بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
19:1 Kaf. Ha. Ya. `Ayn. Sad.1
See Appendix II.
19:1 K. H. Y. `A. S. (Kaaf Haa Yaa `Ayn Saad),1
This is the maximum number of Quranic Initials, because this sura deals with such crucial matters as the miraculous birth of John and the virginbirth of Jesus, and strongly condemns the gross blasphemy that considers Jesusto be a son of God. The five initials provide a powerful physical evidence tosupport these issues (See Appendices1&22 ).
19:1 K.H.Y.'A.S. Kaaf Ha Ya ‘Ain Saad (Kareem the Honored, Haadi the Guide, Yaamen the Bounteous, ‘Aleem the Knower, Saadiq the True, states that)1
This is the 19th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 98 verses. One of the important injunctions that clearly come through in this Surah is that God makes laws as He wills in the World of Command and implements them in the World of Creation i.e. the Universe. Then, He never changes them. The grand empire of human learning, development, invention, science and technology would have failed to come off ground if God’s physical laws in the Universe were to keep changing. Pregnancy and childbirth require the unison of the male and the female chromosomes. God never changes His laws, therefore, the idea of a virgin birth, although popular among the Christians and the Muslims, is non-Qur’anic and absolutely erroneous. Mary, the mother of Jesus, is probably more often mentioned in the Qur’an than in the Bible, as a lady of outstanding determination and character. Prophet Zacharias was the elder contemporary of Mary. Both descended from Prophet Aaron. The families had been the custodians of the holy shrines in Can’aan (Palestine) Zacharias, a distant uncle was Mary’s guardian in the sanctuary. Jesus is referred to as son of Mary because his mother was more prominent and also because his father Joseph the carpenter, died at an early age. The Bible also refers to Jesus as son of man and as son of David, and Elizabeth wife of Zakariya (Zacharias) is called the daughter of Aaron. Also, in the history of mankind Mary was the first revolutionary and that too, a feminine voice against the institution of monasticism that was never Divinely ordained. [57:27]
Before moving on, let us note a few salient points for the sake of clear understanding:
(i) Mary was a descendant of Prophet Aaron. Even generations after a prominent man, it was customary to call the descendants this way. In Luke 1:5 Elizabeth, the wife of Prophet Zacharias, is referred to as “One of the daughters of Aaron”. That is why Mary is referred to as sister of Aaron in 19:28.
(ii) In verse 19:23 it appears that Mary is talking to her husband. Violation of the sanctuary rules, a land far from home, lack of shelter and labor pains all add to her grief. Now a few important concepts given in the Qur’an that strongly negate the fallacy of the “Virgin Birth” of Jesus.
(iii) God does all things according to His laws. [3:40, 19:9]
(iv) And you will never see God’s laws changing or deviating. [6:34, 6:116, 10:64, 17:77, 18:27, 33:38, 33:62, 35:43, 40:85, 48:23]
(v) The example of Jesus, as far as God is concerned, is the same as that of Adam. He created him from dust; then said to him, "Be", and he was. [3:59]
(vi) By Adam is meant all mankind. [7:11]
(vii) All men are created from dust, then from a zygote, male and female. [22:5]
(viii) The Qur’an emphatically and repeatedly states that all human beings are procreated from both male and female, without exceptions.
(ix) Even God would not have an offspring since He never had a mate. [6:101] (x) Verse 19:22 narrates Mary moving far-off from her village. Since Mary had broken the rules of the shrine, she and her family kept the marriage with Joseph Carpenter confidential. When she became pregnant, the husband and wife decided to move far away to avoid the mockery of people.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
19:2 Thikru rahmati rabbika AAabdahuzakariyya
Zachariah19:2 A reminder of your Lord's mercy to His servant Zachariah.
19:2 A reminder of the mercy of your Lord to His servant Zachariah.
19:2 AN ACCOUNT of the grace which thy Sustainer bestowed upon His servant Zachariah:2
Lit., "An account of thy Sustainer's grace upon. ..", etc. According to the account in the Gospels, not contradicted by the Qur'an, Zachariah's wife Elisabeth was a cousin of Mary, the mother of Jesus (Cf. Luke i, 36).
Zachariah19:2 A narration about your Lord's mercy towards His servant Zachariah.,
19:2 Mention of the mercy of your Lord to His servant Zacharias.
19:3 Ith nada rabbahu nidaankhafiyyan
19:3 When he called out to his Lord secretly.
19:3 When he called out to his Lord secretly.
19:3 When he called out to his Sustainer in the secrecy of his heart,3
Lit., "with secret calling".
19:3 He called his Lord, a secret call.,
19:3 When he called out to his Lord in the secrecy of his heart. [3:37]
19:4 Qala rabbi innee wahana alAAathmuminnee waishtaAAala alrra/su shayban walam akunbiduAAa-ika rabbi shaqiyyan
19:4 He said, "My Lord, my bones have gone frail, and my hair has turned white, and I have never been mischievous in calling to You my Lord."
19:4 He said: "My Lord, my bones have gone frail, and my hair has turned white, and I have never been mischievous in imploring You my Lord."
19:4 he prayed: "O my Sustainer! Feeble have become my bones, and my head glistens with grey hair. But never yet, O my Lord, has my prayer unto Thee remained unanswered.4
Lit., "never have I been unfortunate in my prayer to Thee".
19:4 He said, "My Lord, the bones have turned brittle in my body, and my hair is aflame with gray. As I implore You, my Lord, I never despair.,
19:4 He said, "My Lord! My bones have turned brittle and my head is shining with gray hair, and I have never remained unblessed in my prayer to You, my Lord.”
19:5 Wa-innee khiftu almawaliya min wara-eewakanati imraatee AAaqiran fahab lee min ladunkawaliyyan
19:5 "I fear the kinfolk after I am gone, and my wife is infertile, so grant me from Yourself an ally."
19:5 "And I fear the kinfolk after I am gone, and my wife is infertile, so grant me from Yourself an ally."
19:5 "Now, behold, I am afraid of [what] my kinsfolk [will do] after I am gone,5 for my wife has always been barren. Bestow, then, upon me, out of Thy grace, the gift of a successor
Lit., "after me". He evidently anticipated that his kinsfolk-who, like himself, were priests attached to the Temple - would be morally too weak to fulfil their duties with dignity and conviction (Razi), and thus, perhaps, unable, to safeguard the future of Mary, whose guardian he was (cf. the first paragraph of 3:37).
19:5 "I worry about my dependants after me, and my wife has been sterile. Grant me, from You, an heir.,
19:5 “Now I fear what my relatives will do after me. (I am concerned about the heritage of my ancestors such as Jacob.) But my wife is barren. Oh, Give me from Your Presence, a successor.
19:6 Yarithunee wayarithu min ali yaAAqoobawaijAAalhu rabbi radiyyan
19:6 "To inherit from me, and inherit from the descendants of Jacob. Make him, my Lord, well pleasing."
19:6 "To inherit from me, and inherit from the descendants of Jacob. And make him my Lord, well pleasing."
19:6 who will be my heir as well as an heir [to the dignity] of the House of Jacob; and make him, O my Sustainer, well-pleasing to Thee!"
19:6 "Let him be my heir and the heir of Jacob's clan, and make him, my Lord, acceptable.",
19:6 Let him be my heir and the heir of the house of Jacob and make him, my Lord, worthy of Your acceptance.”
19:7 Ya zakariyya innanubashshiruka bighulamin ismuhu yahya lamnajAAal lahu min qablu samiyyan
Yahya (John)19:7 "O Zachariah, We give you glad tidings of a son whose name/attribute is Yahya (John). We have not used that name/attribute for anyone before."2
The word samiyya has been mistranslated as "name" while it means "likeness" or "similar." The verse does not state the uniqueness of Yahya (John) as a name, but the uniqueness of Yahya's person. See 19:65.
19:7 "O Zachariah, We give you glad tidings of a son whose name is John. We have not given that name before to anyone."
19:7 [Thereupon the angels called out unto him:6 "O Zachariah! We bring thee the glad tiding of [the birth of] a son whose name shall be John. [And God says,] `Never have We given this name to anyone before him."7
Lit., "Never before have We made a namesake for him". The name Yahya (John) signifies "he shall live", i.e., he will be spiritually alive and will be remembered forever; and the fact that God Himself had chosen this name for him was a singular distinction, equivalent to a divine promise (kalimah, cf. note 28 on 3:39).
John19:7 "O Zachariah, we give you good news; a boy whose name shall be John (Yahya). We never created anyone like him before.",
19:7 He was told, “O Zacharias! We give you the good news of a boy whose name shall be Yahya (John the Baptist). We have never given this name to anyone before.” [19:65]
19:8 Qala rabbi anna yakoonu leeghulamun wakanati imraatee AAaqiran waqadbalaghtu mina alkibari AAitiyyan
19:8 He said, "My Lord, how can I have a son when my wife is infertile, and I have reached a very old age?"
19:8 He said: "My Lord, how can I have a son when my wife is infertile, and I have reached a very old age?"
19:8 [Zachariah] exclaimed: "O my Sustainer! How can I have a son when my wife has always been barren and I have become utterly infirm through old age?"
19:8 He said, "My Lord, will I have a son despite my wife's sterility, and despite my old age?",
19:8 Zacharias exclaimed, "My Lord! How can I have a son when my wife is barren and I am already infirm with old age?"
19:9 Qala kathalika qalarabbuka huwa AAalayya hayyinun waqad khalaqtuka min qablu walamtaku shay-an
19:9 He said, "It is such that your Lord has said. It is an easy thing for Me. I had created you before when you were not even anything."
19:9 He said: "It is such that your Lord has said. It is an easy thing for Me. And I had created you before, when you were not a thing."
19:9 Answered [the angel]: "Thus. it is; [but] thy 'Sustainer says, `This is easy for Me -even as I have created thee aforetime out of nothing.8
Lit., "when [or "although"] thou wert nothing". This stress on God's unlimited power to bring into being a new chain of causes and effects forms here, as in al `Imran, a preamble to the announcement, expressed in very similar terms, of the birth of Jesus (see verses 19 ff.).
19:9 He said, "Thus said your Lord: `It is easy for Me to do. I created you before that, and you were nothing.' ",
19:9 He said: Thus it is. Your Lord says, “It is easy for Me. I created you before, and you were nothing."2
The infertility in his wife was treated. 21:90
19:10 Qala rabbi ijAAal lee ayatan qalaayatuka alla tukallima alnnasa thalathalayalin sawiyyan
19:10 He said, "My Lord, make for me a sign." He said, "Your sign is that you will not speak to the people for three nights consecutively."
19:10 He said: "My Lord, make for me a sign." He said: "Your sign is that you will not speak to the people for three nights consecutively."
19:10 [Zachariah] prayed: "O my Sustainer! Appoint a sign for me!" Said [the angel]: "Thy sign shall be that for full three nights [and days] thou wilt not speak unto men.9
See 3:41 and the corresponding note 29.
19:10 He said, "My Lord, give me a sign." He said, "Your sign is that you will not speak to the people for three consecutive nights.",
19:11 Fakharaja AAala qawmihi mina almihrabifaawha ilayhim an sabbihoo bukratan waAAashiyyan
19:11 So he went out amongst his people from the temple enclosure, and he indicated to them that they should glorify Him at dawn and dusk.
19:11 So he went out among his people from the temple enclosure, and he indicated to them that they should glorify Him at dawn and dusk.
19:11 Thereupon he came out of the sanctuary unto his people and signified to them [by gestures]: "Extol His limitless glory by day and by night!"
19:11 He came out to his family, from the sanctuary, and signaled to them: "Meditate (on God) day and night.",
19:11 Then Zacharias came out from the shrine and told his deputies by signs, “Keep striving in your mission morning and evening that His glory be manifest to beholders.”
19:12 Ya yahya khuthialkitaba biquwwatin waataynahu alhukmasabiyyan
19:12 "O John, take the book with confidence." We gave him authority while in his youth.
19:12 "O John, take the Book with confidence." And We gave him authority while in his youth.
19:12 [And when the son was born and grew up,10 he was told,] "O John! Hold fast unto the divine writ with [all thy] strength!" - for We granted him wisdom "while he was yet a little boy,
According to Razi, this is clearly implied inasmuch as the sequence presupposes that John had in the meantime reached an age which enabled him to receive and understand God's commandment.
19:12 "O John, you shall uphold the scripture, strongly." We endowed him with wisdom, even in his youth.,
19:12 (John (Yahya) was born according to the good news) We told him “O Yahya! Hold fast to the scripture.” And We had granted him wisdom and good judgment when he was yet a little boy.
19:13 Wahananan min ladunnawazakatan wakana taqiyyan
19:13 He had kindness from Us and purity, and he was ever righteous.
19:13 And tenderness from Us, and purity, and he was ever righteous.
19:13 as well as, by Our grace, [the gift of] compassion11 and purity; and he vv as [always] conscious of Us
Lit., "compassion from Us"- i.e as a special divine gift.
19:13 And (we endowed him with) kindness from us and purity, for he was righteous.,
19:13 We gave him compassion from Our Presence and a spotless character. He lived a life upright and he was of those who empower themselves against evil.4
See Taqwa in Glossary
19:14 Wabarran biwalidayhi walam yakun jabbaranAAasiyyan
19:14 Dutiful to his parents, and never was he a tyrant or disobedient.
19:14 And dutiful to his parents, and never was he a disobedient tyrant.
19:14 and full of piety towards his parents; and never was he haughty or rebellious.
19:14 He honored his parents, and was never a disobedient tyrant.,
19:14 He was dutiful toward his parents, and was polite, not rebellious or arrogant.
19:15 Wasalamun AAalayhi yawma wulidawayawma yamootu wayawma yubAAathu hayyan
19:15 Peace be upon him the day he was born, and the day he dies, and the day he is resurrected alive.3
The repetition of the word day (yawm) three times, besides emphasis, is also linked to the numerical structure of the Quran. The word day (yawm), in its singular form, occurs exactly 365 times in the Quran. See 9:36.
19:15 And peace be upon him the day he was born, and the day he dies, and the Day he is resurrected alive.
19:15 Hence, [God's] peace was upon him on the day when he was born, and on the day of his death, and. will be [upon him] on the day when he shall be raised to life [again].
19:15 Peace be upon him the day he was born, the day he dies, and the day he is resurrected back to life.,
19:15 Salutes to him the day he was born, the day he dies and the day he shall be raised alive!
19:16 Waothkur fee alkitabimaryama ithi intabathat min ahliha makanansharqiyyan
Maryam (Mary)19:16 Relate in the book Mary, when she withdrew herself from her family to a place which was to the east.
19:16 And relate in the Book, Mary, when she withdrew herself from her family to a place which was to the east.
19:16 AND CALL to mind, through this divine writ,12 Mary. Lo! She withdrew from her family to an eastern place
Lit., "in the divine writ". In this surah as well as in Al `Imran the story of the birth of John is followed by that of Jesus-firstly, because John (called "the Baptist" in the Bible) was to be a precursor of Jesus, and, secondly, because of the obvious parallelism in the form of the announcements of these two births.
Mary19:16 Mention in the scripture Mary. She isolated herself from her family, into an eastern location.,
19:16 (O Prophet) make mention of Mary in the Book when she withdrew from her people to an eastern location.
19:17 Faittakhathat min doonihim hijabanfaarsalna ilayha roohanafatamaththala laha basharan sawiyyan
19:17 She took to a barrier which separated her from them, so We sent Our Spirit to her, and he took on the shape of a human in all similarity.
19:17 So she took a barrier to separate her from them, so We sent Our Spirit to her, and he took on the shape of a human being in all similarity.
19:17 and kept herself in seclusion from them,13 whereupon We sent unto her Our angel of revelation, who appeared to her in the shape of a well-made human being.14
Apparently, in order to devote herself undisturbed to prayer and meditation. The "eastern place" may possibly, as Ibn Kathir suggests, signify an eastern chamber of the Temple, to the service of which Mary had been dedicated by her mother (cf. 3:35).
As pointed out in surah 2, note 71, and surah 16, note 2, the term ruh often denotes "divine inspiration". Occasionally, however, it is used to describe the medium through which such inspiration is imparted to God's elect: in other words, the angel (or angelic force) of revelation. Since - as is implied in 6:9 - mortals cannot perceive an angel in his true manifestation, God caused him to appear to Mary "in the shape of a well-made human being", i.e., in a shape accessible to her perception. According to Razi, the designation of the angel as ruh ("spirit" or "soul") indicates that this category of beings is purely spiritual, without any physical element.
19:17 While a barrier separated her from them, we sent to her our Spirit. He went to her in the form of a human being.,
19:17 (Since she was not used to mixing with people), she had chosen seclusion from them. Then We sent to her Our angel that appeared to her in the shape of a well-made human being.5
19:18 Qalat innee aAAoothu bialrrahmaniminka in kunta taqiyyan
19:18 She said, "I seek refuge with the Gracious from you if you are a person of acknowledgment."
19:18 She said: "I seek refuge with the Almighty from you if you are righteous."
19:18 She exclaimed: "Verily, 'I seek refuge from thee with the Most Gracious! [Approach me not] if thou art conscious of Him!"
19:18 She said, "I seek refuge in the Most Gracious, that you may be righteous.",
19:18 She exclaimed, “Surely, I seek refuge in the Most Gracious that you may be righteous.”
19:19 Qala innama ana rasoolurabbiki li-ahaba laki ghulaman zakiyyan
19:19 He said, "I am the messenger of your Lord, that He may grant you the gift of a pure son."
19:19 He said: "I am the messenger of your Lord, to grant you the gift of a pure son."
19:19 [The angel] answered: "I' am but a messenger of thy Sustainer, [who says,] `I shall bestow upon thee the gift of a son endowed with purity.'"
19:19 He said, "I am the messenger of your Lord, to grant you a pure son.",
19:19 He said: I am only a Messenger of your Lord who says, “I shall bestow upon you the gift of a son endowed with a spotless character.”6
19:20 Qalat anna yakoonu lee ghulamunwalam yamsasnee basharun walam aku baghiyyan
19:20 She said, "How can I have a son when no human has touched me, nor do I desire such?"
19:20 She said: "How can I have a son when no human being has been with me, nor have I desired such?"
19:20 Said she: "How can I have a son when no man has ever touched me? - for, never have I been a loose woman!"
19:20 She said, "How can I have a son, when no man has touched me; I have never been unchaste.",
19:20 She said, "How can I have a son when no man has ever (intimately) touched me? For, I am not rebellious to morality.” [3:46, 19:28]
19:21 Qala kathaliki qalarabbuki huwa AAalayya hayyinun walinajAAalahu ayatan lilnnasiwarahmatan minna wakana amran maqdiyyan
19:21 He said, "It is such that your Lord has said, it is easy for Me. We shall make him a sign for the people and a mercy from Us. It is a matter already ordained."
19:21 He said: "It is such that your Lord has said, it is easy for Me. And We shall make him a sign for the people and a mercy from Us. It is a matter already ordained."
19:21 [The angel] answered: "Thus it is; [but] thy Sustainer says, `This is easy for Me;15 and [thou shalt have a son,] so that We might make him a symbol unto mankind and an act of grace from US.16 And it was a thing decreed [by God]:
Cf. the identical phrase in verse 9 above, relating to the announcement of John's birth to Zachariah. In both these cases, the implication is that God can and does bring about events which may be utterly unexpected or even inconceivable before they materialize. In connection with the announcement of a son to Mary, the Qur'an states in 3:47 that "when He wills a thing to be, He but says unto it, 'Be' -and it is": but since neither the Qur'an nor any authentic Tradition tells us anything about the chain of causes and effects (asbab) which God's decree "Be" was to bring into being, all speculation as to the "how" of this event must remain beyond the scope of a Qur'an-commentary. (But see also note 87 on 21:91.)
One of the several meanings of the term ayah is "a sign" or, as elaborately defined by Raghib. "a symbol" (cf. surah 17, note 2). However, the sense in which it is most frequently used in the Qur'an is "a [divine] message": hence, its metonymic application to Jesus may mean that he was destined to become a vehicle of God's message to man - i.e., a prophet- and, thus, a symbol of God's grace. - As regards the words "thou shalt have a son" interpolated by me between brackets, a statement to this effect is implied in the subsequent phrase beginning with "so that" (Zamakhshari and Razi).
19:21 He said, "Thus said your Lord, `It is easy for Me. We will render him a sign for the people, and mercy from us. This is a predestined matter.' ",
19:21 The angel answered: Thus it is - Your Lord says, “It is easy for Me, so that We make him a symbol for people and a grace from Us. And it is a thing decreed.”7
3:46. A symbol - of belief and disbelief. A grace - revelation
19:22 Fahamalat-hu faintabathatbihi makanan qasiyyan
The Birth of Esau (Jesus)19:22 So she was pregnant with him, and she went to deliver in a far place.
19:22 So she was pregnant with him, and she went to deliver in a far place.
19:22 and in time she conceived him, and then she withdrew with him to a far-off place.
The Birth of Jesus19:22 When she bore him, she isolated herself to a faraway place.,
19:22 And in time she conceived him and withdrew with him to a far-off place, (Bethlehem).
19:23 Faajaaha almakhadu ilajithAAi alnnakhlati qalat ya laytaneemittu qabla hatha wakuntu nasyan mansiyyan
19:23 Then the birth pains came to her, by the trunk of a palm tree. She said, "I wish I had died before this, and became totally forgotten!"
19:23 Then the birth pains came to her, by the trunk of a palm tree. She said: "I wish I had died before this, and became totally forgotten!"
19:23 And [when] the throes of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm-tree,17 she exclaimed: "Oh, would that I had died ere this, and had become a thing forgotten, utterly forgotten!"
Le., compelling her to cling to it for support: thus stressing the natural, normal circumstances of this childbirth, attended-as is the case with all women-by severe labour pains.
19:23 The birth process came to her by the trunk of a palm tree. She said, "(I am so ashamed;) I wish I were dead before this happened, and completely forgotten.",
19:23 And when labor pains drove her to the trunk of a palm-tree, she exclaimed, “Ah, I wish I had died before this, and had become a thing forgotten, utterly forgotten!”8
Mary appears to be talking to herself
19:24 Fanadaha min tahtihaalla tahzanee qad jaAAala rabbuki tahtakisariyyan
19:24 But then he called to her from beneath her: "Do not be sad, your Lord has made below you a stream."4
The recommendation to Mary has medical benefits. The sound of water and mature dates have a regulating effect on human muscles and thus reduce the birth pain. Indeed, some modern birth clinics provide birth-in-water services. The oxytocin found in dates regulates contraction and stimulates lactation, and thus is given to pregnant women as a drug to ease their labor. See 4:82.
This verse gives a clue regarding the season in which Jesus was born. In the Middle East, dates get ripe in the end of September, and in the beginning of October.
Jesus was born in Nazareth, not Bethlehem (beit/house+lahm/meat) as a majority of Christians believe today. The information in the Gospels regarding the origin of his parents is contradictory; Luke points to Nazareth, while Matthew points to Bethlehem (Matthew 1:18-25 ; 2:1; Luke 2:4-7 ). Jesus was called the Nazarene in the New Testament (Mark 1:24,10 :47,14:67,16:6), yet Christian scholars are not sure why he was called Nazarene. Perhaps, this is because the Old Testament does not mention Nazareth, but mentions Bethlehem (Genesis 35:16,19 ; 48:7; Ruth 4:11 ; 1 Samuel 17:12 ; 2 Samuel 23:13-17 ). Since we see the Gospel authors trying hard to find as many as prophecies from the Old Testament regarding the coming Messiah, the discrepancy and "mystery" between the name and the birthplace might be explained. The Old Testament praises Bethlehem for being the birthplace of the awaited ruler (Micah 5:2 ).
19:24 But then he called to her from beneath her: "Do not be sad, your Lord has made below you a stream."
19:24 Thereupon [a voice] called out to her from beneath that [palm-tree]:18 "Grieve not! Thy Sustainer has provided a rivulet [running] beneath thee;
Or: "from beneath her". However, Qatadah (as quoted by Zamakhshari) interprets this as meaning "from beneath the palm-tree".
19:24 (The infant) called her from beneath her, saying, "Do not grieve. Your Lord has provided you with a stream.,
19:24 A voice came to her from beneath the palm-tree, “Grieve not! Your Lord has provided a stream beneath you."9
Probably Joseph’s voice
19:25 Wahuzzee ilayki bijithAAi alnnakhlatitusaqit AAalayki rutaban janiyyan
19:25 "Shake the trunk of this palm tree, it will cause ripe dates to fall upon you."
19:25 "And shake the trunk of this palm tree, it will cause ripe dates to fall upon you."
19:25 and shake the trunk of the palm-tree towards thee: it will drop fresh, ripe dates upon thee.
19:25 "If you shake the trunk of this palm tree, it will drop ripe dates for you.,2
Thus, Jesus was born in late September or early October. This is when dates ripen in the Middle East to the point of falling off the tree.
19:25 "And shake the trunk of the palm-tree towards you. It will drop fresh ripe dates upon you."
19:26 Fakulee waishrabee waqarree AAaynanfa-imma tarayinna mina albashari ahadan faqooleeinnee nathartu lilrrahmani sawmanfalan okallima alyawma insiyyan
19:26 "So eat and drink and be happy. If you see any human being, then say, 'I have declared a fast for the Gracious, and I will not talk today to any of the people.'"
19:26 "So eat and drink and be content. If you see any human being, then say: 'I have vowed an abstinence for the Almighty, so I will not talk today to any of mankind.'"
19:26 Eat, then, and drink, and let thine eye be gladdened! And if thou shouldst see any human being, convey this unto him:19 `Behold, abstinence from speech have I vowed unto the Most Gracious; hence, I may not speak today to any mortal.20
Lit., "say"-but since actual speech would contradict what follows, the "saying" implies here a communication by gestures.
In its primary sense, the term sawm denotes "abstinence" or "self-denial"; in the present context it is synonymous with samt ("abstinence from speech"); in fact-as pointed out by Zamakhshari-the latter term is said to have figured in the Qur'an-copy belonging to `Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud (possibly as a marginal, explanatory notation).
19:26 "Eat and drink, and be happy. When you see anyone, say, `I have made a vow of silence [to the Most Gracious]*; I am not talking today to anyone.' ',
19:26 "Eat then and drink, and let your eyes be gladdened! And if you see any human being, convey this to him, ‘Indeed, I have made a vow of silence for the Beneficent. So, I may not speak to any person today.’ ”
19:27 Faatat bihi qawmaha tahmiluhuqaloo ya maryamu laqad ji/ti shay-an fariyyan
19:27 Then she came to her people carrying him. They said, "O Mary, you have come with something totally unexpected!"
19:27 Then she came to her people carrying him. They said: "O Mary, you have come with a thing totally unexpected!"
19:27 And in time she returned to her people, carrying the child with her.21 They said: "O Mary! Thou hast indeed done an amazing thing!
Lit., "she came with him to her people, carrying him".
* 19:26 The statement19:27 She came to her family, carrying him. They said, "O Mary, you have committed something that is totally unexpected.,
19:27 Later, she returned to her people carrying the child with her. They said, "O Mary! You have come with an amazing thing (breaking the rules of the shrine).”
19:28 Ya okhta haroona ma kanaabooki imraa saw-in wama kanat ommuki baghiyyan
19:28 "O sister of Aaron, your father was not a bad man, and your mother was never unchaste!"
19:28 "O sister of Aaron, your father was not a wicked man, and your mother has never been unchaste!"
19:28 O sister of Aaron!22 Thy father was not a wicked man, nor was thy mother a loose woman!"
In ancient Semitic usage, a person's name was often linked with that of a renowned ancestor or founder of the tribal line. Thus, for instance, a man of the tribe of Banu Tamim was sometimes addressed as "son of Tamim" or "brother of Tamim". Since Mary belonged to the priestly caste, and hence descended from Aaron, the brother of Moses, she was called a "sister of Aaron" (in the same way as her cousin Elisabeth, the wife of Zachariah, is spoken of in Luke i, 5, as one "of the daughters of Aaron").
19:28 "O descendant of Aaron, your father was not a bad man, nor was your mother unchaste.",
19:28 “O Sister of Aaron! Your father was not a bad man, nor was your mother a woman rebellious to morality, nor did she ever oppose the system."10
“Sister of Aaron”, See Author’s Note above. ‘Baghyya’ carries both meanings given at the end.
19:29 Faasharat ilayhi qaloo kayfanukallimu man kana fee almahdi sabiyyan
19:29 So she pointed to him. They said, "How can we talk to someone who is a child in a cradle?"
19:29 So she pointed to him. They said: "How can we talk to someone who is a child in a cradle?"
19:29 Thereupon she pointed to him. They exclaimed: "How can we talk to one who [as yet] is a little boy in the cradle?"
The Infant Makes a Statement19:29 She pointed to him. They said, "How can we talk with an infant in the crib?",
19:29 Then she pointed to him. They said, "How can we talk to one who is in the cradle, a young boy?"11
Mary and Joseph had lived in Bethelhem for years. ‘In the cradle’, idiomatically means a young person. In 19:31 he promises to establish the Divine System and set up the Just Economic Order. Can a child say that?
19:30 Qala innee AAabdu Allahi ataniyaalkitaba wajaAAalanee nabiyyan
19:30 He said, "I am God's servant, He has given me the book and made me a prophet."
19:30 He said: "I am a servant of God, He has given me the Book and made me a prophet."
19:30 [But] he said:23 "Behold, I am a servant of God. He has vouchsafed unto me revelation and made me a prophet,24
Although the Qur'an mentions in 3:46 that Jesus would "speak unto men [while yet] in his cradle" - i.e., would be imbued with wisdom from his early childhood - verses 30-33 seem to be in the nature of a trope, projecting the shape of things to come by using, for the sake of emphasis, the past tense to describe something that was to become real in the future. (See also next note.)
Since it is not conceivable that anyone could be granted divine revelation and made a prophet before attaining to full maturity of intellect and experience, `Ikrimah and Ad-Dahhak-as quoted by Tabari-interpret this passage as meaning, "God has decreed (qada) that lie would vouchsafe unto me revelation. . .", etc., thus regarding it as an allusion to the future. Tabari himself applies the same interpretation to the next verse, explaining it thus: "He has decreed that He would enjoin upon me prayer and charity". However, the whole of this passage (verses 30-33) may also be understood as having been uttered by Jesus at a much later time-namely, after he had reached maturity and been actually entrusted with his prophetic mission: that is to say, it may be understood as an anticipatory description of the ethical and moral principles which were to dominate the adult life of Jesus and particularly his deep consciousness of being only "a servant of God".
19:30 (The infant spoke and) said, "I am a servant of GOD. He has given me the scripture, and has appointed me a prophet.,
19:30 But he spoke up, "Indeed, I am a servant of God. He has given me revelation and appointed me a Prophet.”
19:31 WajaAAalanee mubarakan aynamakuntu waawsanee bialssalati waalzzakatima dumtu hayyan
19:31 "He made me blessed wherever I was, and He charged me with the contact prayer and towards betterment as long as I am alive."
19:31 "And He has made me blessed wherever I am, and He has charged me with the contact prayer and purification as long as I am alive."
19:31 and made me blessed wherever I may be; and He has enjoined upon me prayer and charity as long as I live,
19:31 "He made me blessed wherever I go, and enjoined me to observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and the obligatory charity (Zakat) for as long as I live.,
19:31 “He has made me blessed wherever I may be. He has enjoined upon me to establish the Divine System and help set up the Just Economic Order as long as I live.”
19:32 Wabarran biwalidatee walam yajAAalneejabbaran shaqiyyan
19:32 "To be dutiful to my mother, and He did not make me a rebellious tyrant."
19:32 "And to be dutiful to my mother, and He has not mademe a mischievous tyrant."
19:32 and [has endowed me with] piety towards my mother; and He has not made me haughty or bereft of grace.
19:32 "I am to honor my mother; He did not make me a disobedient rebel.,
19:32 “And He has made me kind to my mother, and has not made me haughty, unblessed.”
19:33 Waalssalamu AAalayya yawmawulidtu wayawma amootu wayawma obAAathu hayyan
19:33 "Peace be upon me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I am resurrected alive."
19:33 "And peace be upon me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the Day I am resurrected alive."
19:33 "Hence, peace was upon me on the day when I was born, and [will be upon me] on the day of my death, and on the day when I shall be raised to life [again]!"
19:33 And peace be upon me the day I was born, the day I die, and the day I get resurrected.",
19:33 “Peace was on me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I will be raised to life again." [19:15]
19:34 Thalika AAeesa ibnu maryamaqawla alhaqqi allathee feehi yamtaroona
19:34 Such was Jesus, the son of Mary, and this is the truth of the matter in which they doubt.
19:34 Such was Jesus, son of Mary, and this is the truth of the matter in which they doubt.
19:34 SUCH WAS, in the words of truth, Jesus the son of Mary, about whose nature they so deeply disagree.25
Lit., "about whom they are in doubt", or "about whom they [vainly] dispute": an allusion to the many conflicting views about the nature of Jesus and his origins, ranging from the blasphemous Jewish assertion that he was a "false prophet" and the product of a shameful, illicit union (cf. 4:156), to the Christian belief that he was "the son of God" and, therefore, God incarnate. In this connection, see also 3:59 and the corresponding note 47.
The Proven Truth19:34 That was Jesus, the son of Mary, and this is the truth of this matter, about which they continue to doubt.,
19:34 Such was Jesus, the son of Mary and this is the truth of this matter about whose nature they so deeply disagree.
19:35 Ma kana lillahi anyattakhitha min waladin subhanahu itha qadaamran fa-innama yaqoolu lahu kun fayakoonu
19:35 God was never to take a son, be He glorified. If He decrees a matter, then He simply says to it: "Be," and it is.
19:35 God was never to take a son, be He glorified. If He decrees a matter, then He simply says to it: 'Be,' and it is.
19:35 It is not conceivable that God should have taken unto Himself a son: limitless is He in His glory!26 When He wills a thing to be, He but says unto it "Be" -and it is!
See note 96 on 2:116.
19:35 It does not befit GOD that He begets a son, be He glorified. To have anything done, He simply says to it, "Be," and it is.,
19:35 It does not befit God that He would beget a son. He is Glorious, High above (what they say). When He decrees a thing, it starts happening.
19:36 Wa-inna Allaha rabbee warabbukum faoAAbudoohuhatha siratun mustaqeemun
19:36 God is my Lord and your Lord, so serve Him. This is a straight path.5
The New Testament contains many verses from the mouth of Jesus rejecting his deity or multiple personality. For instance, in the following verse he could not be clearer in asserting his human nature, since he is equating his position with his audience in relation to God:
"Jesus said unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God" John 20:17 .
Though the four Gospels were selected among hundreds of gospels by the Nicene conference to be the most in harmony with the polytheistic teaching of St. Paul, they still contain many more verses rejecting the idea of the Trinity or deity of Jesus than the few ones considered to be supportive of such blasphemous ideas.
"I cannot do anything of myself. I judge as I hear, and my judgment is honest because I am not seeking my own will but the will of Him who sent me" (John 5:30 ).
"Jesus said: ‘My doctrine is not my own; it comes from Him who sent me’" (John 7:16 ).
". . . If you loved me, you would be glad that I am going to the Father, for the Father is greater than I" (John 14:28 ).
"As Jesus started on his way, a man ran up to him and fell on his knees before him. ‘Good teacher,’ he asked, ‘what must I do to inherit eternal life?’ Jesus answered, ‘Why do you call me good? No one is good--except God alone’" (Mark 10:17-18 ; Matthew 19:16-17 ; Luke 18:18-19 ).
". . . I have not come of myself. I was sent by One who has the right to send, and Him you do not know. I know Him because it is from Him I come; he sent me" (John 7:28-29 ).
"‘The most important one,’ answered Jesus, ‘is this: Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one' " (Mark 12:29 ).
"None of those who call me 'Lord' will enter the kingdom of God, but only the one who does the will of my Father in heaven" (Matthew 7:21 ).
" . . . Go to my brothers and tell them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God' " (John 20:17 ).
19:36 And God is my Lord and your Lord, so serve Him. This is a straight path.
19:36 And [thus it was that Jesus always said]: "Verily, God is my Sustainer as well as your Sustainer; so worship [none but] Him: this (alone] is a straight way."27
19:36 He also proclaimed, "GOD is my Lord and your Lord; you shall worship Him alone. This is the right path.",3
This is similar to the statement attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of John 20:17 .
19:36 And (Jesus always said), "Surely, God is my Lord and your Lord, so serve Him alone. This is the straight path."
19:37 Faikhtalafa al-ahzabumin baynihim fawaylun lillatheena kafaroo min mashhadiyawmin AAatheemin
19:37 So the parties disputed between them. Therefore, woe to those who have rejected from the scene of a terrible day.
19:37 Thus the Confederates disputed between them. Therefore, woe to those who have rejected from the scene of a terrible Day.
19:37 And yet, the sects [that follow the Bible] are at variance among themselves [about the nature of Jesus28 Woe, then, unto all who deny the truth when that awesome Day will appear!29
I.e., either rejecting him entirely, as do the Jews, or-as is the case with the Christians deifying him.
Lit., "from the manifestation (mashhad) of an awesome Day", i.e., the Day of Judgment.
19:37 The various parties disputed among themselves (regarding the identity of Jesus). Therefore, woe to those who disbelieve from the sight of a terrible day.,
19:37 And yet, the sects (that follow the Bible) differ among themselves. There is humiliation in store for all those who deny the truth when that awesome Day appears.
19:38 AsmiAA bihim waabsir yawma ya/toonanalakini alththalimoona alyawmafee dalalin mubeenin
19:38 Listen to what they say and watch on the day they come to Us. But the wicked today are in clear misguidance.
19:38 Listen to what they say and watch on the Day they come to Us. But the wicked today are in a clear misguidance.
19:38 How well will they hear and see [the truth] on the Day when they come before Us! Today, however, these evildoers are obviously lost in error:
19:38 Wait till you hear them and see them when they come to face us. The transgressors on that day will be totally lost.,
19:38 How plainly will they hear and see the truth when they come before Us! Today, however, they persist in doing wrong to themselves and are obviously lost in error.
19:39 Waanthirhum yawma alhasrati ithqudiya al-amru wahum fee ghaflatin wahum layu/minoona
19:39 Warn them of the day of remorse. When the matter is decided while they are oblivious, and they do not acknowledge.
19:39 And warn them of the Day of Remorse. When the matter is decided while they are oblivious, and they do not believe.
19:39 hence, warn them of [the coming of] the Day of Regrets, when everything will have been decided-for as yet they are heedless, and they do not believe [in it].
19:39 Warn them about the day of remorse, when judgment will be issued. They are totally oblivious; they do not believe.,
19:39 So, warn them of the Day of Regrets, when the case will be decided. Being negligent of their duty to investigate with reason, they do not believe in the reality as yet.
19:40 Inna nahnu narithu al-ardawaman AAalayha wa-ilayna yurjaAAoona
19:40 It is We who will inherit the earth and all that is on it. To Us they will return.
19:40 It is We who will inherit the earth and all that is on it. And to Us they will return.
19:40 Behold, We alone shall remain after the earth and all who live on it have passed away,30 and (when] unto Us all will have been brought back.
Lit., "We alone shall inherit the earth and all who are on it". For an explanation of this metaphoric use of the concept of "inheritance", see surah 15, note 22.
19:40 We are the ones who inherit the earth and everyone on it; to us everyone will be returned.,
19:40 Indeed, We inherit the earth, and all who are on it, and to Us all will return.
19:41 Waothkur fee alkitabiibraheema innahu kana siddeeqan nabiyyan
Ibrahim (Abraham), Ishaq (Isaac), Yacob (Jacob)19:41 Recall in the book Abraham. He was a sincere prophet.
19:41 And recall in the Book, Abraham; he was a man of truth, a prophet.
19:41 AND CALL to mind, through this divine writ, Abraham.31 Behold, he was a man of truth, [already] a prophet
The mention of Abraham and his subsequent, unavailing plea to his father to recognize God's oneness and uniqueness connects with the preceding discourse, under the same aspect, on the true nature of Jesus as a mortal human being and a mere servant of the One and Only God.
Abraham19:41 Mention in the scripture Abraham; he was a saint, a prophet.,
19:41 Also mention in the Book (the story of) Abraham. Indeed, he was a man of truth, a Prophet.
19:42 Ith qala li-abeehi yaabati lima taAAbudu ma la yasmaAAu wala yubsiruwala yughnee AAanka shay-an
19:42 When he said to his father: "O father, why do you serve what does not hear or see, nor help you in anything?"
19:42 When he said to his father: "O father, why do you serve what does not hear or see, nor help you in anything?"
19:42 when he spoke [thus] unto his father: "O my father! Why dost thou worship something that neither hears nor sees and can be of no avail whatever to thee?
19:42 He said to his father, "O my father, why do you worship what can neither hear, nor see, nor help you in any way?,
19:42 He even confronted his father (Azar), “O My father! Why do you worship what hears not and sees not and can be of no avail to you?”12
Azar Terah was the chief priest of King Nimrod Shaddad of Babylon and Ninevah, and he was a master sculptor
19:43 Ya abati innee qad jaanee minaalAAilmi ma lam ya/tika faittabiAAnee ahdika siratansawiyyan
19:43 "My father, knowledge has come to me which did not come to you. So follow me that I will guide you to a good path."
19:43 "My father, knowledge has come to me which did not come to you. So follow me that I will guide you to a level path."
19:43 "O my father! Behold, there has indeed come to me [a ray] of knowledge such as has never yet come unto thee:32 follow me, then; I shall guide thee onto a perfect way.
I.e., a cognition of God's existence and uniqueness through intellectual insight (cf. 6:74).
19:43 "O my father, I have received certain knowledge that you did not receive. Follow me, and I will guide you in a straight path.,
19:43 "O My father! There has come to me of knowledge that did not come to you. Follow me then, and I will lead you on to a perfect way.”
19:44 Ya abati la taAAbudi alshshaytanainna alshshaytana kana lilrrahmaniAAasiyyan
19:44 "My father, do not serve the devil. For the devil was ever disobedient to the Gracious."
19:44 "My father, do not serve the devil. For the devil was ever disobedient to the Almighty."
19:44 "O my father! Do not worship Satan-for, verily, Satan is a rebel against the Most Gracious!33
The absurdity inherent in the attribution of divine qualities to anything or anyone but God is here declared, by implication, to be equivalent to "worshipping" the epitome of unreason and ingratitude symbolized in Satan's rebellion against his Creator. In this connection it should be noted that the term shaytan is derived from the verb shatana, signifying "he was [or "became"] remote [from the truth]" (Lisan al-'Arab, Taj al-'Arus); hence, the Qur'an describes every impulse that inherently offends against truth, reason and morality as "satanic", and every conscious act of submission to such satanic influences as a "worship of Satan".
19:44 "O my father, do not worship the devil. The devil has rebelled against the Most Gracious.,
19:44 “O My father! Do not serve the Satan, for Satan (selfish desire) is a rebel against the Beneficent.”
19:45 Ya abati innee akhafu anyamassaka AAathabun mina alrrahmanifatakoona lilshshyatani waliyyan
19:45 "My father, I fear that a retribution will inflict you from the Gracious and that you will become an ally to the devil."
19:45 "My father, I fear that a retribution will inflict you from the Almighty and that you will become an ally to the devil."
19:45 O my father! I dread lest a chastisement from the Most Gracious befall thee, and then thou wilt become [aware of having been] close unto Satan!"34
According to Zamakhshari and Razi, the construction of this clause (beginning with "so that") is meant to bring out the idea that one's belated realization, in the hereafter, of having been "close unto Satan" is the most terrible consequence of deliberate sinning.
19:45 "O my father, I fear lest you incur retribution from the Most Gracious, then become an ally of the devil.",
19:45 “O My father! I am afraid that a retribution from the Beneficent might overtake you, and you be counted among the friends of Satan.”
19:46 Qala araghibun anta AAan alihateeya ibraheemu la-in lam tantahi laarjumannaka waohjurneemaliyyan
19:46 He said, "Have you abandoned my gods O Abraham? If you do not stop this, I will stone you. Leave me alone."6
Polytheist (mushrik) leaders mentioned in the Quran are belligerent and aggressive characters. Abraham's father excommunicated Abraham and his people tried to kill him; Pharaoh and his people wished to kill Moses, Jews Jesus, Abu Jahl and his followers Muhammed. The Quran informs us that many messengers were killed by mushriks. Mushrik leaders who know well that their doctrine cannot survive the scrutiny of thinking and questioning minds, have always waged war and terror against messengers of God who invited to reason, questioned traditions and superstitions, and promoted peaceful coexistence. It is no coincidence that similar authoritarian, aggressive, warmongering characteristics are also common among modern polytheists, regardless of their religion.
19:46 He said: "Have you abandoned my gods O Abraham? If you do not stop this, I will stone you; and let me be."
19:46 He answered: "Dost thou dislike my gods, O Abraham? Indeed, if thou desist not, I shall most certainly cause thee to be stoned to death! Now begone from me for good!"
19:46 He said, "Have you forsaken my gods, O Abraham? Unless you stop, I will stone you. Leave me alone.",
19:46 He answered, "Do you dislike my gods, O Abraham? If you cease not, I will certainly get you stoned to death! Now get away from me for good!”13
The Chief Priest, Azar, had the power to declare anyone an apostate and condemn him to be stoned to death. For the Divine Ordinance of No Compulsion in Religion, see 2:256
19:47 Qala salamun AAalaykasaastaghfiru laka rabbee innahu kana bee hafiyyan
19:47 He said, "Peace be upon you, I will ask forgiveness for you from my Lord. He has been most kind to me."
19:47 He said: "Peace be upon you, I will ask forgiveness for you from my Lord. He has been most kind to me."
19:47 [Abraham] replied: "Peace be upon thee! I shall ask my Sustainer to forgive thee: for, behold, He has always been kind unto me.
19:47 He said, "Peace be upon you. I will implore my Lord to forgive you; He has been Most Kind to me.,
19:47 Abraham said, "Peace be upon you! I will pray to my Lord for your forgiveness. For, He is ever Kind to me.” [9:114]
19:48 WaaAAtazilukum wama tadAAoona mindooni Allahi waadAAoo rabbee AAasa allaakoona biduAAa-i rabbee shaqiyyan
19:48 "I will abandon you and what you call on besides God. I will call on my Lord. I hope that I will not be mischievous in calling upon my Lord."
19:48 "And I will abandon you and what you call on besides God. And I will implore my Lord, hoping that I will not be mischievous in imploring my Lord."
19:48 But I shall withdraw from you all and from whatever you invoke instead of God, and shall invoke my Sustainer [alone]: it may well be that my prayer [for thee] will not remain unanswered by my Sustainer."35
Lit., "that I will not be unfortunate in the prayer to my Sustainer".
19:48 "I will abandon you and the gods you worship beside GOD. I will worship only my Lord. By imploring my Lord alone, I cannot go wrong.",
19:48 “I am withdrawing from you all and from whatever you invoke besides God. I will call on my Lord. By imploring my Lord alone, I cannot go wrong." [60:4]
19:49 Falamma iAAtazalahum wamayaAAbudoona min dooni Allahi wahabna lahu ishaqawayaAAqooba wakullan jaAAalna nabiyyan
19:49 So when he abandoned them and what they serve besides God, We granted him Isaac and Jacob, and We made each a prophet.
19:49 So when he abandoned them and what they served besides God, We granted him Isaac and Jacob, and each of them We made a prophet.
19:49 And after he had withdrawn from them and from all that they were worshipping instead of God, We bestowed upon him Isaac and Jacob, and made each of them a prophet;
19:49 Because he abandoned them and the gods they worshipped beside GOD, we granted him Isaac and Jacob, and we made each of them a prophet.,
19:49 So, when he abandoned them and their deities besides God, We bestowed upon him a son Isaac and a grandson Jacob. And each of them We made a Prophet.14
Abraham had moved from Mesopotamia to Syria
19:50 Wawahabna lahum min rahmatinawajaAAalna lahum lisana sidqin AAaliyyan
19:50 We granted them from Our mercy, and We made for them a tongue of truth to be heard.
19:50 And We granted them from Our mercy, and We made for them a tongue of truthfulness to be heard.
19:50 and We bestowed upon them [manifold] gifts out of Our grace, and granted them a lofty power to convey the truth [unto others].36
Lit., "a lofty language of truth" or "of truthfulness"-the term lisan ("language" or "tongue") being used here metonymically for what may be pronounced by the tongue (Zamakhshari). An alternative interpretation of the phrase, advanced by many commentators, is "granted them 'a lofty renown for truth" or "truthfulness", or simply "a most goodly renown".
19:50 We showered them with our mercy, and we granted them an honorable position in history.,
19:50 We showered them with Our grace and We granted them a high and true renown.
19:51 Waothkur fee alkitabimoosa innahu kana mukhlasan wakanarasoolan nabiyyan
Musa (Moses), Ismail (Ishmael), Idris (Enoch), Nuh (Noah)19:51 Recall in the book Moses; he was loyal, and he was a messenger prophet.
19:51 And recall in the Book, Moses; he was loyal, and he was a messenger prophet.
19:51 AND CALL to mind, through this divine writ, Moses. Behold, he was a chosen one, and was an apostle [of God], a prophet.37
The mention of Moses and other prophets in this context serves to reinforce the statement that all of them - like Jesus - were but mortal servants of God whom He had inspired with His message to man (cf. verse 30 above). As regards the distinction between the terms "prophet" (nabi) and "apostle" (rasul), see the opening clause of 22:52 and the corresponding note 65.
Moses19:51 Mention in the scripture Moses. He was devoted, and he was a messenger prophet.,
19:51 And make mention in this Book, of Moses. Surely, he was sincerely devoted and a Prophet bearing Our message.
19:52 Wanadaynahu min janibialttoori al-aymani waqarrabnahu najiyyan
19:52 We called him from the right side of the mount, and We brought him close to talk with.
19:52 And We called him from the right side of the mount, and We brought him close to talk with.
19:52 And [remember how] We called upon him from the right-hand slope of Mount Sinai38 and drew him near [unto Us] in mystic communion,
Le., to the right side-from the standpoint of Moses, as he was facing Mount Sinai (Tabari). However, it is much more probable that the term "right side" has here, as elsewhere in the Qur'an, the abstract connotation of "blessedness" (cf. note 25 on 74:39). For a fuller account of God's calling Moses to prophethood, see 20:9 ff.
19:52 We called him from the right side of Mount Sinai. We brought him close, to confer with him.,
19:52 We called and blessed him with revelation by the Mount Sinai and made him draw near to Us to converse in secret.15
Right side of the Mount allegorically indicates a blessing
19:53 Wawahabna lahu min rahmatinaakhahu haroona nabiyyan
19:53 We granted him from Our mercy his brother Aaron as a prophet.
19:53 And We granted him from Our mercy his brother Aaron as a prophet.
19:53 and [how], out of Our grace, We granted unto him his brother Aaron, to be a prophet [by his side].
19:53 And we granted him, out of our mercy, his brother Aaron as a prophet.,
19:53 And We bestowed upon him of Our mercy his brother, Aaron, a Prophet as well.
19:54 Waothkur fee alkitabiismaAAeela innahu kana sadiqa alwaAAdi wakanarasoolan nabiyyan
19:54 Recall in the book Ishmael; he was truthful to his promise, and he was a messenger prophet.
19:54 And recall in the Book, Ishmael; he was truthful to his promise, and he was a messenger prophet.
19:54 AND CALL to mind, through this divine writ, Ishmael.39 Behold, he was always true to his promise, and was an apostle [of God], a prophet,
After the mention of Moses, who descended from Abraham through Isaac, we are reminded of Ishmael, Abraham's first-born son and the progenitor of the "northern" group of Arab tribes, and thus of the Prophet Muhammad, who descended in direct line, through the tribe of Quraysh, from Ishmael.
19:54 And mention in the scripture Ismail. He was truthful when he made a promise, and he was a messenger prophet.,
19:54 And make mention in the Book, of Ishmael. He was truthful in his pledge, and he was a Prophet bearing Our message.
19:55 Wakana ya/muru ahlahu bialssalatiwaalzzakati wakana AAinda rabbihi mardiyyan
19:55 He used to instruct his family with the contact prayer and towards betterment, and his Lord was pleased with him.
19:55 And he used to instruct his family to the contact prayer and purification, and his Lord was pleased with him.
19:55 who used to enjoin upon his people prayer and charity,40 and found favour in his Sustainer's sight.
This may perhaps mean that Ishmael was the first among the prophets to establish prayer and charity as obligatory forms of worship.
19:55 He used to enjoin his family to observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and the obligatory charity (Zakat); he was acceptable to his Lord.,
19:55 He enjoined upon his people the establishment of the Divine System and of the Just Economic Order. He was highly acceptable in the Sight of his Lord.
19:56 Waothkur fee alkitabiidreesa innahu kana siddeeqan nabiyyan
19:56 Recall in the book Enoch; he was truthful, a prophet.
19:56 And recall in the Book, Enoch; he was a man of truth, a prophet.
19:56 AND CALL to mind, through this divine writ, Idris.41 Behold, he was a man of truth, a prophet,
The majority of the classical commentators identify the Prophet Idris-who is mentioned in the Qur'an once again, namely in 21:85-with the Biblical Enoch (Genesis v. 18-19 and 21-24), without, however, being able to adduce any authority for this purely conjectural identification. Some modern Qur'an-commentators suggest that the name Idris may be the Arabicized form of Osiris (which, in its turn, was the ancient Greek version of the Egyptian name As-ar or Us-ar), said to have been a wise king and/or prophet whom the Egyptians subsequently deified (cf. Maraghi XVI, 64, and Sayyid Qutb, Fi Zilal al -Qur'an, Cairo, n.d., vol. XVI, 44); but this assumption is too far-fetched to deserve any serious consideration. Finally, some of the earliest Qur'an-commentators (`Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud, Qatadah, `Ikrimah and Ad-Dahhak) assert-with, to my mind, great plausibility-that "Idris" is but another name for Ilyas, the Biblical Elijah (regarding whom see note 48 on 37:123).
19:56 And mention in the scripture Idris. He was a saint, a prophet.,
19:56 And make mention of Enoch (Idrees) in the Book. Surely, he was a man of truth, a Prophet.
19:57 WarafaAAnahu makanan AAaliyyan
19:57 We raised him to a high place.
19:57 And We raised him to a high place.
19:57 whom We exalted onto a lofty station.42
19:57 We raised him to an honorable rank.,
19:57 And We raised him to a high station of honor.
19:58 Ola-ika allatheena anAAama AllahuAAalayhim mina alnnabiyyeena min thurriyyati adamawamimman hamalna maAAa noohin wamin thurriyyatiibraheema wa-isra-eela wamimman hadayna waijtabaynaitha tutla AAalayhim ayatu alrrahmanikharroo sujjadan wabukiyyan
19:58 Those are the ones whom God has blessed from amongst the prophets from the progeny of Adam, and those We carried with Noah, and from the progeny of Abraham and Israel, and from whom We have guided and chosen. When the signs of the Gracious are recited to them, they fall down prostrating, and in tears.
19:58 Those are the ones whom God has blessed from among the prophets from the progeny of Adam, and those We carried with Noah, and from the progeny of Abraham and Israel, and from whom We have guided and chosen. When the revelations of the Almighty are recited to them, they fall down prostrating, and in tears.
19:58 THESE WERE some of the prophets upon whom God bestowed His blessings - [prophets] of the seed of Adam and of those whom We caused to be borne [in the ark] with Noah, and of the seed of Abraham and Israel43 and [all of them were] among those whom We had guided and elected; [and] whenever the messages of the Most Gracious were conveyed unto them, they would fall down [before Him], prostrating themselves and weeping.44
Whereas the Hebrew prophets. whose line ended with Jesus, descended from Abraham through Isaac and Israel (Jacob), Muhammad traced his descent from the same patriarch through the latter's first-born son, Ishmael.
Le., all of the prophets were conscious of being no more than mortal, humble servants of God. (See also 32:15.)
19:58 These are some of the prophets whom GOD blessed. They were chosen from among the descendants of Adam, and the descendants of those whom we carried with Noah, and the descendants of Abraham and Israel, and from among those whom we guided and selected. When the revelations of the Most Gracious are recited to them, they fall prostrate, weeping.,
19:58 These are some of the Prophets whom God blessed. They all were from the descendants of Adam, the early humans. The descendants of those whom We carried with Noah on the Ark, and the descendants of Abraham and Israel (Jacob). We guided them and selected them. Whenever the messages of the Most Gracious were conveyed to them, they would fall down prostrate in tears.16
Devoted to Submission, they put their hearts into their mission
19:59 Fakhalafa min baAAdihim khalfun adaAAooalssalata waittabaAAoo alshshahawatifasawfa yalqawna ghayyan
19:59 Then generations came after them who lost the contact prayer, and followed desires. They will find their consequences.
19:59 Then, generations came after them who lost the contact prayer, and followed desires. They will find their consequences.
19:59 Yet they were succeeded by generations [of people] who lost all [thought of] prayer and followed [but] their own lusts; and these will, in time, meet with utter disillusion.45
Le., they will realize in the hereafter the full extent of the self-deception which has led to their spiritual ruin.
Losing the Contact Prayers (Salat)19:59 After them, He substituted generations who lost the Contact Prayers (Salat), and pursued their lusts. They will suffer the consequences.,
19:59 But after them came generations that ruined the Salaat and started following desires. Soon they will meet utter disillusion.17
Ruined the Salaat = Stopped following the Divine commands and followed their desires instead
19:60 Illa man taba waamanawaAAamila salihan faola-ika yadkhuloonaaljannata wala yuthlamoona shay-an
19:60 Except for whoever repents and acknowledges and does good work; they will be admitted to paradise, and they will not be wronged in the least.
19:60 Except for whoever repents and believes and does good works; they will be admitted to the Paradise, and they will not be wronged in the least.
19:60 Excepted, however, shall be those who repent and attain to faith and do righteous deeds: for it is they who will enter paradise and will not be wronged in any way:46
Le., they will not only not be deprived of reward for the least of their good deeds, but will be granted blessings far beyond their actual deserts (cf. 4:40).
19:60 Only those who repent, believe, and lead a righteous life will enter Paradise, without the least injustice.,
19:60 Except those who repented by returning to the right track, truly believed and did their best for the community. Such will enter the Garden, and will not face the least of injustice.
19:61 Jannati AAadnin allatee waAAada alrrahmanuAAibadahu bialghaybi innahu kana waAAduhuma/tiyyan
19:61 The gardens of Eden, which the Gracious had promised His servants in the unseen. His promise must come to pass.
19:61 Gardens of delight; that the Almighty had promised His servants in the unseen. His promise must come to pass.
19:61 [theirs will be the] gardens of perpetual bliss which the Most Gracious has promised unto His servants, in a realm which is beyond the reach of human perception:47 [and,] verily, His promise is ever sure of fulfilment!
This lengthy paraphrase of the expression bi'l-ghayb gives, I think, the closest possible interpretation of the idea underlying it: namely, the prospect of a reality which is inconceivable by man in terms of his worldly experiences, and which can, therefore, only be hinted at by means of allegorical allusions. (See also the first clause of 2:3 and the corresponding note 3.)
19:61 The gardens of Eden await them, as promised by the Most Gracious for those who worship Him, even in privacy. Certainly, His promise must come to pass.,
19:61 The Beneficent has promised His servants the Gardens of Eternal bliss (Eden) that is unseen at this time. And His promise must always be fulfilled.
19:62 La yasmaAAoona feeha laghwanilla salaman walahum rizquhum feeha bukratanwaAAashiyyan
19:62 They will not hear in it any nonsense, only peace. They will have their provision in it morning and evening.
19:62 They will not hear in it any nonsense, only peace. And they will have their provision in it morning and evening.
19:62 No empty talk will they hear there-nothing but [tidings of] inner soundness and peace;48 and there will they have their sustenance by day and by night:49
The term salam comprises the concepts of spiritual soundness and peace, freedom from faults and evils of any kind, and inner contentment. As I have pointed out in note 29 on 5:16 (where this term has been rendered, in a different context. as "salvation"), its closest-though by no means perfect-equivalent would be the French salut, in the abstract sense of that word, or the German Heil.
Le., always. It is to be noted that the term rizq ("sustenance") applies to all that might be of benefit to a living being, spiritually as well as physically.
19:62 They will not hear any nonsense therein; only peace. They receive their provisions therein, day and night.,
19:62 There they will not hear any vain discourse, but only salutations of Peace. And therein they will have their sustenance day and night.18
Likewise, in the Ideal Society no person will sleep hungry and there shall be plenty of provision for all
19:63 Tilka aljannatu allatee noorithu min AAibadinaman kana taqiyyan
19:63 Such is paradise that We inherit to any of Our servants who are righteous.
19:63 Such is the Paradise that We inherit to any of Our servants who are righteous.
19:63 this is the paradise which We grant as a heritage unto such of Our servants as are conscious of Us.
19:63 Such is Paradise; we grant it to those among our servants who are righteous.,
19:63 Such is the Garden which We give as an inheritance to those of Our servants who have lived upright (and thus earned it with their own hands).
19:64 Wama natanazzalu illa bi-amrirabbika lahu ma bayna aydeena wama khalfanawama bayna thalika wama kana rabbukanasiyyan
19:64 "We are not sent except by the command of your Lord. To Him is our present and our future, and all that is in-between. Your Lord was never to forget."7
19:64 "And we are not sent except by the authority of your Lord. To Him are our present and our future, and all that is in-between. And your Lord was never to forget."
19:64 AND [the angels say]: "We do not descend [with revelation], again and again, other than by thy Sustainer's command: unto Him belongs all that lies open before us and all that is hidden-from us and all that is in-between.50 And never does thy Sustainer forget [anything]
Le., that which even the angels can only glimpse but not fully understand. Literally, the above phrase reads, "that which is between our hands and that which is behind us and that which is between these". Regarding this idiomatic expression, see 2:255 - "He knows all that lies open before men and all that is hidden from them"-and the corresponding note 247. The reference to the angels connects with the preceding mention of some of the earlier prophets who, like Muhammad, were recipients of divine revelation.
19:64 We do not come down except by the command of your Lord. To Him belongs our past, our future, and everything between them. Your Lord is never forgetful.,
19:64 (And the angels say), “We do not descend but by the command of your Lord. To Him belong our assignments of the past, present and future. Your Lord is never forgetful.”19
41:31. Inspiration, motivation, resolve, courage, steadfastness, hope and good news are also angels that support the upright
19:65 Rabbu alssamawati waal-ardiwama baynahuma faoAAbudhu waistabirliAAibadatihi hal taAAlamu lahu samiyyan
19:65 "The Lord of the heavens and the earth and what is in-between them. So serve Him and be patient in His service. Do you know anything that is like Him?"
19:65 "The Lord of the heavens and the earth and what is between them. So serve Him and be patient in His service. Do you know anything that is like Him?"
19:65 the Sustainer of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them! Worship, then, Him alone, and remain steadfast in His worship! Dost thou know any whose name is worthy to be mentioned side by side with His?"
19:65 The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and everything between them; you shall worship Him and steadfastly persevere in worshipping Him. Do you know of anyone who equals Him?,
19:65 Lord of the heavens and the earth and of all that is between them! Therefore, serve Him and be constant in His service. Do you know any whose name is worthy of mentioning side by side with His?
19:66 Wayaqoolu al-insanu a-itha mamittu lasawfa okhraju hayyan
Resurrection and Judgment19:66 The human says: "Can it be that when I am dead, I will be brought out alive?"
19:66 And man says: "Can it be that when I am dead, I will be brought out alive?"
19:66 WITH ALL THIS, man [often] says, "What! Once I am dead, shall I again be brought forth alive?"
19:66 The human being asks, "After I die, do I come back to life?",
19:66 Human (keeps thinking or) says, “What! When I am dead, shall I be raised up alive?”
19:67 Awa la yathkuru al-insanuanna khalaqnahu min qablu walam yaku shay-an
19:67 Does the human being not remember that We created him before that and he was nothing at all?
19:67 Does man not remember that We created him before, when he was not a thing?
19:67 But does man not bear in mind that We have created him aforetime out of nothing?51
Lit., "when for "although"] he was nothing".
19:67 Did the human being forget that we created him already, and he was nothing?,
19:67 But does not man reflect that We created him before, when he was nothing?
19:68 Fawarabbika lanahshurannahum waalshshayateenathumma lanuhdirannahum hawla jahannama jithiyyan
19:68 By your Lord, We will gather them and the devils, then We will place them around hell on their knees.
19:68 By your Lord, We will gather them and the devils, then We will place them around Hell on their knees.
19:68 And so, by thy Sustainer, [on Judgment Day] We shall most certainly bring them forth together with the satanic forces [which impelled them in life]52 and then We shall most certainly gather them, on their knees, around hell;
See surah 15, first half of note 16; cf. also the reference to the "worship of Satan" in verses 44-45 of the present surah, as well as the corresponding notes 33 and 34. The symbolism of the sinners being linked on Judgment Day "with the satanic forces which impelled them in life" is easily understood if we remember-as has been pointed out in note 10 on 2:14-that the term shaytan ("satan" or "satanic force") is often used in the Qur'an to describe every evil propensity in man's own self. The personal pronoun relates to those who reject the concept of resurrection and life after death.
Special Warning to the Leaders19:68 By your Lord, we will certainly summon them, together with the devils, and will gather them around Hell, humiliated.,
19:68 So, by your Lord, without doubt, We shall certainly get them together including the rebellious ones; then We shall bring them crouching, around Hell.
19:69 Thumma lananziAAanna min kulli sheeAAatinayyuhum ashaddu AAala alrrahmaniAAitiyyan
19:69 Then We will drag out from every group which of them was the worst opposition to the Gracious.
19:69 Then We will drag out from every clan the ones which were most in opposition to the Almighty.
19:69 and thereupon We shall, indeed, draw forth from every group [of sinners] the ones that had been most determined in their disdainful rebellion against the Most Gracious :53
Le., those who have consciously and deliberately rejected the idea of man's responsibility before God and have thus led their weaker, less conscious fellow-men astray will be consigned to the deepest suffering in the hereafter.
19:69 Then we will pick out from each group the most ardent opponent of the Most Gracious.,
19:69 Then, We will drag out from among every sect the most stubborn in rebellion to the Beneficent.
19:70 Thumma lanahnu aAAlamu biallatheenahum awla biha siliyyan
19:70 Then, it is We who are best aware of those who deserve to be burnt therein.
19:70 Then, it is We who are best aware of those who deserve to be burnt therein.
19:70 for, indeed, We know best as to which of them is most deserving of the fires of hell.54
Lit., "of burning therein": an allusion to the fact that not every one of the sinners will be irrevocably consigned to the suffering described in the Qur'an as hell. (The particle thumma which introduces this clause has here the function of an explanatory conjunction with the preceding statement and is, therefore, best rendered as "for".)
19:70 We know full well those who are most deserving of burning therein.,
19:70 And certainly We know best those who are more worthy of being burned therein.
19:71 Wa-in minkum illa wariduhakana AAala rabbika hatman maqdiyyan
19:71 Every single one of you must pass by it. This for your Lord is a certainty that will come to pass.
19:71 And every single one of you will encounter it. This for your Lord is a certainty that will come to pass.
19:71 And every one of you will come within sight of it:55 this is, with thy Sustainer, a decree that must be fulfilled.
Lit., "none of you but will reach it". According to some of the classical authorities, the pronoun "you" relates to the sinners spoken of in the preceding passages, and particularly to those who refuse to believe in resurrection; the majority of the commentators, however, are of the opinion that all human beings, sinners and righteous alike, are comprised within this address in the sense that all "will come within sight of it": hence my rendering.
Everyone Sees Hell19:71 Every single one of you must see it; this is an irrevocable decision of your Lord.4 ,
As detailed in Appendix 11, we will be resurrected prior to God's physicalarrival to our universe. That will be a temporary taste of Hell, since theabsence of God is Hell. When God comes (89:22),the righteous will be rescued. See19:72.
19:71 Every one of you (stubborn rebels) will approach it. This is a fixed decree of your Lord. [19:69, 19:86, 21:99]
19:72 Thumma nunajjee allatheena ittaqawwanatharu alththalimeena feehajithiyyan
19:72 Then We will save those who were righteous, and We leave the wicked in it on their knees.
19:72 Then We will save those who were righteous, and We will leave the wicked in it on their knees.
19:72 And once again:56 We shall save [from hell] those who have been conscious of Us; but We shall leave in it the evildoers, on their knees.57
For this particular rendering of thumma, see surah 6, note 31.
I.e., utterly humbled and crushed by their belated realization of God's judgment and of the ethical truths which they had arrogantly neglected in life.
19:72 Then we rescue the righteous, and leave the transgressors in it, humiliated.,
19:72 And once again, We shall save the upright and leave the wrongdoers crouching in humiliation.20
The upright will not even hear any commotion of Hell. 21:102
19:73 Wa-itha tutla AAalayhim ayatunabayyinatin qala allatheena kafaroo lillatheenaamanoo ayyu alfareeqayni khayrun maqaman waahsanunadiyyan
19:73 When Our clear signs were recited to them, those who rejected said to those who acknowledged: "Which of the two groups of ours is more in authority and more prosperous?"
19:73 And when Our clear revelations were recited to them, those who rejected said to those who believed: "Which of our two groups is in a better station and more prosperous?"
19:73 AS IT IS, whenever Our messages are conveyed to them in all their clarity, those who are bent on denying the truth are wont to say unto those who have attained to faith: "Which of the two kinds of man58 is in a stronger position and superior as a community?"59
Lit., "two groups" or "parties": an allusion to two kinds or types of human society characterized by their fundamentally different approach to problems of faith and morality. (See next note.)
Lit., "better in assembly". This parabolic "saying" of the unbelievers implies, in the garb of a rhetorical question, a superficially plausible but intrinsically fallacious argument in favour of a society which refuses to submit to any absolute moral imperatives and is determined to obey the dictates of expediency alone. In such a social order, material success and power are usually seen as consequences of a more or less conscious rejection of all metaphysical considerations-and, in particular, of all that is comprised in the concept of God-willed standards of morality-on the assumption that they are but an obstacle in the path of man's free, unlimited "development". It goes without saying that this attitude (which has reached its epitome in the modern statement that "religion is opium for the people") is diametrically opposed to the demand, voiced by every higher religion, that man's social life, if it is to be a truly "good" life, must be subordinated to definite ethical principles and restraints. By their very nature, these restraints inhibit the unprincipled power-drive which dominates the more materialistic societies and enables them to achieve - without regard to the damage done to others and, spiritually, to themselves-outward comforts and positions of strength in the shortest possible time: but precisely because they do act as a brake on man's selfishness and power-hunger, it is these moral considerations and restraints-and they alone-that can free a community from the interminable, self-destructive inner tensions and frustrations to which materialistic societies are subject, and thus bring about a more enduring, because more organic, state of social well-being. This, in short, is the elliptically implied answer of the Qur'an to a rhetorical question placed in the mouths of "those who are bent on denying the truth".
The Majority19:73 When our revelations are recited to them, clearly, those who disbelieve say to those who believe, "Which of us is more prosperous? Which of us is in the majority?",
19:73 As it is, when Our messages are presented to them in all clarity, those in denial say to the believers, “Which of the two sides has a better position and better as a group?”
19:74 Wakam ahlakna qablahum min qarnin humahsanu athathan wari/yan
19:74 How many generations have We destroyed before them? They had more wealth and more influence.
19:74 And how many a generation have We destroyed before them? They had more wealth and more influence.
19:74 And yet, how many a generation have We destroyed before their time-[people] who surpassed them in material power60 and in outward show!
Lit., "in property" or "abundance of property". In this context - as in the last verse of this surah -the term garn apparently signifies "people of one and the same epoch", i.e., a "civilization".
19:74 Many a generation have we annihilated before them; they were more powerful, and more prosperous.,
19:74 But many generations We have destroyed before them. They were more imposing in equipment and in outward glitter.21
‘We’ refers to the Law of Requital
19:75 Qul man kana fee alddalalatifalyamdud lahu alrrahmanu maddan hattaitha raaw ma yooAAadoona imma alAAathabawa-imma alssaAAata fasayaAAlamoona man huwasharrun makanan waadAAafu jundan
19:75 Say, "Whoever is in misguidance, then the Gracious will lead them on." Until they see what they have been promised, either the retribution or the moment. Then they will know who is in a worst place and weaker in power.
19:75 Say: "Whoever is in misguidance, then the Almighty will lead them on." Until they see what they have been promised, either the retribution or the Hour. Then they will know who is in a worse place and weaker in power.
19:75 Say: "As for him who lives in error, may the Most Gracious lengthen the span of his life!61 [And let them say whatever they say62 until the time when they behold that [doom] of which they were forewarned-whether it be suffering [in this world] or [at the coming of] the Last Hour -: for then they will understand which [of the two kinds of man] was worse in station and weaker in resources!63
Or: "grant him a respite", so that he might have a chance to realize the error of his ways and to repent: thus, every believer is enjoined to pray for those who are sinning.
This interpolation refers to, and connects with, the "saying" of the deniers of the truth mentioned in verse 73 above (Zamakhshari).
Lit., "in respect of support" or "of forces" (jundan) -an expression which, in this context, denotes both material resources and the ability to utilize them towards good ends.
19:75 Say, "Those who choose to go astray, the Most Gracious will lead them on, until they see what is promised for them - either the retribution or the Hour. That is when they find out who really is worse off, and weaker in power.",
19:75 Say, “The Beneficent gives respite to those who go astray. During this period of respite they either mend their ways or move on to see the promise of retribution in this life or at the Hour of Doom. Then they know who is worse off and weaker in forces.”
19:76 Wayazeedu Allahu allatheenaihtadaw hudan waalbaqiyatu alssalihatukhayrun AAinda rabbika thawaban wakhayrun maraddan
19:76 God increases the guidance of those who are guided. What remains of good is better with your Lord as a reward and a far better return.
19:76 And God increases the guidance of those who are guided. And the goodness that endures is better with your Lord as a reward and a far better return.
19:76 And God endows those who avail themselves of [His] guidance with an ever-deeper consciousness of the right way;64 and good deeds, the fruit whereof endures forever, are, in thy Sustainer's sight, of far greater merit [than any worldly goods], and yield far better returns.65
Lit., "God increases in guidance those who. ..", etc.
Lit., "which are bets-K-thy Sustainer's sight as regards merit, and better as regards returns" (cf. 18:46.)
19:76 GOD augments the guidance of those who choose to be guided. For the good deeds are eternally rewarded by your Lord, and bring far better returns.,
19:76 God increases in guidance, those who seek it and seek to live upright. The lasting good deeds that fulfill the needs of others, are eternally rewarded by your Lord, and are best for eventual returns and better for resort.
19:77 Afaraayta allathee kafara bi-ayatinawaqala laootayanna malan wawaladan
19:77 Did you see the one who rejected Our signs and said, "I will be given wealth and children."
19:77 Did you see the one who rejected Our revelations and said: "I will be given wealth and children."
19:77 An4 hast thou ever considered [the kind of man] who is bent on denying the truth of Our messages and says, "I will surely be given wealth and children"?66
This is a further illustration of the attitude described in verses 73-75 (and referred to in note 59): namely, the insistence on material values to the exclusion of all moral considerations, and the conviction that worldly "success" is the only thing that really counts in life. As in many other places in the Qur'an, this materialistic concept of "success'." is metonymically equated with one's absorption in the idea of "wealth and children".
19:77 Have you noted the one who rejected our revelations then said, "I will be given wealth and children"?!,
19:77 Have you seen the kind of person who denies Our messages and says, “Surely, I will be given wealth and children.”22
He fails to realize that there is more to life than these blessings
19:78 AttalaAAa alghayba ami ittakhathaAAinda alrrahmani AAahdan
19:78 Did he look into the future? Or has he taken a pledge with the Gracious?
19:78 Did he look into the future? Or has he taken a pledge with the Almighty?
19:78 Has he, perchance, attained to a realm which is beyond the reach of a created being's perception?67 or has he concluded a covenant with the Most Gracious?
In this context, the term al-ghayb denotes the unknowable future.
19:78 Has he seen the future? Has he taken such a pledge from the Most Gracious?,
19:78 Do they know the realm of the Unseen? Have they taken a promise from the Beneficent?
19:79 Kalla sanaktubu ma yaqooluwanamuddu lahu mina alAAathabi maddan
19:79 No, We will record what he says, and We will increase for him the retribution significantly.
19:79 No, We will record what he says, and We will increase for him the retribution significantly.
19:79 Nay! We shall record what he says, and We shall lengthen the length of his suffering [in the hereafter],
19:79 Indeed, we will record what he utters, then commit him to ever-increasing retribution.,
19:79 Nay, We shall record what he says, and prolong for him a span of torment.
19:80 Wanarithuhu ma yaqoolu waya/teenafardan
19:80 Then We inherit from him all that he said, and he shall come to Us all alone.
19:80 Then We inherit from him all that he said, and he shall come to Us all alone.
19:80 and divest him of68 all that he is [now] speaking of: for [on Judgment Day] he will appear before Us in a lonely state.69
Lit., "inherit from him" -a metaphor based on the concept of one person's taking over what once belonged to, or was vested in, another.
I.e., bereft of any extraneous support, and thus depending on God's grace and mercy alone (cf. 6:94 as well as verse 95 of the present surah).
19:80 Then we inherit everything he possessed, and he comes back to us all alone.,
19:80 To Us shall return all that he speaks of, and he shall appear before Us in a lonely state.
19:81 Waittakhathoo min dooni Allahialihatan liyakoonoo lahum AAizzan
Serving Heroes19:81 They have taken gods besides God to bestow them glory.8
Serving statues is only one of the many ways of committing idolatry or polytheism (7:138). Enjoying mentioning other names besides God's name (39:45), following the religious teachings of clergymen and scholars (9:31; 42:21; 6:148), expecting the intercession of messengers, prophets, and "saints" (2:48; 10:18), and believing that messengers and prophets were infallible (18:110), also fall into the category of idolatry. Despite these clear warnings, since mushriks are in a trance under the hypnosis of Satan, they still wish to deceive themselves as monotheists, since they follow a distorted popular message attributed to a popular monotheist (6:23). See 18:32.
19:81 And they have taken gods besides God to be for them their glory.
19:81 For [such as] these have taken to worshipping deities other than God, hoping that they would be a [source of] strength for them.70
This refers to the type of man spoken of in the preceding passage as well as in verses 73-75: people who "worship" wealth and power with an almost religious devotion, attributing to these manifestations of worldly success the status of divine forces.
19:81 They worship beside GOD other gods that (they think) may be of help to them.,
19:81 And they have chosen idols in various forms besides God, hoping that they would be a source of strength for them.
19:82 Kalla sayakfuroona biAAibadatihimwayakoonoona AAalayhim diddan
19:82 On the contrary, they will reject their service of them and they will be standing against them.9
19:82 On the contrary, they will reject their service of them and they will be standing against them.
19:82 But nay! [On Judgment Day] these [very objects of adoration] will disavow the worship that was paid to them, and will turn against those [who had worshipped them]!
The Idols Disown Their Worshipers19:82 On the contrary, they will reject their idolatry, and will be their enemies.,
19:82 But nay, they will reject their worship, and will turn against them.
19:83 Alam tara anna arsalna alshshayateenaAAala alkafireena taozzuhum azzan
19:83 Did you not see that We send the devils upon the ingrates to drive them into evil?10
19:83 Did you not see that We send the devils upon the rejecters to push them with incitement?
19:83 ART THOU NOT aware that We have let loose all [manner of] satanic forces71 upon those who deny the truth - [forces] that impel them [towards sin] with strong impulsion?72
Lit., "the satans", by which term the Qur'an often describes all that is intrinsically evil, especially the immoral impulses in man's own soul (cf. note 10 on 2:14 and note 33 on verse 44 of the present surah).
See note 31 on 15:41. According to Zamakhshari and Razi, the expression "We have let loose (arsalna) all [manner of] satanic forces (shayatin) upon those who deny the truth" has here the meaning of "We have allowed them to be active (khallayna) among them", leaving it to man's free will to accept or to reject those evil influences or impulses. Razi, in particular. points in this context to surah 14, verse 22, according to which Satan will thus address the sinners on Resurrection Day: "I had no power at all over you: I but called you -and you responded to me. Hence, blame not me, but blame yourselves." See also note 31 on 14:22, in which Razis comment is quoted verbatim.
19:83 Do you not see how we unleash the devils upon the disbelievers to stir them up?,
19:83 Are you not aware that We have sent satanic forces against the disbelievers to incite them into confusion?
19:84 Fala taAAjal AAalayhim innamanaAAuddu lahum AAaddan
19:84 So do not be impatient; for We are preparing for them a preparation.
19:84 So do not be in haste towards them; We are preparing for them a preparation.
19:84 Hence, be not in haste [to call down God's punishment] upon them: for We but number the number of their days.73
Lit., "We number for them but a number". Cf. also the first sentence of verse 75 above.
19:84 Do not be impatient; we are preparing for them some preparation.,
19:84 So make no haste against them, for We mark the number of their days.
19:85 Yawma nahshuru almuttaqeena ilaalrrahmani wafdan
19:85 The day We gather the righteous to the Gracious as a delegation.
19:85 The Day We gather the righteous to the Almighty as a delegation.
19:85 On the Day when We shall gather the Godconscious unto [Us,] the Most Gracious, as honoured guests,
19:85 The day will come when we summon the righteous before the Most Gracious in a group.,
19:85 On the Day when We shall gather the righteous to Us, the Beneficent, like a delegation presented for honors,
19:86 Wanasooqu almujrimeena ila jahannamawirdan
19:86 We drive the criminals to hell as a herd.
19:86 And We drive the criminals to Hell as a herd.
19:86 and drive those who were lost in sin unto hell as a thirsty herd is driven to a well
19:86 And we will herd the guilty to Hell, to be their eternal abode.,
19:86 And drive the violators of human rights to Hell as a thirsty herd is driven to a well.
19:87 La yamlikoona alshshafaAAatailla mani ittakhatha AAinda alrrahmaniAAahdan
19:87 None will posses intercession, except for he who has taken a pledge with the Gracious.11
The Quran categorically rejects the idea of intercessor as an angel or human "savior" commonly believed by the majority of religious people (2:48; 10:18). In the Day of Judgment, the judgment completely belongs to God. The intercession that the Quran approves is no more than testifying the truth (78:38). Messengers and righteous people cannot save anyone who deserves punishment (9:80; 74:48). Muhammed's only intercession, ironically, will be a negative testimony about those who deserted the Quran by hoping for his intercession (25:30). See 2:48.
19:87 None will possess intercession, except for he who has taken a pledge with the Almighty.
19:87 [on that Day] none will have [the benefit of] intercession unless he has [in his lifetime] entered into a bond with the Most Gracious.74
Lit., "except him who has.. .", etc. According to the classical commentators -including some of the most outstanding Companions of the Prophet-the "bond with God" denotes, in this context, the realization of His oneness and uniqueness; for the wider implications of this term, see surah 2, note 19. Consequently, as pointed out by Razi, even great sinners may hope for God's forgiveness - symbolically expressed by the right of "intercession" which will be granted to the prophets on Judgment Day (see note 7 on-10:3)-provided that, during their life on earth, they were aware of God's existence and oneness.
19:87 No one will possess the power to intercede, except those who conform to the laws of the Most Gracious.,
19:87 None will have the benefit of intercession unless he has entered into a bond with the Beneficent during the life of the world.
19:88 Waqaloo ittakhatha alrrahmanuwaladan
19:88 They said the Gracious has taken a son!
19:88 And they said the Almighty has taken a son!
19:88 As it is,75 some assert, "The Most Gracious has taken unto Himself a son!76
Lit., "And" (wa), connecting the present passage with verse 81.
This allusion to the Christian belief in Jesus as "the son of God" - and, in general, to every belief in God's "incarnation" in a created being-takes up the theme broached in verse 81 above: namely, the deification of powers or beings other than God "with a view to their being a source of strength" to those who turn to them. But whereas verse 81 refers specifically to the godless who accord a quasi-divine status to material wealth and power and abandon themselves entirely to the pursuit of worldly success, the present passage refers to people who, while believing in God, deify prophets and saints, too, in the subconscious hope that they might act as "mediators" between them and the Almighty. Since this deification offends against the principle of God's transcendent oneness and uniqueness, it implies a breach of man's "bond with God" and, if consciously persisted in, constitutes an unforgivable sin (cf. 4:48 and 116).
Gross Blasphemy19:88 They said, "The Most Gracious has begotten a son"!,
19:88 As it is, some assert, “The Beneficent has taken a son!”
19:89 Laqad ji/tum shay-an iddan
19:89 You have come with a gross blasphemy.
19:89 You have come with a gross blasphemy.
19:89 Indeed, [by this assertion] you have brought forth something monstrous,
19:89 You have uttered a gross blasphemy.,
19:89 Indeed, you have put forth something monstrous!
19:90 Takadu alssamawatuyatafattarna minhu watanshaqqu al-ardu watakhirrualjibalu haddan
19:90 The heavens are about to shatter from it, and the earth crack open, and the mountains fall and crumble.
19:90 The heavens are about to shatter from it, and the earth crack open, and the mountains fall and crumble.
19:90 whereat the heavens might well-nigh be rent into fragments, and the earth be split asunder, and the mountains fall down in ruins!
19:90 The heavens are about to shatter, the earth is about to tear asunder, and the mountains are about to crumble.,
19:90 Whereby the skies are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains fall in ruins!
19:91 An daAAaw lilrrahmaniwaladan
19:91 That they claimed that the Gracious had a son!
19:91 That they claimed that the Almighty had a son!
19:91 That men. should ascribe a son to the Most Gracious,
19:91 Because they claim that the Most Gracious has begotten a son.,
19:91 That men should ascribe a son to the Most Gracious.
19:92 Wama yanbaghee lilrrahmanian yattakhitha waladan
19:92 What need does the Gracious have to take a son?
19:92 And what need does the Almighty have to take a son?
19:92 although it is inconceivable that the Most Gracious should take unto Himself a son!77
The idea that God might have a "son" - either in the real or in the metaphorical sense of this term -would presuppose a degree of innate likeness between "the father" and "the son": but God is in every respect unique, so that "there is nothing like unto Him" (42:11) and "nothing that could be compared with Him" (112:4). Moreover, the concept of "progeny" implies an organic continuation of the progenitor, or of part of him, in another being and, therefore, presupposes a degree of incompleteness before the act of procreation (or incarnation, if the term "sonship" is used metaphorically): and the idea of incompleteness, in whatever sense, negates the very concept of God. But even if the idea of "sonship" is meant to express no more than one of the different "aspects" of the One Deity (as is claimed in the Christian dogma of the "Trinity"), it is described in the Qur'an as blasphemous inasmuch as it amounts to an attempt at defining Him who is "sublimely exalted above anything that men may devise by way of definition" (see last sentence of 6:100).
19:92 It is not befitting the Most Gracious that He should beget a son.,
19:92 It is not befitting for the Majesty of the Beneficent that He should choose a son.
19:93 In kullu man fee alssamawatiwaal-ardi illa atee alrrahmaniAAabdan
19:93 When all there is in the heavens and the earth will but come to the Gracious as servants.
19:93 When all there is in the heavens and the earth will come to the Almighty as servants.
19:93 Not one of all [the beings] that are in the heavens or on earth appears before the Most Gracious other than as a servant:78
19:93 Every single one in the heavens and the earth is a servant of the Most Gracious.,
19:93 There is none in the skies and earth but comes to the Beneficent as a servant.
19:94 Laqad ahsahum waAAaddahum AAaddan
19:94 He has encompassed them, and counted them one by one.
19:94 He has encompassed them, and counted them one by one.
19:94 indeed, He has full cognizance of them, and has numbered them with [unfailing] numbering;
19:94 He has encompassed them, and has counted them one by one.,
19:94 Indeed, He fully knows them, and has counted them one by one.
19:95 Wakulluhum ateehi yawma alqiyamatifardan
19:95 All of them will come to Him on the day of Resurrection, all alone.
19:95 And all of them will come to Him on the Day of Resurrection, all alone.
19:95 and every one of them will appear before Him on Resurrection Day in a lonely state.79
See note 69 above.
19:95 All of them will come before Him on the Day of Resurrection as individuals.,
19:95 And each of them will come to Him singly on the Resurrection Day.
19:96 Inna allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati sayajAAalu lahumu alrrahmanuwuddan
Appreciative People are Blessed with Love19:96 As for those who acknowledge and promote reforms, the Gracious will bestow them with love.
19:96 Those who believe and do good works, the Almighty will make for them affection.
19:96 VERILY, those who attain to faith and do righteous deeds will the Most Gracious endow with love:80
Le., bestow on them His love and endow them with the capability to love His creation, as well as cause them to be loved by their fellow-men. As is shown in the next verse, this gift of love is inherent in the guidance offered to man through divine revelation.
19:96 Surely, those who believe and lead a righteous life, the Most Gracious will shower them with love.,
19:96 Surely, those who attain belief and work for the good of others, the Beneficent will endow them with love.
19:97 Fa-innama yassarnahu bilisanikalitubashshira bihi almuttaqeena watunthira bihi qawmanluddan
19:97 Thus We have made this easy in your tongue so that you may give good news with it to the righteous and that you may warn with it the quarrelsome people.12
God uses our language, which is limited to our senses and experiences, to communicate His message to us, so that we understand it. Translations made by monotheists serve this purpose. See 41:44.
19:97 Thus We have made this easy in your tongue so that you may give good news with it to the righteous and that you may warn with it the quarrelsome people.
19:97 and only to this end have We made this [divine writ] easy to understand, in thine own tongue, [O Prophet,]81 so that thou might convey thereby a glad tiding to the God-conscious, and warn thereby those who are given to [futile] contention:
Since man is incapable of understanding the "word" of God as such, it has always been revealed to him in his own, human tongue (cf. 14:4-"never have We sent forth any apostle otherwise than [with a message] in his own people's tongue"), and has always been expounded in concepts accessible to the human mind: hence the reference to the Prophet's revelations as "brought down upon thy heart" (2:97), or "[divine inspiration] has alighted with it upon thy heart" (26:193).
19:97 We thus made this (Quran) elucidated in your tongue, in order to deliver good news to the righteous, and to warn with it the opponents.,
19:97 And only to this end We have made this (Qur’an) easy to understand in your own tongue (O Prophet) - That you may convey thereby glad news to the righteous and warn people given to futile disputation.
19:98 Wakam ahlakna qablahum min qarnin haltuhissu minhum min ahadin aw tasmaAAu lahum rikzan
19:98 How many a generation have We destroyed before them? Do you perceive any of them or hear from them a sound?
19:98 And how many a generation have We destroyed before them? Do you perceive any of them or hear from them a sound?
19:98 for, how many a generation82 have We destroyed before their time - [and] canst thou perceive any one of them [now], or hear any whisper of them?
Le., civilization - a meaning which the term qarn has also in the identical phrase in verse 74.
19:98 Many a generation before them we annihilated; can you perceive any of them, or hear from them any sound?,
19:98 But We have destroyed many generations before them. Can you perceive a single one of them now or hear a whisper of them?