilayka alkitababialhaqqi faoAAbudi Allaha mukhlisanlahu alddeena
39:2 We have sent down to you the book with truth, so serve God while devoting the system to Him.1
39:2 We have sent down to you the Book with the truth, so serve God while devoting the system to Him.
39:2 for, behold, it is We who have bestowed this revelation upon thee from on high, setting forth the truth: so worship Him, sincere in thy faith in Him alone!
39:2 We sent down to you this scripture, truthfully; you shall worship GOD, devoting your religion to Him alone.,
39:2 We have revealed this Book to you (O Prophet) setting forth the truth. Therefore, serve God sincere in your faith in Him alone.
39:3 Ala lillahi alddeenualkhalisu waallatheena ittakhathoomin doonihi awliyaa ma naAAbuduhum illaliyuqarriboona ila Allahi zulfa innaAllaha yahkumu baynahum fee ma hum feehiyakhtalifoona inna Allaha la yahdee man huwa kathibunkaffarun
Excuse for Intercession39:3 Absolutely, to God is the true system. Those who set up allies besides Him: "We only serve them so that they may bring us closer to God." God will judge between them in what they dispute. Surely, God does not guide the one who is a liar, an ingrate.2
There is not much difference between the Meccan polytheists and modern polytheists who turned Islam into a limited corporation or limited liability partnership. Those who expect their prophets and saints to one day intercede on their behalf are setting up partners with God, even though they do not admit it (6:23). Also, see 2:48.
39:3 Absolutely, to God is the true system. And those who set up allies besides Him: "We only serve them so that they may bring us closer to God." God will judge between them in what they dispute. For God does not guide him who is a liar, a rejecter.
39:3 Is it not to God alone that all sincere faith is due? And yet, they who take for their protectors aught beside Him [are wont to say], We worship them for no other reason than that they bring us nearer to God."1 Behold, God will judge between them [on Resurrection Day] with regard to all wherein they differ [from the truth]:2 for, verily, God does not grace with His guidance anyone who is bent on lying [to himself and is] stubbornly ingrate!3
This relates not only to the worship of saints, angels and "deified" persons as such, but also to that of their symbolic representations (statues, pictures, relics, etc.) and, in the case of defunct human personalities, of their real or reputed tombs. Since all such practices are based on the worshipper's hope of "mediation" between himself and God, they obviously conflict with the concept of His omniscience and justice, and are, therefore - notwithstanding their widespread occurrence - utterly rejected by the Qur'an.
I.e., between those worshippers and the spiritual leaders who have led them astray (cf. 34:31).
Cf. 6:22 and the corresponding notes.
The Idols as Mediators A Common Myth39:3 Absolutely, the religion shall be devoted to GOD alone. Those who set up idols beside Him say, "We idolize them only to bring us closer to GOD; for they are in a better position!" GOD will judge them regarding their disputes. GOD does not guide such liars, disbelievers.,
39:3 Proclaim that pure Religion is for God alone. And yet, those who take patrons besides Him say, “We worship them so that they may bring us near to God.” God will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. God does not guide any who is a stubborn liar and chooses to remain in denial. [4:88, 5:35, 10:18, 17:57]
39:4 Law arada Allahu an yattakhithawaladan laistafa mimma yakhluqu mayashao subhanahu huwa Allahu alwahidualqahharu
39:4 If God wished to take a son, He could have exalted from among His creation what He pleases. Be He glorified; He is God, the One, the Supreme.
39:4 If God wished to take a son, He could have exalted from among His creation what He pleases. Be He glorified; He is God, the One, the Supreme.
39:4 Had God willed to take Unto Himself a son, He could have chosen anyone that He wanted out of whatever He has created - [but] limitless is He in His glory!4 He is the One God, the One who holds absolute sway over all that exists!
The implication is this: Since God is almighty, He can have or do anything that He wills; and so, if He wanted, He could "take unto Himself a son" (which is an allusion to the Christian doctrine of Jesus as "the son of God"). Since, however, He is "limitless in His glory" - i.e., complete in His excellence and utterly remote from all imperfection - He is ipso facto remote from the incompleteness inherent in the need of, or desire for, progeny, which logically precludes the possibility of His having a "son". (Cf. the last sentence of 6:100 and the corresponding note 88.)
39:4 If GOD wanted to have a son, He could have chosen whomever He willed from among His creations. Be He glorified; He is GOD, the One, the Supreme.,
39:4 And if God had willed to take to Himself a son, He could have chosen what He would out of what He has created. Infinite is He in His glory! He is God, the One, Supreme.
39:5 Khalaqa alssamawati waal-ardabialhaqqi yukawwiru allayla AAala alnnahariwayukawwiru alnnahara AAala allayliwasakhkhara alshshamsa waalqamara kullun yajreeli-ajalin musamman ala huwa alAAazeezu alghaffaru
39:5 He created the heavens and the earth with truth. He rolls the night over the day, and He rolls the day over the night. He committed the sun and the moon, each running for an appointed term. Absolutely, He is the Noble, the Forgiving.3
39:5 He created the heavens and the earth with the truth. He rolls the night over the day, and He rolls the day over the night. And He commissioned the sun and the moon, each running for an appointed term. Absolutely, He is the Noble, the Forgiving.
39:5 He it is who has created the heavens and the earth in accordance with [an inner] truth.5 He causes the night to flow into the day, and causes the day to flow into the night; and He has made the sun and the moon subservient [to His laws], each running its course for a term set [by Him].6 Is not He the Almighty, the All-Forgiving?
See note 11 on the last but one sentence of 10:5.
See note 5 on 13:2.
The Shape of the Earth39:5 He created the heavens and the earth truthfully. He rolls the night over the day, and rolls the day over the night. He committed the sun and the moon, each running for a finite period. Absolutely, He is the Almighty, the Forgiving.1 ,
This verse clearly informs us that the earth is round. The Arabic for ``He rolls'' (Yukawwir) is derived from the Arabic word for ``ball'' (Kurah).Since the Earth is not exactly round, a specific reference to its shape isgiven in79:30. The Quran is replete with scientificinformation that became known to us centuries after the revelation of theQuran. SeeAppendix 20.
39:5 He is the One Who has created the heavens and earth with a definite purpose. He rolls the night over the day, and rolls the day over the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon, each running along its course for a term appointed. Is He not the Almighty, the Absolver of Imperfections?2
Yukawwir = ‘He rolls’ comes from the word Kurah = Ball. In 79:30 an additional point is given that the earth has its north and south poles compressed. This was unknown and even impossible to know in the 7th century.
39:6 Khalaqakum min nafsin wahidatin thummajaAAala minha zawjaha waanzala lakum mina al-anAAamithamaniyata azwajin yakhluqukum fee butooniommahatikum khalqan min baAAdi khalqin fee thulumatinthalathin thalikumu Allahu rabbukum lahualmulku la ilaha illa huwa faanna tusrafoona
Triple Darkness39:6 He created you from one person, then He made from it its mate. He sent down to you eight pairs of the livestock. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, a creation after a creation in triple darkness. Such is God your Lord. To Him belongs the sovereignty. There is no god besides Him. How is it then you deviate?
39:6 He created you from one person, then He made from it its mate. And He sent down to you eight pairs of the livestock. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, a creation after a creation in three darkness's. Such is God your Lord. To Him belongs the sovereignty. There is no god besides Him. How is it then you deviate?
39:6 He has created you [all] out of one living entity, and out of it fashioned its mate;7 and he has bestowed upon you four kinds of cattle of either sex;8 [and] He creates you in your mothers' wombs, one act of creation after another, in threefold depths of darkness.9 Thus is God, your Sustainer: unto Him belongs all dominion: there is no deity save Him: how, then, can you lose sight of the truth?10
See 4:1 and the corresponding note 1.
Lit., "eight [in] pairs", i.e., the male and the female of four kinds of cattle (sheep, goats, camels and bovine cattle). For an explanation of my rendering, see note 130 on 6:143, where the same kinds of domesticated cattle are spoken of in connection with certain meaningless, superstitious taboos of pre-Islamic times, whereas here they are mentioned as "bestowed upon you" by God, and therefore lawful. Beyond this, the mention of cattle in this context is meant to remind man that it is God who provides his sustenance and therefore, man is utterly dependent on Him.
Lit., "by creation after creation, in three darknesses": an allusion to the successive stages of embryonic development, repeatedly spoken of in the Qur'an (cf. 22:5 and 23:12), and to the darkness of the womb, the membrane enveloping the embryo, and its pre-natal blindness.
Lit., "how, then, are you turned away?" - i.e., from the truth.
39:6 He created you from one person, then created from him his mate. He sent down to you eight kinds of livestock. He creates you in your mothers' bellies, creation after creation, in trimesters of darkness. Such is GOD your Lord. To Him belongs all sovereignty. There is no other god beside Him. How could you deviate?,
39:6 He has created you all out of one living entity (from a single life cell) - and fashioned similarly its mate, male and female (6:99). And He has bestowed upon you livestock of eight kinds in pairs. (Sheep, goat, camel, cow - male and female, the common permissible livestock 6:144-146). He creates you in the bellies of your mothers, creation after creation, in threefold depths of darkness (the abdominal wall, the uterine wall and the embryonic sac). Such is God, your Lord! Unto Him belongs the Kingdom. There is no god but He. How, then, can you sway like errant winds!3
With modern science in mind, we can understand the livestock sentence as eight organisms in pairs Two strands of DNA held together in the early stages of conception, four for DNA and four for RNA. Nafs = Self, Mind, Psyche, Soul, Human being, Living entity, Person, Humankind, Essence of life, Personality, Mental faculty, Ego, I, Me, I-am-ness, Personal identity, Animate object. Nafsinwwaahidah = A single life-cell. Minha zawjaha = Mate out of its own kind = Mate, male and female = Companions very much alike = Similar in essence. 49:13
39:7 In takfuroo fa-inna Allaha ghaniyyunAAankum wala yarda liAAibadihi alkufra wa-intashkuroo yardahu lakum wala taziru waziratunwizra okhra thumma ila rabbikum marjiAAukumfayunabbi-okum bima kuntum taAAmaloona innahu AAaleemun bithatialssudoori
39:7 If you reject, then know that God is in no need of you, and He dislikes rejection for His servants. If you are appreciative, He is pleased for you. None shall bear the burdens of another. Then to your Lord is your return, and He will inform you of everything you had done. He is fully aware of what is inside the chests.
39:7 If you reject, then know that God is in no need of you, and He is displeased with rejection for His servants. And if you are thankful, He is pleased with it for you. And none shall carry the burdens of another. Then to your Lord is your return, and He will inform you of everything you had done. He is fully aware of what is in the chests.
39:7 If you are ingrate11 behold, God has no need of you; none the less, He does not approve of ingratitude in His servants: whereas, if you show gratitude, He approves it in you. And no bearer of burdens shall be made to bear another's burden.12 In time, unto your Sustainer you all must return, and then He will make you [truly] understand all that you were doing [in life]: for, verily, He has full knowledge of what is in the hearts [of men].
Or: "If you deny the truth".
This statement occurs in the Qur'an five times in exactly the same formulation (apart from the above instance, in 6:164, 17:15, 35:18 and 53:38 - this last being the earliest in the chronology of revelation). In the present instance, it contains an allusion to (and rejection of) the Christian doctrine of "vicarious atonement" and, indirectly, to the worship of saints, etc., spoken of in verse 3 above and referred to in the corresponding note above. (See also note 31 on 53:38.)
Believe For Your Own Good39:7 If you disbelieve, GOD does not need anyone. But He dislikes to see His servants make the wrong decision. If you decide to be appreciative, He is pleased for you. No soul bears the sins of any other soul. Ultimately, to your Lord is your return, then He will inform you of everything you had done. He is fully aware of the innermost thoughts.,
39:7 If you are ungrateful, God is in no need of you. He does not like ingratitude from His servants. And if you are grateful, He is pleased with you. No laden one will bear the burden of another. Ultimately, to your Lord is your return. Then He will inform you of what you accomplished (in this life). Surely, He is Knower of what is in the hearts. [6:164, 53:38-39, 65:7]
39:8 Wa-itha massa al-insana durrundaAAa rabbahu muneeban ilayhi thumma ithakhawwalahu niAAmatan minhu nasiya ma kana yadAAooilayhi min qablu wajaAAala lillahi andadan liyudillaAAan sabeelihi qul tamattaAA bikufrika qaleelan innaka min as-habialnnari
39:8 When the human being is afflicted with adversity, he implores his Lord, turning in repentance to Him. But then, when He grants him a blessing from Him, he forgets his previous imploring, and sets up equals with God, in order to mislead others from His path. Say, "Enjoy your rejection for a while; for you are of the dwellers of the fire."
39:8 And when man is afflicted with adversity, he implores his Lord, turning in repentance to Him. But then, when He grants him a blessing from Him, he forgets his previous imploring, and sets up equals with God, in order to mislead others from His path. Say: "Enjoy your rejection for a while; for you are of the dwellers of the Fire."
39:8 NOW [thus it is:] when affliction befalls man, he is likely to cry out to his Sustainer, turning unto Him [for help];13 but as soon as He has bestowed upon him a boon by His grace, he forgets Him whom he invoked before, and claims that there are other powers that could rival God14 - and thus leads [others] astray from His path. Say [unto him who sins in this way]: Enjoy thyself for a while in this thy denial of the truth; [yet,] verily, thou art of those who are destined for the fire!
Lit., "he cries out", i.e., instinctively, and as a rule.
Lit., "and gives God compeers (andad, sing. nidd)". Cf. the last sentence of 2:22 and the corresponding note 13.
39:8 When the human being is afflicted, he implores his Lord, sincerely devoted to Him. But as soon as He blesses him, he forgets his previous imploring, sets up idols to rank with GOD and to divert others from His path. Say, "Enjoy your disbelief temporarily; you have incurred the hellfire.",
39:8 When some trouble touches the humans, they call upon their Lord turning to Him in humility. But as soon as He bestows a blessing upon them from Himself, they forget what they called for before, and they choose ‘rivals’ to God, thus misleading others from His path. Say, “Enjoy your disbelief for a little while. You are among the dwellers of the fire.”4
Choosing rivals: So and so was saved by a saint, clergy, diviner, magic, amulet etc. Insaan = Human being, is usually translated here as man and then the verse is rendered in third person singular. But Insaan includes men and women, therefore, my rendition in third person plural
39:9 Amman huwa qanitun anaaallayli sajidan waqa-iman yahtharu al-akhiratawayarjoo rahmata rabbihi qul hal yastawee allatheenayaAAlamoona waallatheena la yaAAlamoonainnama yatathakkaru oloo al-albabi
The Value of Knowledge39:9 As for one who is meditating in the night, prostrating and standing, fearing the Hereafter, and seeking the mercy of his Lord. Say, "Are those who know equal to those who do not know?" Only those who possess understanding will remember.
39:9 Is one better who is dutiful during the night, prostrating and standing, fearing the Hereafter, and seeking the mercy of his Lord? Say: "Are those who know equal to those who do not know?" Only those who possess intelligence will remember.
39:9 Or [dost thou deem thyself equal to] one who devoutly worships [God] throughout the night, prostrating himself or standing [in prayer], ever- mindful of the life to come, and hoping for his Sustainer's grace?"15 Say: Can they who know and they who do not know be deemed equal?" [But] only they who are endowed with insight keep this in mind!
Alternatively, the above verse could be rendered thus: "Is, perchance, he who worships hoping for his Sustainer's grace, [equal to one who denies the truth]?"
39:9 Is it not better to be one of those who meditate in the night, prostrating and staying up, being aware of the Hereafter, and seeking the mercy of their Lord? Say, "Are those who know equal to those who do not know?" Only those who possess intelligence will take heed.,
39:9 Is it not better to be one of those who are humble, adoring Him, even in the hours of the night, and sitting, standing, keeping in mind the life to come, and hoping for his Lord’s grace? Say, “Are those who know (that that the ‘self’ can evolve) equal to those who do not know?” But, only those who develop their insight will take this to heart.
39:10 Qul ya AAibadi allatheenaamanoo ittaqoo rabbakum lillatheena ahsanoofee hathihi alddunya hasanatun waarduAllahi wasiAAatun innama yuwaffa alssabiroonaajrahum bighayri hisabin
39:10 Say, "O servants who acknowledged, be aware of your Lord." For those who worked righteousness in this world will be a good reward, and God's earth is spacious. Those who steadfastly persevere will receive their recompense fully, without reckoning.
39:10 Say: "O My servants who believed, be aware of your Lord." For those who worked righteousness in this world will be a good reward, and the earth of God is spacious. Those who steadfastly persevere will receive their recompense fully, without reckoning.
39:10 Say: [Thus speaks God:]16 'O you servants of Mine who have attained to faith! Be conscious of your Sustainer! Ultimate good awaits those who persevere in doing good in this world. And [remember:] wide is God's earth,17 [and,] verily, they who are patient in adversity will be given their reward in full, beyond all reckoning!' "
This interpolation is justified by the fact that the possessive pronoun in the subsequent phrase "servants of Mine" obviously relates to God.
I.e., there is always a possibility of doing good and "migrating from evil unto God" - which is the permanent, spiritual connotation of the concept of hijrah implied here: see note 124 on 4:97.
39:10 Say, "O My servants who believed, you shall reverence your Lord." For those who worked righteousness in this world, a good reward. GOD's earth is spacious, and those who steadfastly persevere will receive their recompense generously, without limits.,
39:10 Say (thus speaks God) “O You servants of Mine who have attained belief! Be mindful of your Lord. Good is the reward for those who do good in this world, and spacious is God’s earth. The steadfast will be given their reward in full, beyond count.”
39:11 Qul innee omirtu an aAAbuda Allahamukhlisan lahu alddeena
Devoting the System to God Alone39:11 Say, "I have been commanded to serve God, devoting the system to Him.4
Decades and centuries after Muhammed, muslims deserted the Quran and gave up dedicating themselves to God alone. They started following man-made religions and sects concocted by the clerics and scholars, a partnership comprising God + prophet + his companions + the companions of his companions + sect imams + imams in a particular set + former scholars + later scholars and/or saints. See 29; 16:52; 39:2; 40:14; 98:5.
39:11 Say: "I have been commanded to serve God, devoting the system to Him."
39:11 Say [O Muhammad]: Behold, I am bidden to worship God, sincere in my faith in Him alone;
God ALONE39:11 Say, "I have been commanded to worship GOD, devoting the religion absolutely to Him alone.,
39:11 Say, “I am commanded to serve God sincerely for the establishment of His System.
39:12 Waomirtu li-an akoona awwala almuslimeena
39:12 I was commanded to be the frontrunner of those who peacefully surrender."
39:12 "And I was commanded to be the first of those who submit."
39:12 and I am bidden to be foremost among those who surrender themselves unto God."
39:12 "And I was commanded to be the utmost submitter.",
39:12 And I have been commanded to be the foremost among those who surrender to Him.”
39:13 Qul innee akhafu in AAasayturabbee AAathaba yawmin AAatheemin
39:13 Say, "I fear, if I disobeyed my Lord, the retribution of a great day."
39:13 Say: "I fear, if I disobeyed my Lord, the retribution of a great Day."
39:13 Say: Behold, I would dread, were I to rebel against my Sustainer, the suffering [which would befall me] on that awesome Day [of Judgment]."
39:13 Say, "I fear, if I disobeyed my Lord, the retribution of a great day.",
39:13 Say, “If I disobey my Lord, I fear the doom of a Tremendous Day.”
39:14 Quli Allaha aAAbudu mukhlisanlahu deenee
39:14 Say, "God is the One I serve, devoting my system to Him.
39:14 Say: "God is the One I serve, devoting my system to Him."
39:14 Say: God alone do I worship, sincere in my faith in Him alone -
39:14 Say, "GOD is the only One I worship, devoting my religion absolutely to Him alone.,
39:14 Say, “I serve God sincerely to establish His System.
39:15 FaoAAbudoo ma shi/tum mindoonihi qul inna alkhasireena allatheena khasirooanfusahum waahleehim yawma alqiyamati ala thalikahuwa alkhusranu almubeenu
39:15 Therefore, serve whatever you wish besides Him." Say, "The losers are those who lose themselves, and their families, on the day of resurrection. Indeed, such is the real loss."
39:15 "Therefore, serve whatever you wish besides Him." Say: "The losers are those who lose their souls, and their families, on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed, such is the real loss."
39:15 and [it is up to you, O sinners, to] worship whatever you please instead of Him!" Say: Behold, the [true] losers will be they who shall have lost their own selves and their kith and kin on Resurrection Day: for is not this, this, the [most] obvious loss?18
Implying that on Resurrection Day they will be irretrievably separated from all whom they had loved, and all who had been close to them in this world. The "loss of one's own self" signifies, I think, the destruction of one's true identity and uniqueness as a human being, which is described in the next clause as "the most obvious loss" that man may be made to suffer in the life to come.
39:15 "Therefore, worship whatever you wish beside Him." Say, "The real losers are those who lose their souls, and their families, on the Day of Resurrection." Most certainly, this is the real loss.,
39:15 You may worship whatever you wish besides Him.” Say, “The real losers are those who lose their own ‘self’ and their families on the Day of Resurrection. Ah, that is the obvious loss.”5
Mubeen = Open = Obvious = Clear = Without any doubt
39:16 Lahum min fawqihim thulalunmina alnnari wamin tahtihim thulalunthalika yukhawwifu Allahu bihi AAibadahu yaAAibadi faittaqooni
39:16 They will have coverings of fire from above them and below them. It is as such that God makes His servants fearful: "O My servants, you shall revere Me."
39:16 They will have coverings of fire from above them and below them. It is as such that God makes His servants fearful: "O My servants, you shall reverence Me."
39:16 Clouds of fire will they have above them, and [similar] clouds beneath them " In this way does God imbue His servants with fear.19 O you servants of Mine! Be, then, conscious of Me -
As in many other instances, the Qur'an alludes in this phrase to the allegorical nature as well as to the real purpose of all descriptions of the suffering which awaits the sinners in the hereafter; cf. 74:35 - "that [hell-fire] is indeed one of the great [forewarnings]: a warning to mortal man".
39:16 They will have masses of fire on top of them, and under them. GOD thus alerts His servants: O My servants, you shall reverence Me.,
39:16 They will have fire and ashes above them, and beneath them a dais of hot ashes. In this way does God alert His servants: O My servants! Be mindful of My laws.
39:17 Waallatheena ijtanaboo alttaghootaan yaAAbudooha waanaboo ila Allahilahumu albushra fabashshir AAibadi
39:17 For those who avoid serving evil, and turn to God in repentance, for them are glad tidings. So give the good news to My servants.
39:17 And for those who avoid serving evil, and turn to God in repentance, for them are glad tidings. So give the good news to My servants.
39:17 seeing that for those who shun the powers of evil lest they [be tempted to] worship them,20 and turn unto God instead, there is the glad tiding [of happiness in the life to come].* Give, then, this glad tiding to [those of] My servants
For my rendering of at-taghut as "powers of evil", see surah 2 note 250. In the present context, this term apparently circumscribes the seductive force of certain evil ambitions or desires - like striving after power for its own sake, acquisition of wealth by exploiting one's fellow-beings, social advancement by all manner of immoral means, and so forth - any of which may cause man to lose all spiritual orientation, and to be enslaved by his passions.
39:17 As for those who discard the worship of all idols, and devote themselves totally to GOD alone, they have deserved happiness. Give good news to My servants.,
39:17 For those who shun false ‘authorities’ (Taaghoot) and refrain from idol-worship in all forms, and turn to God alone, there is good news. So, announce the good news to My servants.6
39:18 Allatheena yastamiAAoona alqawlafayattabiAAoona ahsanahu ola-ika allatheenahadahumu Allahu waola-ika hum oloo al-albabi
Listen and Critically Evaluate39:18 The ones who listen to the word, and then follow the best of it. These are the ones whom God has guided, and these are the ones who possess intelligence.5
Knowing that those who abandoned the Quran would follow teachings called hadith, sunna, and ijma, God uses these words almost invariably with a negative connotation when they do not relate to the Quran. It is noteworthy, that the verse asking us to listen to different words does not use the word "hadith" but the word "qawl." God does not give even a single positive usage of hadith when it is used to denote human words. Isn't there a sign in this? See 33:38; 66:3 and 6:110.
39:18 The ones who listen to what is being said, and then follow the best of it. These are the ones whom God has guided, and these are the ones who possess intelligence.
39:18 who listen [closely] to all that is said, and follow the best of it:22 [for] it is they whom God has graced with His guidance, and it is they who are [truly] endowed with insight!
According to Razi, this describes people who examine every religious proposition (in the widest sense of this term) in the light of their own reason, accepting that which their mind finds to be valid or possible, and rejecting all that does not measure up to the test of reason. In Razi's words, the above verse expresses "a praise and commendation of following the evidence supplied by one's reason (hujjat al-aql), and of reaching one's conclusions in accordance with [the results of] critical examination (nazar) and logical inference (istidlal)." A somewhat similar view is advanced, albeit in simpler terms, by Tabari.
Follow the Word of God39:18 They are the ones who examine all words, then follow the best. These are the ones whom GOD has guided; these are the ones who possess intelligence.,
39:18 Those who listen to the Word, and follow the best of its application (in a given situation), such are the ones whom God has guided, and they are the ones endowed with insight.
39:19 Afaman haqqa AAalayhi kalimatu alAAathabiafaanta tunqithu man fee alnnari
39:19 As for those who have deserved the retribution; can you save those who are in the fire?
39:19 As for those who have deserved the retribution; can you save those who are in the Fire?
39:19 On the other hand,23 could one on whom [God's] sentence of suffering has been passed [be rescued by man]? Couldst thou, perchance, save one who is [already, as it were,] in the fire?24
This, to my mind, is the meaning of the prefix fa in fa-man - stressing, by implication, the contrast between the glad tiding given to those who have attained to faith and the suffering which awaits those "who shall have lost their own selves" through sinning (verses 15-16).
In view of the repeated Quranic statements that God always accepts a sinner's sincere repentance, provided it is proffered before the hour of death, His ineluctable "sentence of suffering" obviously relates to such as die without repentance, and hence find themselves, as it were, "already in the fire".
39:19 With regard to those who have deserved the retribution, can you save those who are already in Hell?,
39:19 But there is he who has inevitably deserved suffering (for his persistence in following false ‘authorities’). Can you save the one already committed to fire?
39:20 Lakini allatheena ittaqawrabbahum lahum ghurafun min fawqiha ghurafun mabniyyatuntajree min tahtiha al-anharu waAAda Allahila yukhlifu Allahu almeeAAada
39:20 But those who revere their Lord, they will have dwellings constructed upon dwellings, with rivers flowing beneath them. God's promise; God does not break the promise.
39:20 But those who reverence their Lord, they will have dwellings constructed upon dwellings, with rivers flowing beneath them. The promise of God, and God does not break the promise.
39:20 As against this25 they who of their Sustainer are conscious shall [in the life to come] have mansions raised upon mansions high, beneath which running waters flow: [this is] God's promise - [and] never does God fail to fulfill His promise.
Lit., "But" (lakin), indicating a return to the theme of verses 17-18.
The Righteous39:20 As for those who reverence their Lord, they will have mansions upon mansions constructed for them, with flowing streams. This is GOD's promise, and GOD never breaks His promise.,
39:20 But those who are mindful of their Lord, for them are lofty and honorable mansions built for them with rivers flowing beneath. This is God’s promise. Never does God fail His promise.
39:21 Alam tara anna Allaha anzala mina alssama-imaan fasalakahu yanabeeAAa fee al-ardithumma yukhriju bihi zarAAan mukhtalifan alwanuhu thummayaheeju fatarahu musfarran thumma yajAAaluhu hutamaninna fee thalika lathikra li-olee al-albabi
39:21 Do you not see that God sends down water from the sky, and truns it into streams through the land, then He produces with it plants of various colors, then they grow until they turn yellow, then He makes them dry and broken? In this is a reminder for those of understanding.
39:21 Do you not see that God sends down water from the sky, then lets it run as springs in the earth, then He produces with it plants of various colors, then they grow until they turn yellow, then He makes them dry and broken? In this is a reminder for those who possess intelligence.
39:21 ART THOU NOT aware that it is God who sends down water from the skies, and then causes it to travel through the earth in the shape of springs? And then He brings forth thereby herbage of various hues; and then it withers, and thou canst see it turn yellow; and in the end He causes it to crumble to dust.26 Verily, in [all] this there is indeed a reminder to those who are endowed with insight!
As in many other instances, the above Quranic reference to the endless transformations and the miraculous cycle of life and death in all nature serves to emphasize God's almightiness and, specifically, His power to resurrect the dead - thus alluding, indirectly, to the statement at the end of the preceding verse that "never does God fail to fulfill His promise".
39:21 Do you not see that GOD sends down from the sky water, then places it into underground wells, then produces with it plants of various colors, then they grow until they turn yellow, then He turns them into hay? This should be a reminder for those who possess intelligence.,
39:21 Have you not realized that it is God Who sends down water from the height, and then leads it through the earth to form wells and springs? And then He brings forth a variety of colorful vegetation. Then you see the crops ripen turning golden yellow, and in the end He makes them crumble away (with grain aside). Surely, therein is a Reminder to those who wish to develop their insight.
39:22 Afaman sharaha Allahu sadrahulil-islami fahuwa AAala noorin min rabbihi fawaylunlilqasiyati quloobuhum min thikri Allahi ola-ikafee dalalin mubeenin
39:22 If God opens one's chest to peacefully surrender, then he will be on a light from his Lord. So woe to those whose hearts are hardened against remembering God. They have gone far astray.
39:22 If God comforts the chest of a person to submission, then he will be on a light from his Lord. So woe to those whose hearts are hardened against remembering God. They have gone far astray.
39:22 Could, then, one whose bosom God has opened wide with willingness towards self-surrender unto Him, so that he is illumined by a light [that flows] from his Sustainer, [be likened to the blind and deaf of heart]? Woe, then, unto those whose hearts are hardened against all remembrance of God! They are most obviously lost in error!
39:22 If GOD renders one's heart content with Submission, he will be following a light from his Lord. Therefore, woe to those whose hearts are hardened against GOD's message; they have gone far astray.,
39:22 If God renders one’s chest open to Submission (Islam) he will be following a light from his Lord. But those whose hearts are hardened against God’s Reminder only harm themselves. They are most obviously lost in error.
39:23 Allahu nazzala ahsana alhadeethikitaban mutashabihan mathaniya taqshaAAirruminhu juloodu allatheena yakhshawna rabbahum thummataleenu julooduhum waquloobuhum ila thikri Allahithalika huda Allahi yahdee bihi man yashaowaman yudlili Allahu fama lahu min hadin
Quran: The Best Word/Narration39:23 God has sent down the best hadith, a book that is consistent, relating/contrasting/repeating. The skins of those who revere their Lord shiver from it, then their skins and their hearts soften up to the remembrance of God. Such is God's guidance; He guides with it whoever He wills. For whomever God misguides, then none can guide him.6
Mutashabih means "similar" or "multiple-meaning" (3:7). However, when it is used for the entire book, which also contains single-meaning words, mutashabih should be understood as ‘similar’ or ‘consistent.’ Some statements of the Quran have multiple meanings (mutashabih) and all the statements of the Quran are consistent (mutashabih). Like its references, the word mutashabih itself has multiple meanings.
39:23 God has sent down the best narrative, a Book that is similar, dual. The skins of those who are concerned towards their Lord shiver from it, then their skins and their hearts soften up to the remembrance of God. Such is the guidance of God; He guides with it whoever He wills. And for whoever God misguides, then none can guide him.
39:23 God bestows from on high27 the best of all teachings in the shape of a divine writ fully consistent within itself, repeating each statement [of the truth] in manifold forms28 [a divine writ] whereat shiver the skins of all who of their Sustainer stand in awe: [but] in the end their skins and their hearts do soften at the remembrance of [the grace of] God. Such is God's guidance: He guides therewith him that wills [to be guided]29 whereas he whom God lets go astray can never find any guide30
Lit., "has been bestowing from on high", i.e., step by step. The verbal form nazzala indicates both gradualness and continuity in the process of divine revelation and may, therefore, be appropriately rendered by the use of the present tense.
This is the most acceptable meaning, in this context, of the term mathani (pl. of mathna), as explained by Zamakhshari in his commentary on the above verse. Another possible meaning, preferred by Razi, is "pairing its statements", i.e., referring to the polarity stressed in all Quranic teachings (e.g., command and prohibition, duties and rights, reward and punishment, paradise and hell, light and darkness, the general and the specific, and so forth). As regards the inner consistency of the Qur'an, see also 4:82 and 25:32, as well as the corresponding notes.
Or: "He guides therewith whomever He wills", either of these two formulations being syntactically correct.
See note 4 on 14:4.
The Best Hadith39:23 GOD has revealed herein the best Hadith; a book that is consistent, and points out both ways (to Heaven and Hell). The skins of those who reverence their Lord cringe therefrom, then their skins and their hearts soften up for GOD's message. Such is GOD's guidance; He bestows it upon whoever wills (to be guided). As for those sent astray by GOD, nothing can guide them.,
39:23 God has now revealed the best Hadith, a Book fully consistent within itself. It marks out both ways (to success and failure) repeating its messages in diverse forms. Herewith shiver the skins of those who have some idea of the glory of their Lord, and then, their skins and their hearts soften at God's Reminder. This is the Guidance of God, and with it He guides one who seeks guidance. Whereas one who follows a path that God has declared to be wrong, goes astray and he cannot find a guide.7
39:24 Afaman yattaqee biwajhihi soo-a alAAathabiyawma alqiyamati waqeela lilththalimeenathooqoo ma kuntum taksiboona
39:24 As for he who saves his face from the terrible retribution on the day of resurrection; and it will be said to the transgressors: "Taste for what you have earned."
39:24 As he who saves his face from the terrible retribution on the Day of Resurrection. And it will be said to the transgressors: "Taste for what you have earned."
39:24 Could, then, one who shall have nothing but is [bare] face to protect him from the awful suffering [that will befall him] on Resurrection Day [be likened to the God-conscious]?31 [On that Day,] the evildoers will be told: Taste [now] what you have earned [in life]!"
Lit., "who will protect himself with his face": an idiomatic phrase implying that the person concerned has nothing whatever with which to protect himself.
39:24 What is better than saving one's face from the terrible retribution on the Day of Resurrection? The transgressors will be told, "Taste the consequences of what you earned.",
39:24 Oh, think of him who defends himself against the suffering on the Resurrection Day, only with his face! And it will be said to the violators of permanent Values, “Taste now what you had sown!”
39:25 Kaththaba allatheena minqablihim faatahumu alAAathabu min haythu layashAAuroona
39:25 Those before them have denied, and thus the retribution came to them from where they did not perceive.
39:25 Those before them have denied, and thus the retribution came to them from where they did not perceive.
39:25 Those who lived before them did [too] give the lie to the truth - whereupon suffering befell them without their having perceived whence it came:
39:25 Others before them have disbelieved and, consequently, the retribution afflicted them whence they never expected.,
39:25 Those who lived before their times, also denied the truth. So the punishment befell them from directions they could not have imagined.
39:26 Faathaqahumu Allahu alkhizyafee alhayati alddunya walaAAathabual-akhirati akbaru law kanoo yaAAlamoona
39:26 So God made them taste the humiliation in this worldly life, but the retribution in the Hereafter is far greater, if only they knew.
39:26 So God made them taste the humiliation in this worldly life, but the retribution in the Hereafter is far greater, if only they knew.
39:26 and thus God let them taste ignominy [even] in the life of this world.32 Yet [how] much greater will be the [sinners'] suffering in the life to come - if they [who now deny the truth] but knew it!
Cf. 16:26, which contains the additional sentence, "God visited with destruction all that they had ever built ", etc., which explains the present reference to their suffering and ignominy "in the life of this world".
39:26 GOD has condemned them to humiliation in this life, and the retribution in the Hereafter will be far worse, if they only knew.,
39:26 Thus God gave them a taste of humiliation in the world. Yet, much greater will be the suffering in the life to come. They could understand if they made good use of what they knew.
39:27 Walaqad darabna lilnnasifee hatha alqur-ani min kulli mathalin laAAallahumyatathakkaroona
The Quran Alone or Quran Plus Contradictory Partners?39:27 We have cited for the people in this Quran from every example, that they may take heed.
39:27 And We have put forth for the people in this Qur'an from every example, that they may take heed.
39:27 THUS, INDEED, have We propounded unto men all kinds of parables in this Qur'an, so that they might bethink themselves;33 [and We have revealed it]
As in many other passages of the Qur'an, the use of the term "parable" (mathal) immediately or shortly after a description of men's condition - whether good or bad - in the hereafter is meant to remind us that all such descriptions relate to something that is "beyond the reach of a created being's perception" (al-ghayb), and cannot, therefore, be conveyed to man otherwise than by means of allegories or parables expressed in terms of human experience and therefore accessible, in a general sense, to human imagination.
Quran: No Ambiguity39:27 We have cited for the people every kind of example in this Quran, that they may take heed.,
39:27 We have explained this Qur’an to mankind with all kinds of examples so that they might reflect and understand.
39:28 Qur-anan AAarabiyyan ghayra theeAAiwajin laAAallahum yattaqoona
39:28 A compilation in Arabic, without any distortion, that they may be righteous.7
39:28 A revelation in Arabic, without any crookedness, that they may be righteous.
39:28 as a discourse in the Arabic tongue, free of all deviousness, so that they might become conscious of God.34
Lit., "without any deviousness (iwaj)", i.e., which could obscure its meaning: see note 1 on 18:1, where this term occurs in a slightly different phrasing. As regards the stress on the formulation of this divine writ "in the Arabic tongue", see 12:2, 13:37, 14:4 and 41:44, as well as the corresponding notes.
39:28 An Arabic Quran, without any ambiguity, that they may be righteous.,
39:28 This Qur’an in Arabic is a Monograph in plain language free of all deviousness so that they might learn and live by the Values ordained in it. [7:158, 12:3, 13:37, 14:4, 25:1, 39:28, 41:3, 42:7]
39:29 Daraba Allahu mathalan rajulanfeehi shurakao mutashakisoona warajulan salamanlirajulin hal yastawiyani mathalan alhamdu lillahibal aktharuhum la yaAAlamoona
39:29 God cites the example of a man who has partners that dispute with each other, and a man who has given to dealing with only one man. Are they the same? Praise be to God; most of them do not know.8
Can a person who peacefully surrenders only to the Truth be the same as the one who surrenders to many contradictory authorities such as saints, imams, mujtahids, scholars, sheiks, hadith books, sectarian jurisprudence, fatwas?
39:29 God puts forth the example of a man who has partners that dispute with each other, and a man who has given to dealing with only one man. Are they the same? Praise be to God; most of them do not know.
39:29 [To this end,] God sets forth a parable: A man who has for his masters several partners,35 [all of them] at variance with one another, and a man depending wholly on one person: can these two be deemed equal as regards their condition?36 [Nay,] all praise is due to God [alone]: but most of them do not understand this.
Lit., "with regard to whom there are [several] partners (shuraka')", i.e., as masters: a metaphor for belief in a plurality of divine powers.
The term mathal, which is usually rendered by me as "parable" (e.g., at the beginning of this verse as well as in verse 27), primarily denotes a "likeness", i.e., of one thing to another; but sometimes it is used tropically as a synonym for sifah (the "quality", "intrinsic attribute" or "nature" of a thing) or halah (its "state" or "condition"). In the present instance, the last mentioned of these meanings is most appropriate, inasmuch as it alludes to man's condition arising from either of two contrasting attitudes: a belief in God's transcendental oneness and uniqueness, on the one hand, and a readiness to ascribe divine powers and qualities to a variety of created beings or supposed "incarnations" of God, on the other.
39:29 GOD cites the example of a man who deals with disputing partners (Hadith), compared to a man who deals with only one consistent source (Quran). Are they the same? Praise be to GOD; most of them do not know.,
39:29 God gives you another example: There is a man who deals with several disputing supervisors, compared to a man who deals with only one consistent supervisor. Are these two equal as regards their condition? All praise is due to God. But most of them do not know.8
The majority of people fail to grasp a simple rule: Belief in Monotheism confers unity among mankind as one single community since their Creator is One. 12:39
39:30 Innaka mayyitun wa-innahum mayyitoona
39:30 You will die, and they will die.
39:30 You will die, and they will die.
39:30 Yet, verily, thou art bound to die, [O Muhammad,] and, verily, they, too, are bound to die:
Hadith: A Gross Blasphemy39:30 You (Muhammad) will surely die, just like they will die.,
39:30 (O Prophet) you will die, and they will die.9
What counts is how people live their lives
39:31 Thumma innakum yawma alqiyamatiAAinda rabbikum takhtasimoona
39:31 Then, on the day of resurrection, you will quarrel at your Lord.
39:31 Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will quarrel at your Lord.
39:31 and then, behold, on the Day of Resurrection you all shall place your dispute before your Sustainer.
39:31 On the Day of Resurrection, before your Lord, you people will feud with one another.,
39:31 On the Resurrection Day all of you shall present your disputes before your Lord for settlement.
39:32 Faman athlamu mimman kathabaAAala Allahi wakaththaba bialssidqiith jaahu alaysa fee jahannama mathwan lilkafireena
The Fabricators of Religious Teachings39:32 Who then is more wicked than one who lies about God, and denies the truth when it comes to him? Is there not in hell an abode for the ingrates?
39:32 Who is more wicked than he who lies about God, and denies the truth when it comes to him? Is there not in Hell an abode for the rejecters?
39:32 And who could be more wicked than he who invents lies about God?37 and gives the lie to the truth as soon as it has been placed before him? Is not hell the [proper] abode for all who deny the truth?38
In this instance, the "inventing of lies about God" alludes to the attribution of a share in His divinity to anyone or anything beside Him, whether it be a belief in a plurality of deities, or in an imaginary "incarnation" of God in human form, or in saints allegedly endowed with semi-divine powers.
Lit., "Is not in hell an abode, etc.: a rhetorical question indicating, firstly, that otherworldly suffering is the unavoidable destiny -symbolically, "an abode" - of all such sinners; and, secondly, that in the concept and picture of "hell" we are given an allegory of that self-caused suffering.
39:32 Who is more evil than one who attributes lies to GOD, while disbelieving in the truth that has come to him? Is Hell not a just requital for the disbelievers?,
39:32 (Here is a forewarning.) Who does a greater wrong than the one who tells a lie against God and denies the truth when it reaches him? Is not Hell the proper home of those who oppose the truth and choose to live in darkness?10
Kufr = Denying or opposing the truth, choosing to live in the darkness of ignorance, living without Divine Guidance, being ungrateful, concealing the truth
39:33 Waallathee jaa bialssidqiwasaddaqa bihi ola-ika humu almuttaqoona
39:33 Those who came with the truth, and acknowledged it, these are the righteous.
39:33 And those who came with the truth, and believed in it, these are the righteous.
39:33 But he who brings the truth, and he who wholeheartedly accepts it as true - it is they, they, who are [truly] conscious of Him!
Quran: Absolute Truth39:33 As for those who promote the truth, and believe therein, they are the righteous.,
39:33 But the one who brings the truth and the one who accepts it as true – it is those who are righteous.11
Note that the statements in this verse and the preceding one allude to the Messenger and the recipients of the message
39:34 Lahum ma yashaoona AAindarabbihim thalika jazao almuhsineena
39:34 They shall have what they wish at their Lord. Such is the reward for the good doers.
39:34 They shall have what they wish at their Lord. Such is the rewardfor the good doers.
39:34 All that they have ever yearned for awaits them with their Sustainer: such will be the reward of the doers of good.
39:34 They will get everything they wish, at their Lord. Such is the reward for the righteous.,
39:34 With their Lord, they have all that they could ever desire. Such is the reward of the doers of good to others.
39:35 Liyukaffira Allahu AAanhum aswaa allatheeAAamiloo wayajziyahum ajrahum bi-ahsani allathee kanooyaAAmaloona
39:35 So that God may cancel for them the worst that they did, and He may recompense them their reward for the best of what they used to do.
39:35 So that God may cancel for them the worst that they did, and He may recompense them their reward for the best of what they used to do.
39:35 And to this end, God will efface from their record the worst that they ever did, and give them their reward in accordance with the best that they were doing [in life].
39:35 GOD remits their sinful works, and rewards them generously for their good works.,
39:35 God will blot out the imprints of their faults and will give them a reward par excellence, more than befitting for the best of their deeds.
39:36 Alaysa Allahu bikafin AAabdahuwayukhawwifoonaka biallatheena min doonihi waman yudliliAllahu fama lahu min hadin
Isn't God Enough for His Servant?39:36 Is God not sufficient for His servant? They frighten you with others beside Him. Whomever God sends astray, then for him there will be no guide.
39:36 Is God not enough for His servant? And they frighten you with others besides Him. And whoever God sends astray, then for him there will be no guide.
39:36 IS NOT God enough for His servant? And yet, they would frighten thee with those [imaginary divine powers which they worship] beside Him!39 But he whom God lets go astray can never find any guide,
Or: "instead of Him". This relates not merely to false deities, but also to saints alive or dead, and even to certain abstract concepts which the popular mind endows with charismatic qualities - like wealth, power, social status, national or racial pre-eminence, the idea of man's "self- sufficiency", etc. - and, finally, to all false values which are allowed to dominate man's thoughts and desires. The godless always stress the supposed necessity of paying attention to all these imaginary forces and values, and frighten themselves and their fellow-men by the thought that a neglect to do so might have evil consequences in their practical life.
39:36 Is GOD not sufficient for His servant? They frighten you with the idols they set up beside Him. Whomever GOD sends astray, nothing can guide him.,
39:36 Is not God Sufficient for His servant? And yet, they try to intimidate you with others besides Him. He whom violation of God’s law of guidance sends astray, for him there is no guide.12
He who follows what God has declared to be wrong, goes astray. 39:23
39:37 Waman yahdi Allahu fama lahumin mudillin alaysa Allahu biAAazeezin theeintiqamin
39:37 Whomever God guides, then there will be none that can mislead him. Is God not Noble, with Vengeance?
39:37 And whoever God guides, then there will be none that can mislead him. Is God not Noble, with Vengeance?
39:37 whereas he whom God guides aright can never be led astray. Is not God almighty, an avenger of evil?
39:37 And whomever GOD guides, nothing can send him astray. Is GOD not Almighty, Avenger?,
39:37 And he whom God guides, for him there can be none to mislead. Is not God Exalted in power, Lord of requital?
39:38 Wala-in saaltahum man khalaqa alssamawatiwaal-arda layaqoolunna Allahu qul afaraaytumma tadAAoona min dooni Allahi in aradaniyaAllahu bidurrin hal hunna kashifatu durrihiaw aradanee birahmatin hal hunna mumsikaturahmatihi qul hasbiya Allahu AAalayhiyatawakkalu almutawakkiloona
39:38 If you ask them: "Who created the heavens and the earth?" they will say, "God." Say, "Do you see what you call on besides God, If God wanted any harm for me, can they alleviate His harm? Or if He wanted a mercy for me, can they hold back his mercy?" Say, "God is sufficient for me; in Him those who trust shall put their trust."
39:38 And if you ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth?" They will say: "God." Say: "Do you see what you call on besides God, If God wanted any harm for me, can they alleviate His harm? Or if He wanted a mercy for me, can they hold back his mercy?" Say: "God is sufficient for me; in Him those who trust shall place their trust."
39:38 And thus it is [with most people]: if40 thou ask them, Who is it that has created the heavens and the earth?" - they will surely answer, God."41 Say: Have you, then, ever considered what it is that you invoke instead of God? If God wills that harm should befall me, could those [imaginary powers] remove the harm inflicted by Him? Or, if He wills that grace should alight on me, could they withhold His grace [from me]?" Say: God is enough for me! In Him [alone] place their trust all who have trust [in His existence]."
For this rendering of la'in, see surah 11 note 11.
See note 23 on 31:25.
They Believe in God Yet, They Are Going to Hell39:38 If you ask them, "Who created the heavens and the earth?" they will say, "GOD." Say, "Why then do you set up idols beside GOD? If GOD willed any adversity for me, can they relieve such an adversity? And if He willed a blessing for me, can they prevent such a blessing?" Say, "GOD is sufficient for me." In Him the trusters shall trust.,
39:38 If you ask them, "Who is it that has created the heavens and the earth?” They will definitely answer, “God”. Say, "Have you, then, ever reflected on whom you call upon besides God? If God wills some affliction for me, can they relieve His affliction? Or if He wills some grace for me, can they withhold His grace?" Say, "God is Sufficient for me! In Him alone place their trust all those who trust (in His Almightiness).” [29:61]
39:39 Qul ya qawmi iAAmaloo AAalamakanatikum innee AAamilun fasawfa taAAlamoona
39:39 Say, "O my people, work according to your way, and I will work.
39:39 Say: "O my people, work according to your way, and I will work. You will come to know."
39:39 Say: O my [truth-denying] people! Do yet all that may be within your power, [whereas] I, behold, shall labour [in God's way]: in time you will come to know
39:39 Say, "O my people, do your best and I will do my best; you will surely find out.,
39:39 Say, "O My people! Do all that is in your control. As for me, I will continue my work. But soon you will find out -
39:40 Man ya/teehi AAathabun yukhzeehi wayahilluAAalayhi AAathabun muqeemun
39:40 You will come to know to whom the humiliating retribution will come, and on whom descends the eternal retribution."
39:40 "To whom the humiliating retribution will come, and on whom an eternal retribution will be cast."
39:40 who it is that shall be visited [in this world] by suffering which will cover him with ignominy, and upon whom long-lasting suffering shall alight [in the life to come]!"42
Lit., "suffering (adhab) that will disgrace him": implying that surrender to false values inevitably leads to man's spiritual decay and, if persisted in by many, to social catastrophes and widespread suffering.
39:40 "(You will find out) who has incurred shameful punishment, and has deserved an eternal retribution.",
39:40 As to who faces the torment of humiliation and deserves the lasting doom.” [6:136, 11: 93-121, 20:135, 39:39]
39:41 Inna anzalna AAalayka alkitabalilnnasi bialhaqqi famani ihtadafalinafsihi waman dalla fa-innama yadilluAAalayha wama anta AAalayhim biwakeelin
39:41 We have sent down to you the book for the people with truth. Then, whoever is guided is guided for himself, and whoever goes astray goes astray to his own loss. You are not a keeper over them.
39:41 We have sent down to you the Book for the people with the truth. Then, whoever is guided is guided for himself, and whoever goes astray goes astray to his own loss. And you are not a keeper over them.
39:41 BEHOLD, from on high have We bestowed upon thee this divine writ, setting forth the truth for [the benefit of all] mankind. And whoever chooses to be guided [thereby], does so for his own good, and whoever chooses to go astray, goes but astray to his own hurt; and thou hast not the power to determine their fate.43
Or: "thou art not responsible for their conduct" (see note 4 on 17:2).
39:41 We have revealed the scripture through you for the people, truthfully. Then, whoever is guided is guided for his own good, and whoever goes astray goes astray to his own detriment. You are not their advocate.,
39:41 (O Prophet) We have revealed to you this Book expounding the truth for all mankind. Then whoever chooses guidance benefits his own ‘self’. And whoever chooses to be lost, he strays only to his own detriment. You are not a custodian over them, nor can you determine their fate.13
Wakeel = Advocate, guardian, warder, warden, defender, custodian, responsible for the outcome
39:42 Allahu yatawaffa al-anfusa heenamawtiha waallatee lam tamut fee manamihafayumsiku allatee qada AAalayha almawta wayursilual-okhra ila ajalin musamman inna fee thalikalaayatin liqawmin yatafakkaroona
Person (nafs) = Consciousness39:42 God takes the person when it dies, and during their sleep. He then keeps those that have been overtaken by death, and He sends the others back until a predetermined time. In that are signs for a people who will think.
39:42 God seizes the souls at the time of their death; and for those that have not died, during their sleep. He then keeps those that have been overtaken by death, and He sends the others back until a predetermined time. In that are signs for a people who will think.
39:42 It is God [alone that has this power - He] who causes all human beings to die at the time of their [bodily] death, and [causes to be as dead], during their sleep, those that have not yet died:44 thus, He withholds [from life] those upon whom He has decreed death, and lets the others go free for a term set [by Him]. In [all] this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who think!
According to Razi, this passage connects allegorically with the preceding - the light of guidance being likened to life, and man's going astray, to death or, if it is not permanent, to death-like sleep followed by awakening. Beyond this, however, we have here a reminder - in tune with the subsequent passages - of God's almightiness, and especially of His exclusive power to create and to withdraw life. As to the operative verb yatawaffa, it primarily denotes "He takes [something] away in full"; and because death is characterized by a disappearance of all vital impulses (the "soul") from the once-living body - their being "taken away in full", as it were - this form of the verb has been used tropically, since time immemorial, in the sense of "causing to die", and (in its intransitive form) "dying" or (as a noun) "death": a usage invariably adhered to in the Qur'an. The traditional likening of sleep to death is due to the fact that in both cases the body appears to be devoid of consciousness, partially and temporarily in the former case, and completely and permanently in the latter. (The popular translation of anfus - p1. of nafs - as "souls" is certainly inappropriate in the above context, since, according to the fundamental teaching of the Qur'an, man's soul does not "die" at the time of his bodily death but, on the contrary, lives on indefinitely. Hence, the term anfus must be rendered here as "human beings".)
39:42 GOD puts the souls to death when the end of their life comes, and also at the time of sleep. Thus, He takes some back during their sleep, while others are allowed to continue living until the end of their predetermined interim. This should provide lessons for people who reflect.,
39:42 (Only the living of the mind and heart can make choices in this world.) It is God Who takes their consciousness upon death, and of the living during their sleep. He withholds it for those upon whom He has passed the decree of death, and restores the others until an appointed time (according to His laws). Herein are signs for people who think. [39:5]
39:43 Ami ittakhathoo min dooni AllahishufaAAaa qul awa law kanoo la yamlikoonashay-an wala yaAAqiloona
Polytheists are Disturbed when God is Mentioned Alone39:43 Or have they taken intercessors besides God? Say, "What if they do not possess any power, nor understanding?"
39:43 Or have they taken intercessors besides God? Say: "What if they possessed nothing, nor comprehended?"
39:43 And yet,45 they choose [to worship], side by side with God, [imaginary] intercessors!"46 Say: Why - even though they have no power over anything, and no understanding?"47
This is the meaning of the particle am in this context (Zamakhshari, implying that despite all the evidence of God's almightiness, many people tend to disregard it.
I.e., intercessors who could act as such independently of God's permission - an assumption which the Qur'an categorically denies (see surah 10 note 7).
A reference to the adoration of dead saints or their tombs or relics, as well as of inanimate representations of saints, of imaginary deities, etc.
The Myth of Intercession39:43 Have they invented intercessors to mediate between them and GOD? Say, "What if they do not possess any power, nor understanding?",
39:43 What! Do they contrive mediators side by side with God? Say, “Why! Even though they have power over nothing and have no intelligence?"
39:44 Qul lillahi alshshafaAAatujameeAAan lahu mulku alssamawati waal-ardithumma ilayhi turjaAAoona
39:44 Say, "To God belong all intercessions." To Him belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, then to Him you will be returned.9
39:44 Say: "To God belongs all intercession." To Him belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, then to Him you will be returned.
39:44 Say: God's alone is [the power to bestow the right of] intercession:48 His [alone] is the dominion over the heavens and the earth; and, in the end, Unto Him you will all be brought back."
Regarding the problem of intercession as such, see note 7 on 10:3.
39:44 Say, "All intercession belongs to GOD." To Him belongs all sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, then to Him you will be returned.,
39:45 Wa-itha thukira Allahuwahdahu ishmaazzat quloobu allatheena layu/minoona bial-akhirati wa-itha thukiraallatheena min doonihi itha hum yastabshiroona
39:45 When God Alone is mentioned, the hearts of those who do not acknowledge the Hereafter are filled with aversion; and when others are mentioned beside Him, they rejoice!10
The majority of the so-called Muslims, despite the testimony in 3:18, insist on adding Muhammed's name. This criterion exposes the fact that those who are not happy with uttering God's name alone, those who enjoy adding the names of Muhammed, Jesus, or any other creature, do not really acknowledge the hereafter (3:18; 17:46).
39:45 And when God alone is mentioned, the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter are filled with aversion; and when others are mentioned besides Him, they rejoice!
39:45 And yet, whenever God alone is mentioned, the hearts of those who will not believe in the life to come contract with bitter aversion - whereas, when those [imaginary powers] are mentioned side by side with Him, lo, they rejoice!49
Since cognition of God must have a sense of moral responsibility as its correlate, the godless shrink from it, and joyfully turn to the "worship" - real or metaphoric - of imaginary powers which make no such moral demand.
The Greatest Criterion39:45 When GOD ALONE is mentioned, the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter shrink with aversion. But when others are mentioned beside Him, they become satisfied.2 ,
Despite the clear commandment in 3:18 that the First Pillar of Islam is proclaiming: ``Ash-hadu An La Elaha EllaAllah (there is no other god beside God),'' the majority of ``Muslims'' insistupon adding the name of Muhammad. This Greatest Criterion alerts us thatrejoicing in adding the name of Muhammad, or any other name, exposes disbeliefin the Hereafter. See also Footnote17:46.
39:45 And yet, when God alone is mentioned, the hearts of those who believe not in the life to come, shrink with aversion. But, when others (such as their ‘holy men’) are mentioned besides Him, they rejoice.15
Belief in the Hereafter essentially involves belief in the unwavering Law of Recompense where all actions have their repercussions
39:46 Quli allahumma fatira alssamawatiwaal-ardi AAalima alghaybi waalshshahadatianta tahkumu bayna AAibadika fee ma kanoofeehi yakhtalifoona
39:46 Say, "Our god, Initiator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of the unseen and the seen, You will judge between Your servants regarding what they disputed in."
39:46 Say: "Our god, Initiator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of the unseen and the seen, You will judge between Your servants regarding what they disputed in."
39:46 Say: O God! Originator of the heavens and the earth! Knower of all that is beyond the reach of a created being's perception, as well as of all that can be witnessed by a creature's senses or mind!50 It is Thou who wilt judge between Thy servants [on Resurrection Day] with regard to all on which they were wont to differ!"
See surah 6 note 65.
39:46 Proclaim: "Our god, Initiator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of all secrets and declarations, You are the only One who judges among Your servants regarding their disputes.",
39:46 Say, "O God! Originator of the heavens and earth, Knower of the Invisible and the Visible! It is You Who will judge between Your servants wherein they differ."
39:47 Walaw anna lillatheena thalamooma fee al-ardi jameeAAan wamithlahu maAAahu laiftadawbihi min soo-i alAAathabi yawma alqiyamati wabadalahum mina Allahi ma lam yakoonoo yahtasiboona
39:47 If those who transgressed owned everything on earth, and its equivalent again with it, they would ransom it to avoid the terrible retribution on the day of resurrection. They will be shown by God what they did not expect.
39:47 And if those who transgressed owned everything on the earth, and its equivalent again with it, they would ransom it to avoid the terrible retribution on the Day of Resurrection. They will be shown by God what they did not expect.
39:47 But if those who are bent on evildoing possessed all that is on earth, and twice as much,51 they would surely offer it as ransom from the awful suffering [that will befall them] on the Day of Resurrection:52 for, something with which they had not reckoned before will [by then] have been made obvious to them by God;53
Lit., "and the like of it with it".
Cf. 3:91 and the corresponding note 71.
Lit., "will have become obvious to them (bada lahum) from God" - i.e., the fact that man's attitudes and actions in this world determine his state and further development in the hereafter: in other words, that happiness or suffering in the life to come (allegorically described as "paradise" or 'hell", and "reward" or "chastisement") are but natural consequences of the use which man makes in this life of his capabilities, endowments and opportunities.
39:47 If those who transgressed owned everything on earth, even twice as much, they would readily give it up to avoid the terrible retribution on the Day of Resurrection. They will be shown by GOD what they never expected.,
39:47 If the violators of human rights owned everything on the earth, and twice as much, they would readily offer it as ransom for the awful retribution of the Resurrection Day. But there will appear to them from God what they never expected.16
They will realize that Paradise and Hellfire are but natural consequences of their own deeds
39:48 Wabada lahum sayyi-atu makasaboo wahaqa bihim ma kanoo bihiyastahzi-oona
39:48 The sinful works they had earned will be shown to them, and they will be surrounded by what they used to mock!
39:48 And the sinful works they had earned will be shown to them, and they will be surrounded by that which they used to mock.
39:48 and obvious to them will have become the evil that they had wrought [in life]: and thus shall they be overwhelmed by the very truth which they were wont to deride.54
Lit., "that which they were wont to deride will enfold them" or "will have enfolded them": i.e., the reality of life after death and of the spiritual truths preached by God's prophets will overwhelm them.
39:48 The sinful works they had earned will be shown to them, and the very things they used to mock will come back to haunt them.,
39:48 The very deeds they committed to disrupt the lives of others, will confront them. And they will be surrounded by what they used to ridicule. [79:36]
39:49 Fa-itha massa al-insana durrundaAAana thumma itha khawwalnahuniAAmatan minna qala innama ooteetuhu AAalaAAilmin bal hiya fitnatun walakinna aktharahum layaAAlamoona
39:49 So when the human is touched by adversity, he implores Us, then when We bestow a blessing upon him, he says: "I attained this because of knowledge I had!" Indeed, it is a test, but most of them do not know.
39:49 So when man is touched by adversity, he implores Us, then when We bestow a blessing upon him, he says: "I attained this because of knowledge I had!" Indeed, it is a test, but most of them do not know.
39:49 NOW [thus it is:] when affliction befalls man, he cries out unto Us for help; but when We bestow upon him a boon by Our grace, he says [to himself], I have been given [all] this by virtue of [my own] wisdom!"55 Nay, this [bestowal of grace] is a trial: but most of them understand it not!
Lit., "knowledge" - i.e., "my prosperity is due to my own ability and shrewdness": see the first sentence of 28:78 and the corresponding note. But whereas there this "saying" or thought is attributed to the legendary Qarun, in the present instance - which is by far the earlier in the chronology of Quranic revelation - it is said to be characteristic of man as such (see, e.g., 7:189, where this tendency is referred to in connection with the experience of parenthood).
Human Fickleness39:49 If the human is touched by adversity, he implores us, but as soon as we bestow a blessing upon him, he says, "I attained this because of my cleverness!" Indeed, this is only a test, but most of them do not know.,
39:49 When adversity touches the human, he calls upon Us. But as soon as We grant him a blessing from Us, he says, "I have been given this because of a certain knowledge." Nay, this affords them a test (of character), but most of them do not know.
39:50 Qad qalaha allatheenamin qablihim fama aghna AAanhum ma kanooyaksiboona
39:50 Those before them have said the same thing, yet what they earned did not help them in the least.
39:50 Those before them have said the same thing, yet what they earned did not help them in the least.
39:50 The same did say [to themselves many of] those who lived before their time; but of no avail to them was all that they had ever achieved:
39:50 Those before them have uttered the same thing, and their earnings did not help them in the least.,
39:50 Those before them said the same thing, but what they earned did not avail them in the least. [28:78]
39:51 Faasabahum sayyi-atu makasaboo waallatheena thalamoo min haola-isayuseebuhum sayyi-atu ma kasaboo wamahum bimuAAjizeena
39:51 So, they suffered the evil of what they had earned. Those who transgressed from among these will suffer the evil of what they earned; they cannot escape.
39:51 So, they suffered the evil of what they had earned. And those who transgressed from among these here will suffer the evil of what they earned; they cannot escape.
39:51 for all the evil deeds that they had wrought fell [back] upon them. And [the same will happen to] people of the present time who are bent on wrongdoing:56 all the evil deeds that they have ever wrought will fall [back] upon them, and never will they be able to elude [God]!
Lit., "those who are bent on wrongdoing (alladhina zalamu) from among these here".
39:51 They suffered the consequences of their evil works. Similarly, the transgressors among the present generation will suffer the consequences of their evil works; they cannot escape.,
39:51 They destabilized the lives of others, and their very deeds fell back upon themselves. And the same will happen to the oppressors always - their deeds falling back upon themselves, and they will never be able to evade the Law of Requital.17
Sayyeh = Causing imbalance in the lives of others. Unfortunately, terms such as ‘Sayyeh’, ‘Zanb’, ‘Ithm’ all are frequently translated as the vague term ‘Sin’. Zanb = Tail = Trailing behind like the tail of an animal trails behind its body =Trailing behind in humanity. Ithm = Any action that depletes individual or communal energy. Likewise, Zulm is almost always rendered as wrongdoing or transgression, while it denotes displacing something from its rightful place. So, Zulm will carry a specific meaning according to the context. The terms such as Saalehaat, Birr, Khair, Hasanah, Taqwa are made to lose their powerful specific impact through vague term ‘Righteousness’. Saalehaat = Actions that increase the capabilities of a person or the society = Setting things right = Helping others. Birr = Works that lead to exponential growth of the ‘self’ = Creating room for advancement of all. Khair = A deed or act that endows a person and others with true inner happiness. Taqwa = Journeying through life in security = Being observant
39:52 Awa lam yaAAlamoo anna Allaha yabsutualrrizqa liman yashao wayaqdiru inna fee thalikalaayatin liqawmin yu/minoona
39:52 Do they not realize that God spreads the provision for whomever He chooses, and withholds? In that are signs for a people who acknowledge.
39:52 Do they not realize that God spreads the provision for whoever He chooses, and withholds? In that are signs for a people who believe.
39:52 Are they, then, not aware that it is God who grants abundant sustenance, or gives it in scant measure, unto whomever He wills? In this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who will believe!
39:52 Do they not realize that GOD is the One who increases the provision for whomever He chooses, and withholds? These are lessons for people who believe.,
39:52 Do they not know that God increases and decreases provision according to His laws? Herein are lessons for people who believe in the Divine laws.18
Ayaat = Lessons per context = Messages = Verses = Signs
39:53 Qul ya AAibadiya allatheenaasrafoo AAala anfusihim la taqnatoo min rahmatiAllahi inna Allaha yaghfiru alththunoobajameeAAan innahu huwa alghafooru alrraheemu
Never Despair; Always Be an Optimist39:53 Say, "O My servants who transgressed against themselves, do not despair of God's mercy. For God forgives all sins. He is the Forgiver, the Compassionate."11
Associating partners with God (shirk), is a different category than sin (zanb); it is an unforgivable crime. See 4:48; Also, see 12:87; 15:56; 30:36; 41:49, and 39:10. The pronoun in "my servant" refers to God, since according to numerous verses only God can be the master. This sudden shift in pronouns is called iltifat (conversion, turning one's face to someone) in Arabic literature, which is defined as "the change of speech from one mode to another, for the sake of freshness and variety for the listener, to renew his interest, and to keep his mind from boredom and frustration, through having the one mode continuously at his ear." On this and other literary aspects of the Quran, I recommend Neal Robinson's book: Discovering The Qur'ān: A Contemporary Approach To A Veiled Text (1996, SCM Press Ltd.). For other examples of iltifat, see 35:9; 69:41; 16:1; 39:15; 89:25; 20:113; 67:18; 5:44; 20:124; 75:1; 2:38; 11:37; 50:45; 1:2; 19:88; 52:17; 16:72; 45:35; 30:38; and 70:39; 17:1; 17:95; 39:53; 10:22.
39:53 Say: "O My servants who transgressed against themselves, do not despair of the mercy of God. For God forgives all sins. He is the Forgiver, the Merciful."
39:53 SAY: [Thus speaks God:]57 'O you servants of Mine who have transgressed against your own selves! Despair not of God's mercy: behold, God forgives all sins - for, verily, He alone is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace!' "58
See note 16 on the opening words of verse 10 of this surah.
Sc., "whenever the sinner repents and turns to Him": cf., for instance, 6:54 "Your Sustainer has willed upon Himself the law of grace and mercy - so that if any of you does a bad deed out of ignorance, and thereafter repents and lives righteously, He shall be [found] much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace"; or 4:110 - "he who does evil or [otherwise] sins against himself, and thereafter prays God to forgive him, shall find God much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace".
God's Infinite Mercy39:53 Proclaim: "O My servants who exceeded the limits, never despair of GOD's mercy. For GOD forgives all sins. He is the Forgiver, Most Merciful.",
39:53 Say (thus speaks God) "O You servants of Mine who have so far wasted your own ‘self’! Do not despair of the mercy of God. God absolves your imperfections and protects you from the detriment of all that caused you to trail behind in humanity – For, He is the Forgiving, the Merciful."
39:54 Waaneeboo ila rabbikum waaslimoo lahumin qabli an ya/tiyakumu alAAathabu thumma la tunsaroona
39:54 Repent to your Lord, and peacefully surrender to Him, before the retribution comes to you. Then you cannot be helped.
39:54 And repent to your Lord, and submit to Him, before the retribution comes to you. Then you cannot be helped.
39:54 Hence, turn towards your Sustainer [alone] and surrender yourselves unto Him ere the suffering [of death and resurrection] comes upon you, for then you will not be succoured.59
Cf. 4:18 - "repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour, and then say, 'Behold, I now repent'; nor from those who die as deniers of the truth".
39:54 You shall obey your Lord, and submit to Him totally, before the retribution overtakes you; then you cannot be helped.,
39:54 So, turn to your Lord and surrender to Him before the period of respite is over and the doom befalls you. Then you will not be helped.
39:55 WaittabiAAoo ahsana maonzila ilaykum min rabbikum min qabli an ya/tiyakumu alAAathabubaghtatan waantum la tashAAuroona
39:55 Follow the best of what has been sent down to you from your Lord, before the retribution comes to you suddenly when you least expect it.12
39:55 And follow the best of what has been sent down to you from your Lord, before the retribution comes to you suddenly when you least expect it.
39:55 And ere that suffering comes upon you of a sudden, without your being aware [of its approach], follow the most goodly [teaching] that has been revealed unto you by your Sustainer,
39:55 And follow the best path that is pointed out for you by your Lord, before the retribution overtakes you suddenly when you least expect it.,
39:55 And follow the best teaching (the Qur’an) that has been revealed to you by your Lord before the Doom comes upon you suddenly without your perceiving of the why, how and whence of it. [39:10]
39:56 An taqoola nafsun ya hasrataAAala ma farrattu fee janbi Allahiwa-in kuntu lamina alssakhireena
39:56 Lest a person will say, "How sorry I am for disregarding God's path; and I was certainly one of those who mocked."
39:56 Lest a soul will say: "How sorry I am for disregarding the path of God; and I was certainly one of those who mocked."
39:56 lest any human being60 should say [on Judgment Day], Alas for me for having been remiss in what is due to God, and for having been indeed one of those who scoffed [at the truth]!"
Whenever there is no clear indication that the term nafs has another meaning, it signifies a "human being"; hence, the personal pronouns relating to this term (which is feminine in Arabic) are masculine in my rendering.
39:56 Lest a soul may say, "How sorry I am for disregarding GOD's commandments; I was certainly one of the mockers.",
39:56 Lest any person should say, "Ah! My grief that I was unmindful of God, and I was among the mockers."
39:57 Aw taqoola law anna Allaha hadaneelakuntu mina almuttaqeena
39:57 Or say, "Had God guided me, I would have been among the righteous."
39:57 Or say: "Had God guided me, I would have been among the righteous."
39:57 or lest he should say, If God had but guided me, I would surely have been among those who are conscious of Him!"-
39:57 Or say, "Had GOD guided me, I would have been with the righteous.",
39:57 Or lest he should say, "If only God had guided me, I would have been among the righteous!"
39:58 Aw taqoola heena tara alAAathabalaw anna lee karratan faakoona mina almuhsineena
39:58 Or say, when it sees the retribution: "If only I could have another chance, I would be among the good doers."
39:58 Or say, when it sees the retribution: "If only I could have another chance, I would be among the good doers."
39:58 or lest he should say, when he becomes aware of the suffering [that awaits him], Would that I had a second chance [in life], so that I could be among the doers of good!"61
39:58 Or say, when it sees the retribution, "If I get another chance, I will work righteousness.",
39:58 Or lest he should say, when he sees the requital, "I wish I had a second chance so that I could be among those who do good to others!"
39:59 Bala qad jaatka ayateefakaththabta biha waistakbarta wakunta minaalkafireena
39:59 Yes indeed, My signs came to you, but you denied them and turned arrogant, and became one of the ingrates.
39:59 Yes indeed, My revelations came to you, but you denied them and turned arrogant, and became one of the rejecters.
39:59 [But God will reply:] Yea, indeed! My messages did come unto thee; but thou gavest them the lie, and wert filled with false pride, and wert among those who deny the truth!"
39:59 Yes indeed (you did get enough chances). My proofs came to you, but you rejected them, turned arrogant, and became a disbeliever.,
39:59 Nay! My messages did come to you, but you denied them. You showed false pride and so you became rejecters of the truth.
39:60 Wayawma alqiyamati tara allatheenakathaboo AAala Allahi wujoohuhum muswaddatunalaysa fee jahannama mathwan lilmutakabbireena
The Arrogant Religious Liars39:60 On the day of resurrection you will see those who lied about God their faces will be blackened. Is there not an abode in hell for the arrogant ones?
39:60 And on the Day of Resurrection you will see those who lied about God, their faces will be darkened. Is there not an abode in Hell for the arrogant ones?
39:60 And [so,] on the Day of Resurrection thou wilt see all who invented lies about God [with] their faces darkened [by grief and ignominy].62 Is not hell the [proper] abode for all who are given to false pride?63
The phrase iswadda wajhuhu (lit., "his face became black" or "dark") is used idiomatically to describe a face expressive of grief or ignominy (cf. 16:58), just as its opposite, ibyadda wajhuhu (lit., "his face became white" or "shining") describes a countenance expressive of happiness or justified pride: cf. 2:106 - "some faces will shine [with happiness] and some faces will be dark [with grief]". Apart from this, both phrases have also a tropical significance, namely, "he became [or "felt"] disgraced", resp. "honoured". As regards the "inventing of lies about God" spoken of in this verse, see note 37 on verse 32 above.
See note 38 on the last sentence of verse 32 of this surah.
39:60 On the Day of Resurrection you will see the faces of those who lied about GOD covered with misery. Is Hell not the right retribution for the arrogant ones?,
39:60 Saddened in gloom you will see, on the Resurrection Day, the faces of those who lied concerning God. Is not Hell the proper home for those given to false pride?
39:61 Wayunajjee Allahu allatheenaittaqaw bimafazatihim la yamassuhumu alssoo-owala hum yahzanoona
39:61 God will save those who were righteous as their reward. No harm will touch them, nor will they grieve.
39:61 And God will save those who were righteous as their reward. No harm will touch them, nor will they grieve.
39:61 But God will safeguard all who were conscious of Him, [and will grant them happiness] by virtue of their [inner] triumphs; no evil shall ever touch them, and neither shall they grieve.
39:61 And GOD will save those who have maintained righteousness; He will reward them. No harm will touch them, nor will they have any grief.,
39:61 But God will deliver the righteous for successfully journeying through life. No harm will touch them, nor will they grieve.
39:62 Allahu khaliqu kulli shay-inwahuwa AAala kulli shay-in wakeelun
39:62 God is the Creator of all things, and He is Guardian over all things.
39:62 God is the Creator of all things, and He is Guardian over all things.
39:62 GOD is the Creator of all things, and He alone has the power to determine the fate of all things.64
For the meaning of the term wakil in this context, see note 4 on 17:2.
39:62 GOD is the Creator of all things, and He is in full control of all things.,
39:62 God is the Creator of all things, and He alone determines the destiny of all things.19
God carries through evolution all things to what they are meant to be. 3:184
39:63 Lahu maqaleedu alssamawatiwaal-ardi waallatheena kafaroo bi-ayatiAllahi ola-ika humu alkhasiroona
39:63 To Him belongs the keys of the heavens and the earth. Those who rejected God's signs are the losers.
39:63 To Him belongs the keys of the heavens and the earth. And those who rejected the revelations God, they are the losers.
39:63 His are the keys [to the mysteries] of the heavens and the earth: and they who are bent on denying the truth of God's messages - it is they, they, who are the losers!
39:63 To Him belongs all decisions in the heavens and the earth, and those who disbelieve in GOD's revelations are the real losers.,
39:63 To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth. Those who deny the Signs of God (in the Universe) – it is those who are the losers.20
God has made His forces in nature subservient to mankind, thus enabling them to explore the Universe through science. 2:30
39:64 Qul afaghayra Allahi ta/muroonneeaAAbudu ayyuha aljahiloona
39:64 Say, "Do you order me to serve other than God, o you ignorant ones?"
39:64 Say: "Do you order me to serve other than God, O you ignorant ones?"
39:64 Say: Is it, then, something other than God that you bid me to worship, O you who are unaware [of right and wrong]?"
39:64 Say, "Is it other than GOD you exhort me to worship, O you ignorant ones?",
39:64 Say, “Is it other than God that you bid me to serve, O you ignorant ones?”
39:65 Walaqad oohiya ilayka wa-ilaallatheena min qablika la-in ashrakta layahbatannaAAamaluka walatakoonanna mina alkhasireena
39:65 He has inspired to you and to those before you, that if you set up partners, He will nullify all your work and you will be of the losers.
39:65 And He has inspired to you and to those before you, that if you set up partners, He will nullify all your works, and you will be of the losers.
39:65 And yet, it has already been revealed to thee [O man,]65 as well as to those who lived before thee, that if thou ever ascribe divine powers to aught but God, all thy works shall most certainly have been in vain: for [in the life to come] thou shalt most certainly be among the lost.
I.e., "it has been conveyed to thee through the divine messages revealed to the prophets". The assumption of almost all the classical commentators that this passage is addressed to Muhammad does not make much sense in view of God's knowledge that neither he nor any of the prophets who came before him would ever commit the deadly sin (referred to in the sequence) of "ascribing divine powers to aught beside God". On the other hand, the above reminder becomes very cogent and relevant as soon as it is conceived as being addressed to man in general, irrespective of time and circumstance.
Idol Worship Nullifies All Work39:65 It has been revealed to you, and to those before you that if you ever commit idol worship, all your works will be nullified, and you will be with the losers.,
39:65 It has already been revealed for you as well as for those before you, “If you fall for idolatry in any form, all your works will be nullified, and you will be among the losers.”
39:66 Bali Allaha faoAAbud wakunmina alshshakireena
39:66 Therefore, you shall serve God, and be among the appreciative.
39:66 Therefore, you shall serve God, and be among the thankful.
39:66 Nay, but thou shalt worship God [alone], and be among those who are grateful [to Him]!
39:66 Therefore, you shall worship GOD alone, and be appreciative.,
39:66 Nay, but you shall serve God alone and be among those who show gratitude for His guidance and bounties by sharing them with others.21
Shukr = Gratitude = Keeping God’s bounties open for the benefit of others thus obtaining the best possible and collective results. It does not end with verbal thanks alone
39:67 Wama qadaroo Allaha haqqaqadrihi waal-ardu jameeAAan qabdatuhu yawmaalqiyamati waalssamawatu matwiyyatunbiyameenihi subhanahu wataAAala AAammayushrikoona
Polytheists do not Appreciate God's Greatness39:67 They have not given God His true worth; and the whole earth is within His fist on the day of resurrection, and the heavens will be folded in His right hand. Be He glorified; He is much too high above what they set up.
39:67 And they have not given God His true worth; and the whole earth is within His fist on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens will be folded in His right hand. Be He glorified and exalted above what they set up.
39:67 And no true understanding of God have they [who worship aught beside Him], inasmuch as the whole of the earth will be as a [mere] handful to Him on Resurrection Day, and the heavens will be rolled up in His right hand:66 limitless is He in His glory, and sublimely exalted above anything to which they may ascribe a share in His divinity!
I.e., the whole universe is as nothing before Him: for this specific allegory of God's almightiness, see 21:104. There are many instances, in the Qur'an as well as in authentic ahadith, of the clearly metaphorical use of the term "hand" in allusions to God's absolute power and dominion. The particular reference, in the above, to the Day of Resurrection is due to the fact that it will be only on his own resurrection that a human being shall fully grasp the concept of God's almightiness, referred to in the subsequent words, "limitless is He in His glory" (subhanahu)".
Greatness of God39:67 They can never fathom the greatness of GOD. The whole earth is within His fist on the Day of Resurrection. In fact, the universes are folded within His right hand. Be He glorified; He is much too high above needing any partners.3 ,
Our universe, with its billion galaxies, a billion trillion stars, uncountable decillions of heavenly bodies, spanning many billions of light-years,is the smallest and innermost of seven universes. This incomprehensible vastnessof the seven universes is within God's hand. Such is the greatness of God.SeeAppendix 6.
39:67 And they (mankind) do not esteem God as He should be esteemed. When mankind stand at their feet, His law will be held Supreme in the human society as it is in the Universe. (As an allegory) on the Resurrection Day the entire earth will be as a mere handful to Him, and the skies will be rolled up in His Right Hand. Glorious is He, Sublimely Exalted above all that they associate with Him.22
6:92, 21:20, 22:75, 43:84. Belief in the Day of Judgment is one of the five Articles of Faith 2:177. However, many verses of the Qur’an refer to recompense in both worlds: For example, individual success and failure, rise and fall of nations, Hell and Paradise. Verses 39:67 may apply to both lives especially when we consider 39:69 and 39:74 describing the earth shining with the light of its Lord, and the inheritance of the earth by those who believe in Him
39:68 Wanufikha fee alssoori fasaAAiqaman fee alssamawati waman fee al-ardiilla man shaa Allahu thumma nufikha feehiokhra fa-itha hum qiyamun yanthuroona
39:68 The horn will be blown, whereupon everyone in the heavens and the earth will be struck unconscious, except those spared by God. Then it will be blown another time, whereupon they will all rise up, looking.
39:68 And the horn will be blown, whereupon everyone in the heavens and the earth will be struck unconscious, except those spared by God. Then it will be blown another time, whereupon they will all rise up, looking.
39:68 And [on that Day,] the trumpet [of judgment] will be sounded, and all [creatures] that are in the heavens and all that are on earth will fall down senseless, unless they be such as God wills [to exempt].67 And then it will sound again - and lo! standing [before the Seat of Judgment], they will begin to see [the truth]!68
As is evident from 27:89, the above is an allusion to the unbroken spiritual life in this world - and, therefore, happiness in the hereafter - of those who have attained to faith and have done righteous deeds. Cf. 21:103 - "the supreme awesomeness [of the Day of Resurrection] will cause them no grief".
The Day of Judgment39:68 The horn will be blown, whereupon everyone in the heavens and the earth will be struck unconscious, except those who will be spared by GOD. Then it will be blown another time, whereupon they will all rise up, looking.,4
The sequence of events on the Day of Resurrection begins with the symbolic blowing of the horn. The second blowing of the horn-by a creaturewho was spared from unconsciousness-marks the resurrection of all people;they will be resurrected on today's earth. This earth will then be destroyedby the physical coming of God, then a new earth and new heavens will be created( 14:48). We will then be stratified accordingto our degree of development(Appendix 11 ).
39:68 When the Trumpet is sounded, all who are in the heavens and all who are on earth will fall unconscious as decreed by God. And then it will sound again, and they will be standing and looking on.23
39:69 Waashraqati al-ardu binoori rabbihawawudiAAa alkitabu wajee-a bialnnabiyyeenawaalshshuhada-i waqudiya baynahum bialhaqqiwahum la yuthlamoona
39:69 The earth will shine with the light of its Lord, the record will be placed, and the prophets and the witnesses will be brought forth; it will then be judged between them with truth, and they will not be wronged.
39:69 And the earth will shine with the light of its Lord, and the record will be placed, and the prophets and the witnesses will be brought forth; and it will then be judged between them with the truth, and they will not be wronged.
39:69 And the earth will shine bright with her Sustainer's light.69 And the record [of everyone's deeds] will be laid bare,70 and all the prophets will be brought forward, and all [other] witnesses;71 and judgment will be passed on them all in justice. And they will not be wronged,
I.e., with a clear revelation of His will. See also 14:48, where it is stated that on Resurrection Day "the earth shall be changed into another earth, as shall be the heavens". A further allusion to this transformation (and not annihilation) of the universe is found in 20:105.
See 4:41 and the corresponding note 52. Accordingly, the above phrase may well have the meaning of "all the prophets as witnesses", i.e., for or against those to whom they conveyed God's message. In all probability, however, the term shuhada (or ashhad in 40:51) signifies here - as its singular shahid obviously does in 50:21 - man's newly-awakened consciousness, which will compel him to bear witness against himself on Judgment Day (cf. 6:130, 17:14, 24:24, 36:65, 41:20 ff.).
39:69 Then the earth will shine with the light of its Lord. The record will be proclaimed, and the prophets and the witnesses will be brought forth. Everyone will then be judged equitably, without the least injustice.,
39:69 And the earth will shine with the Light of its Lord. The Record of deeds will be placed open. The Prophets and the witnesses will come forward. And a just decision will prevail between people. And no one shall be wronged.24
‘Al-Kitab’ allegorically = Record of deeds = The Book of Divine Decrees
39:70 Wawuffiyat kullu nafsin ma AAamilatwahuwa aAAlamu bima yafAAaloona
39:70 Every person will be paid for whatever it did, for He is aware of everything they have done.
39:70 And every soul will be paid for whatever it did, for He is fully aware of everything they have done.
39:70 for every human being will be repaid in full for whatever [good or evil] he has done:72 and He is fully aware of all that they do.
Cf. 99:7, "he who shall have done an atom's weight of good, shall behold it; and he who shall have done an atom's weight of evil, shall behold it".
39:70 Every soul will be paid for whatever it did, for He is fully aware of everything they have done.,
39:70 For, every human being will be repaid in full for whatever he has done. And He knows best whatever they do.
39:71 Waseeqa allatheena kafaroo ilajahannama zumaran hatta itha jaoohafutihat abwabuha waqala lahumkhazanatuha alam ya/tikum rusulun minkum yatloonaAAalaykum ayati rabbikum wayunthiroonakumliqaa yawmikum hatha qaloo bala walakinhaqqat kalimatu alAAathabi AAala alkafireena
39:71 Those who rejected will be driven to hell in groups. When they reach it, and its gates are opened, its guards will say to them: "Did you not receive messengers from among you, who recited to you the signs of your Lord, and warned you about meeting this day?" They said, "Yes, but the promise of retribution was destined to be upon the ingrates."
39:71 And those who rejected will be driven to Hell in groups. When they reach it, and its gates are opened, its guards will say to them: "Did you not receive messengers from among you who recited to you the revelations of your Lord, and warned you about meeting this Day?" They said: "Yes indeed; but the sentence of retribution has come to pass upon the rejecters."
39:71 And those who were bent on denying the truth will be urged on in throngs towards hell till, when they reach it, its gates will be opened, and its keepers will ask them, Have there not come to you apostles from among yourselves, who conveyed to you your Sustainer's messages and warned you of the coming of this your Day [of Judgment]? "They will answer: Yea, indeed!" But the sentence of suffering will [already] have fallen due upon the deniers of the truth;73
I.e., as an ineluctable consequence of their unrepented sinning.
The Disbelievers39:71 Those who disbelieved will be led to Hell in throngs. When they get to it, and its gates are opened, its guards will say, "Did you not receive messengers from among you, who recited to you the revelations of your Lord, and warned you about meeting this day?" They will answer, "Yes indeed. But the word `retribution' was already stamped upon the disbelievers.",
39:71 Those who oppose the truth will be led to Hell as communities until they reach it and its gates are opened. The keepers of Hell will ask them, “Did not come to you Messengers from among yourselves conveying to you the messages of your Lord and warning you of the meeting of this your Day?” They will say, “Yes, indeed!” But at that time the sentence of punishment would have already been announced against the deniers of the truth.
39:72 Qeela odkhuloo abwaba jahannama khalideenafeeha fabi/sa mathwa almutakabbireena
39:72 It was said, "Enter the gates of hell, wherein you will abide. What a miserable destiny for the arrogant."
39:72 It was said: "Enter the gates of Hell, abiding therein. What a miserable destiny for the arrogant."
39:72 [and] they will be told, Enter the gates of hell, therein to abide!" And how vile an abode for those who were given to false pride!74
39:72 It will be said, "Enter the gates of Hell, wherein you abide forever." What a miserable destiny for the arrogant.,
39:72 It will be said to them, “Enter the gates of Hell to abide therein." How miserable is the destination of the arrogant!
39:73 Waseeqa allatheena ittaqaw rabbahumila aljannati zumaran hatta itha jaoohawafutihat abwabuha waqala lahumkhazanatuha salamun AAalaykum tibtum faodkhuloohakhalideena
39:73 Those who revered their Lord will be driven to Paradise in groups. When they reach it, and its gates are opened, its guards will say to them: "Peace be upon you. You have done well, so enter to abide herein."
39:73 And those who reverenced their Lord will be driven to the Paradise in groups. When they reach it, and its gates are opened, its guards will say to them: "Peace be upon you. You have done well, so enter to abide herein."
39:73 But those who were conscious of their Sustainer will be urged on in throngs towards paradise till, when they reach it, they shall find its gates wide- open;75 and its keepers will say unto them, Peace be upon you! Well have you done: enter, then, this [paradise], herein to abide!"
Lit., "and its gates have [or "will have"] been opened", i.e., before their arrival, as indicated by the particle wa (lit., "and"), which in this case denotes precedence in time (Zamakhshari). Cf. in this connection 38:50 - "gardens of perpetual bliss, with gates wide-open to them".
The Believers39:73 Those who reverenced their Lord will be led to Paradise in throngs. When they get to it, and its gates are opened, its guards will say, "Peace be upon you; you have won. Therefore, you abide herein forever.",
39:73 And those who are mindful of their Lord will be escorted into the Garden as communities until they reach it and its gates are opened. The keepers of the Garden will say to them, “Peace be upon you! You have done well! Enter, then, herein to abide.”
39:74 Waqaloo alhamdu lillahiallathee sadaqana waAAdahu waawrathanaal-arda natabawwao mina aljannati haythu nashaofaniAAma ajru alAAamileena
39:74 They said, "Praise be to God who has fulfilled His promise to us, and He made us inherit the earth, enjoying Paradise as we please. What a beautiful recompense for the workers!"
39:74 And they said: "Praise be to God who has fulfilled His promise to us, and He made us inherit the land, enjoying the Paradise as we please. What a beautiful recompense for the workers!"
39:74 And they will exclaim: All praise is due to God, who has made His promise to us come true, and has bestowed upon us this expanse [of bliss] as our portion,76 so that we may dwell in paradise as we please!" And how excellent a reward will it be for those who laboured [in God's way]!
Lit., "has made us heirs to this land", i.e., of paradise. According to all the classical commentators, the concept of "heritage" is used here metaphorically, to denote the rightful due, or portion, of the blessed. The term ard (lit., "earth" or "land") has also - especially in poetry - the connotation of "anything that is spread" (cf. Lane I, 48): hence my rendering of it, in the above context, as "expanse".
39:74 They will say, "Praise be to GOD, who fulfilled His promise to us, and made us inherit the earth, enjoying Paradise as we please." What a beautiful recompense for the workers!,
39:74 And they will say, “All praise is due to God Who has fulfilled His promise to us, and made us inherit the land. We can live in beautiful dwellings of our choice in this Garden.” How bounteous is the reward of sincere workers! [24:55, 33:27]
39:75 Watara almala-ikata haffeenamin hawli alAAarshi yusabbihoona bihamdirabbihim waqudiya baynahum bialhaqqi waqeelaalhamdu lillahi rabbi alAAalameena
39:75 You will see the controllers surrounding the center of control, glorifying the praise of their Lord. It will be judged between them with truth, and it will be said, "Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds"
39:75 And you will see the angels surrounding the Throne, glorifying the praise of their Lord. And it will be judged between them with the truth, and it will be said: "Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds"
39:75 And thou wilt see the angels surrounding the throne of [God's] almightiness, extolling their Sustainer's glory and praise.77 And judgment will have been passed in justice on all [who had lived and died], and the word will be spoken:78 All praise is due to God, the Sustainer of all the worlds!"
Whenever the term al-arsh ("the throne [of God]") occurs in the Qur'an, it is used as a metaphor for His absolute dominion over all that exists: hence my rendering, "the throne of [God's] almightiness". (See also 7:54 and the corresponding note 43.) The mention of the "angels surrounding" it has, obviously, a metaphorical meaning: see note 4 on 40:7.
Lit., "it will be said".
39:75 You will see the angels floating around the throne, glorifying and praising their Lord. After the equitable judgment is issued to all, it will be proclaimed: "Praise be to GOD, Lord of the universe.",
39:75 And you will see the angels surrounding the Throne of Almighty’s Supreme Control, extolling the glory of their Lord. The judgment between people will be in absolute justice. And they will say altogether, “All praise is due to God, the Lord of the Worlds.”25
God’s forces in nature will help mankind establish the Divine Rule on earth, as it is in the Cosmos. And the Divine System will make people realize that the Giver of such supreme guidance is Worthy of all praise. This verse applies to both lives